Procurement In Built Environment Building Essay

The Janus plc is a powerful retail and leisure group in UK. The Janus group are constantly investing in their ventures and develop several proposals with substantial facilities to increase their group onward. In UK the Janus group already consists of two other proposals which are in operation. As part of their ideas the organisation has decided to make new development proposal at malchester. The company is likely to develop the new proposal in two stages.

This report can be an diagnosis of the procurement strategies and options for selecting the procurement approaches for design and engineering of the new proposal at malchester. The study on the procurement methods and strategies in this record tell us how to process the look of the job to achieve value for time, cost, quality and helps the client's firm business to move forward. The record also suggests the best suitable strategy with effective implementation offers on time delivery, affordable, specific quality and makes lasting delivery of the job. As selecting procurement makes the task easier to the client in making the project successful and reaching the goals of the organization. In addition, it makes the right decisions for avoiding the risks. Therefore the collection of procurement method plays very important role in constructions.

At last the report advises and justifies the preferred potential procurement way for design and development process with proper suggestions for providing the efficient task and to meet the standard quality for service in attaining maximum profit that may move the organization's business frontward.

Introduction:

Procurement is also called as sourcing, which means gathering services and goods from the planning and of submission through the acceptance of declaration for payment. This calls for purchase planning, financing, making the purchase, inventory control and stores, specific development, standard determination, provider research and selection, supply contract administration, disposal and other related functions, value examination and price negotiation. Procurement plays major role in work romantic relationship between parties involved in the engineering process.

Identify the principal and secondary objectives of the jobs, Risk innate in the proposal, Environmental perseverance, which it'll be executed and selecting the correct procuring method for the proposed project. Procurement had not been about a building, it was about complete project which includes obtaining goods and services, also includes obtaining real human recourses like, consultants, companies, sub-contractors, suppliers and specialists for a few purpose. It's the very important step which can show some significant effect on the project success.

Critical evaluation:

Janus leisure plc is leisure group which wanting to move its business forward. Janus leisure present procedures having six racecourses which stage 20% of all racing fixtures placed each year. Making them one of the UK's greatest of horseracing. In addition, it includes one of the oldest traditional races on earth, the 5000 guineas stakes and also some high profile race meetings throughout the year.

Conferencing and banqueting facilities will be provided at all of Janus racecourses and making then capable to operate 365 times. Janus leisure offering 18 hole golf programs at two of their racecourses. One includes leisure club and a, top quality hotel at third racecourses.

Now Janus proposing some advancements with their racecourses, that was web host 5000 guineas stakes yearly in malchester. The redevelopment contains two phases.

Client requirements

Phase-1

Demolition of existing grandstand.

Construction of new 5-storey grand stand to include an extensive conference and exhibition centre and associated exterior works (Budget 25m).

Refurbishment of two existing stand circa 100 years old (Budget 5m).

N. B to permit redevelopment during period-1, the 2011 guineas stakes meeting and the 2012 5000 guineas stakes, program for mid-September must go back to malchester.

Phase-2

Construction of a new 120-foundation hotel service and gambling establishment (Budget 12m) to be functional for the 2013 5000 guineas stakes reaching in mid-September.

As Janus Leisure Company stated that they require finishing stage-1 by mid September 2012 for 5000 guineas stakes and stage-2 by mid-September 2013 for 5000 guineas stakes. As the company is trying to develop all their locations they'll be having less focus on a single place and also the client is aware of what they required and what they anticipating from the company. This project also includes demolition of existing grand stand and refurbishment of two existing stands. Which means it includes mixture of different kind of development process. The primary things in this job were time conclusion and budget. Doing the job in budget and retaining the quality of construction.

Clients have different needs and it is essential to ensure satisfactory results to the development process by the contractor.

There are some procurement methods which complies with our client's necessity.

Client priority

Traditional

Design and Build

Management

Time

-

Cost

-

Design priority

-

Flexibility

-

-

Low risk

-

-

Uninformed clients

-

Source: Deal strategies and procurement routes by Laurence Cox

The main factors when considering the correct procurement method

Project size

Budget

Complexity of project

Time

Probability of change in design and building phases

Quality importance

Ability of contractors to attempt the job (Organisation)

Design

In this task we went with Design and built type of procurement method which was suitable for this kind of client. Our customer needs racecourses by the 5000 stakes time, so it's necessary for the builder to complete the job by enough time without delay.

Price certainty: The certainty of price for the full total construction work period. Price certainty changes at the time of process of project. Getting the firm prices prior to the building of the job, this permits approximate quotes for your client. The expense of the task will be within financial budget. Public employers consider less important in price certainty. And they focus on quality and the functionality of the task done. For private customer it is important to regulate their financial budget by obtaining the price certainty.

Dead series: Nearly all clients can make the decision and want to complete the job as quick as you can. Here our client need our task with time to extent and begin his business soon in malchester. Time supply also affects the project to choose the structure techniques. The implication is under some circumstances such as time, cost and quality.

Design: Design and build is in order to which likes into consideration Buildability, and produces a design in conditions of building. Traditional procurement method of agreement was failed id design aspects. Some management contracting type of procurement processes have a hold on the design. If the client was been nearing a single builder for a long time, it was good for the clients. The primary design factors considered are

Function

Maintenance

Buildability

Standard design

Design before build

Design prototypes

Procurement methods:

There are several ways to categorised procurement methods.

1. Risk considered by each party

2. Information supply during distributing agreements.

3. Just how of design and structure is bought and managed.

Choosing the procurement systems is risk decision. The primary risks obtained during job to clients, contractors, sub-contractors, design team and suppliers are in conclusion deadlines, engineering cost, design adequacy, liability or defects, protection, quality, workmanship etc. , .

Source: Turner (1997) Building Procurement (2nd Ed)

Source: Smith (1999) Taking care of Risk in Construction

The contractors or consultants are determined by some competition or negotiation with an individual organisation. In short list tenders the points to consider were,

Financial status and records

Experience in similar contracts in recent periods.

Capable management.

Capacity.

Time, Cost and Quality of engineering are the different options used to handle the clients' aims.

There are numerous different procurement methods available. Some have an extended life that was continuing till now. Some are disappeared. It depends on the results of days gone by projects. Some systems are in extensive use. Some will suite for the service provider. Some will be ideal for the customers.

Procurement types

Lump sum or traditional procurement

Design and build

Management contracting

Framework agreement

Public private partnerships

Construction management

1. Traditional procurement

This is most common approach to procurement. It is suitable to all or any clients, including in experienced clients which is time predictable and cost certainty. It is suitable for fast track projects. In this technique client appoints a team of consultants to get ready drawings and also tender documents. The client appoints building company as well, to develop the structure as per design with completion date according to approved rates. Most work will be distributed to the sub-contractors and the contractor remains responsible. Client appointed consultants administrates the project and advise the aspects associated with progress, design and repayments. This is low risk option for the customers to minimise the delays, design failures etc. However, many times the chance will increase, when the design period is rushed and also when tender documents aren't fully completed. Both level tendering is referenced as the accelerated traditional method. By this design and structure process will at the same time for some time.

2. Design and Build

In design and build procurement system a single contractor or one advisor will be appointed for both design and build or management of structure businesses. Subcontractor will be appointed by the primary contractor or expert.

The main characteristics of this procurement method are

Single company will be appointed for both build and engineering of task.

It may be company or consultant.

The structure works will be completed by subcontractors when treated by the contractor when the task is directed at contractor. Client will deal with subcontractor when the project is directed at the consultants.

The design and build procurement system is defined as

Design and built company behaves as consultant with direct connection with client for design and building of project. All packaging works are between designs and build organisation.

Diagram : Flow talk of Design and Build procurement method

Using this agreement design and build system, clients obtain solitary or two competitive bids. The best contractor who contains the client's requirements and design will be granted the contract. Sensitive requires proclaiming lump amount management payment and offers a guaranteed maximum price in the bids. The deal awarded is principally predicated on financial level. The GMP strategy will also sometimes considered by your client during management contracting. Management procurement systems are undetermined by instance of GMP participation with agreement between service provider and employer. This isn't demanded in design and develops kind of procurement system.

The design of task will be carried out by in-house designers, external consultants or by both of the in-house designers and exterior consultants. Whatever is the foundation of the look, the full total responsibility is on the look and build service provider.

There is a detailed contact with clients, designers and subcontractors. This will make the task quite easier. Whatever the situation occurs i. e. in design, product packaging works and price issue, he can plan everything and everyone immediately in this design and build method of procurement.

Construction work is completed by means of trade. Work deals and it enable to overlap the look and structure. This conditions made the design and build service provider to provide site establishment works. The very best example of using the look and build procurement method is development of 25 million Nissan car seed complex at Washington in 1984 to 1985.

This way highlights the down sides that can cause by all of the management oriented methods to cope your client decision till previous moment. Apart from difficulties this method provides accurate last cost of the task. Any late changes are likely to be a present-day or complete work may postpone the entire procedure for the project. Past due changes are agreed by such alteration, if something necessary can be allowed. Generally in most projects your client will appoint the financial consultants, usually number surveyor to give advice on financial and contractual aspects of the project. Once the design and build builder appointed, the formulation of work deals, financial monitoring and control of job is subject matter of joint management and lays between two celebrations.

Design and build usually compensate sum of

Management fee

Design fee

Net cost of site establishment

Final accounts of all subcontractors to the GMP.

When GMP is at corporate in deal it is accordance with the sensitive documentation. In the event the contractor made personal savings against GMP will be penalises when sum exceeds therefore of mismanagement.

Payments will be produced on online cost of work companies. Open publication method accounting will be achieved in making and build solution to make the financial documents available for the customers or financial consultant, to confirm the actual cost of the job with information.

The quality control will be problem with the work for functions allowed to the look and build contractor. But developing quality control was done by form of inspectors, which were appointed by the client. The contract is an initiative to the company to minimise the costs and also need him act as an independent specialist. In this particular circumstances the quality may drop down, unless additional care and attention was taken is supervision of specification of materials and equipment. Employing and handling the supervisory staffs are must undermine the partnership between design build builder and the client who indented to create important basis for the success of task where design and build type of procurement method is used. When advisor led design and built is a practical and commercial approach to implement the task. The system creators idea that the most building projects suffer because of this of poor communication and unwanted large and complex management hierarchy, over planning and insufficient commitment to the customers cause by most individuals in the task.

The guidelines for management of task were

Drawing and paperwork is not really a product by means o connecting the client's requirements to the engineering manager.

Communication between your employees is really as direct as you possibly can.

As we expecting changes in structure field, full preplanning is not the best control plus more flexibility and less precise short term planning should be followed.

The interest of customer is best offered to participant to the project objectives not individual aspirations.

3. Management contracting

Management contracting is one of the most common methods of procurement. On this client appoints consultants to prepare drawings and job details. The management agreement was preferred by tendering, paid bases, prime costs and management cost. The main role of management deal is to manage the execution of work. The main contractor will not involve in any type of construction work straight. It'll be done by deals which were undertaken by sub-contractors, which were appointed by management contractors. In some instances the management contractors also agree design liabilities. In this particular the works contracted were immediately and contractually accountable to the management service provider. The management contractor's obligation is to simply accept responsibility for design and construction means. It referred as 'Design, Manage, Create' it is called as presented as contractor-led procurement. With this the led designed responsible for overall design and director was in charge of coordination of work. It is ideal for fast track tasks, complex complexes and developing quick. It isn't well suited for inexperienced clients. Cost certainty, rather than possible to copy the full total risk to builder. This approach will overlap design and construction progress. The repayment is made based on cost of use agreed charge by the managing company. Success of project is mainly depends on the companies team. Price certainty is less because the development starts before completion of all design works. This implies many of packaging works to be tendered later in the structure stage. Means the look and work plans are tweaked properly to keep the job within the budget. Design and building is commonly less than design and build methods.

4. Framework contract

Framework agreement is made with limited variety of suppliers or one suppliers. It will allow suppliers bring together with relevant experience that will save both get-togethers when more jobs involved. This technique of procurement includes all varieties of procurement methods. Like traditional, design and build etc. the producing framework agreements for consultancy service will be achieved by LSC (Learning and skill council).

Reduced transfer costs

Continuous improvement within long-term relationships

Frame work contract with number of suppliers or solitary supplier can bring about significance savings to both celebrations. No dependence on frequent re-tendering at call of levels. When the deal conditions are unchanged for many projects, there will be substantial gains from ongoing improvement. When the term changed, small contests with in body work will takes place. Client may have more platform suppliers for different requirements. The learning resource implications for client should be chose whether they need one structure work dealer under one framework work agreement are not.

Frame work contract can be utilized for design and build and primary contracting procurement methods. Shape work agreements also well suited for maintenance requirements. Customer with small and exceptional job will consider collaborating with similar type to share frame work arrangement. Every structure work agreement completed and marketed with procurement guidelines. There must not be any commitment to the frame work agreement company for just about any other kind of business until the first agreement completes.

The savings in cost and time will come from the next

Not necessary to rebid for every individual task.

Continues development will earn by transferring from one project to some other.

Working interactions will be improved.

Continues work circulation.

Speed of procurement.

Public private partnership

Public private collaboration is a partnership between general population and private sector means the government and private parties completed the project jointly on the agreed section of tasks and dangers. Each party continues its own id and responsibilities. The public private partnership keeps growing anticipated to demand in infrastructure. The limited account in the public sector leads to join with private sector, in this provision of infrastructure. The principle believes PPPs is that the general public sector is in charge of the correct delivery of service and it is not responsible for genuine providing service.

Major general public sector projects have always carried out by private sector agreement. The major difference between all the procurement methods which method was, private sector regarded as a completely fledged performer.

The essential characteristics were

Responsibility and risk is moved from general public sector to private sector.

The contractual agreements were designed to perform based effects.

Long term contractual agreements.

Identification

Option analysis

Planning and approval

Implementation

Post-transaction

Political risk

Public

Planning risk

-

-

-

Public/private

Design risk

-

-

-

Private

Construction risk

-

-

-

Private

Maintenance risk

-

-

-

Private

Operational risk

-

-

-

-

Private

Financial risk

-

Private

Usage risk

-

-

-

-

Public/ private

Legal and regulatory risk

Public

Source: PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS by G. W. E. B truck Herpen

Construction management

In development management procurement the full total services were been between your package contractors and clients. This can show the difference between management contracting. In this approach your client will contact immediately with sub-contractors. Here the building manager serves as an employee agent. When coping with sub-contractors.

The details in this system are

Construction administrator was appointed as expert at initial phases and have identical position as design team members.

Payments are made by lump total or percentage charge to construction supervisor.

The main works in the projects are carried out by sub-contractors. The role of construction administrator is to supervise, co-ordinate and administrate.

The role structure manager is defined as consultant role and in charge to the client. The construction director work with a safety and all works are carried out by sub-contractor, between client and sub-contractor.

This kind of procurement method was first started in US during 1960s. They usually called this technique as construction project management. This procurement method was began to utilization in UK in 1970s. This is needed to control the chance, cost and amount of time in large projects. Following the doubt in the world's current economic climate takes place the higher rates of interest made commercial contractors to large financial hazards. From that level this technique was used in major assignments.

There are versions in development management techniques. The construction supervisor has the equivalent level as designers. The both custom and construction supervisor have a direct contact with clients.

The contractual procedures and functions are

------- Contractual relationship

Functional relationship

Diagram : Flow chat of Engineering management procurement method

In engineering management method the involvement of customer is more than the other methods. Thus this technique will be taken by the entrepreneurial clients, who have potential and resources, unless they must prepare yourself to appoint development manager to safeguard their interest. Difficult process will takes location to appoint a building manger.

The main functions of construction supervisor

Planning and management

Inception and completion

Design to ensure built capacity.

Value for money and economy.

Advising the client of their own time and cost.

Safety coverage for the website.

Division of work to appropriate sub-contractors.

Interim obligations and final accounts with work contractors (sub-contractors) and advising client with proper paperwork.

Before starting of the job construction supervisor also entails in planning of project cost budget. Also includes in preparation of tender documents and solution of probable subcontractor and controlling tender documents, evaluation and advice in acceptance of tenders were also done by the structure manager.

Construction manager won't do any structure work by his own. Engineering manager was responsible for control and co-ordination of subcontracts. Program control and time management. Applications for the repayment to the subcontractors were evaluated by construction manager. The administrator will submit the applications to your client with appropriate person in design team.

Advantages and cons:

Traditional method
Advantages

Design was fully developed and cost is complete before the building builder being agreed upon.

This method gives clients very customised building.

The design and structure was split into separate sections gives clear responsibilities.

Disadvantages

It's difficult to fine the duty for mistakes and omissions.

Different parties mixed up in agreement can create climate antagonistic.

Unexpected circumstances will change the ultimate cost of the project than original tendered amount. But proper planning retains this in order.

Design and Build method
Advantages

Single point of Responsibility: the supervisor is in charge of design and building. The client should have single point of responsibility. This method is more advantageous than other, where the client employee distinct designers and development agreements. In the event the claim is performed, the companies, designers and architects blame one another of the responsibility.

Price certainty: Design and build gets more price certainty than other types of procurement methods. Many of design and build contractors include guaranteed maximum price (GMP). Design and build company can't claim for reduction and expenditures for past due instructions from architects. This sort of claims can be done under traditional form of procurement method. The payment paid for the professionals is also less and depends on the functions of the professionals.

Speed: It can be easily achieved from design and build method, by starting the task at site earlier than the traditional forms of contract. The builder is not relaying on design and supply information, this is named one point of deal. This sort of method will allow budget and programmes degree of control to the builder. So the engineering process is likely to be quicker.

Buildability: The builder is accountable for design and building, so the job is much more likely to be buildable than other procurement methods.

Claims: It isn't easy to claim because it's a single point of responsibility.

Disadvantages

Design quality: Design and build method is not an exact procurement method where high top priority of design quality is not given because of certainty on the list of architects.

Additional design cost: If the client likes to take 3rd party advice on design issues where in fact the building contractor included, then this will definitely cost the client to pay additional payment to the look team of the builder.

Inflexibility: Once the contract proposal is agreed, the scope for consumer to make changes in his need is less usually the cost implications will be prohibitive.

Management agreements
Advantages

This system allows client to obtain Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP) for the construction element of task from the management contractor.

It is employed to accelerate the project process. The chance of hold off will be overcomes by well-timed targets.

Disadvantages

Project cost incurred in this system is higher, in comparison to design and build system.

When guaranteed maximum price (GMP) achieves, the management company position with clients as consultants will be at risk.

Framework arrangement
Advantages

Single tendering for the life span of the platform agreement.

Reduction of cost and administrative work.

Initial tendering allows contractors to learn competitive supply and should offer competitive charges for expected value of business.

The selection of products will be provided is small amount of time by contracting power, it reduces the stock holding for goods and also reduces time and equipment maintenance and maintenance.

Long term working marriage can be proven with the company.

Disadvantages

This is a shut down system, once the framework agreement is established then new suppliers cannot be admitted.

Competitive reopen can be viewed as onerous, if its framework is not prepared properly in framework agreement.

Public private partnerships
Advantages

Value for money

Risk transfer

Long term aspect of contract

Performance dimension of deals.

Private sector management skills

Cost efficiency

Time to delivery saving

Reduction on the general public treasury

Board support

Improved cost calculations

Disadvantages

Insecurity

Higher transaction cost

Higher capital cost

Inefficiencies

Culture gap

Short term rigidities

Construction management
Advantages

Positive attitude and even more constructive being exhibited by any means levels. i. e. management, supervising and operative level.

The proper using of value engineer by construction manager.

Client's engagement is a lttle bit higher when put next when compared with remaining procurement methods. It will promote better working marriage with task team.

In this technique the clients will direct contact with subcontractors, that may improve subcontractor's cashflow. Means direct payments from the clients.

Disadvantages

Client must require deeply into all course of works. He must able to manage construction supervisor and design consultants.

The payment to the construction manager will vary from project to project; it'll depend on how big is the task and tasks of the construction manager.

Procurement strategy:

The customized dynamics of construction project increases inborn hazards. These risks are the work which was not exactly required in the job completion. This consists of past due delivery or costs more than your client pay. These kinds of dangers will impact client's center business. The procurement strategy should balance these situations at early stages. The main tips which are co-dependent and sometimes in tension are

Time: Rate and certainty of completion according to deadline.

Cost: Degree of price and certainty in expense.

Quality: As per performance and functionality.

Procurement strategies will attain,

Cost and time certainty for the look is produced by an architect. This subsequently sluggish process. Also know as traditional procurement process or design-bid-build process.

In cost certainty and comparative speed, the design is responsibility of the contractor. Gradually consumer will lose the control over the look process in design and build procurement.

Virtual swiftness for the design produced by an architect and cost is uncertain till completion called as management contracting or construction management.

After careful analysis of the task quick it is clear that the main factors essential for the job are time, cost, quality and trustworthiness of the organization. With time, cost and quality the top priority would go to time and then accompanied by cost and quality. Therefore the procurement method which is likely to be selected should be very effective and fulfil all requirements and objectives of the task. The selection of procurement system relies upon the nature and objectives of the job. After careful things to consider of all above factors and goals of the client's group the look and built contracting procurement method is advised as it is best suitable for the client. By this procurement method the client's firm can achieve all the targets like value of the time, cost, quality and try to take its business forward. The explanation for recommending this procurement method is as follows.

Design-Build strategy

In this technique of procurement the builder was in charge of both design and construction. It is suited to cost certainty, fast track and also ideal for those clients who requiring distance from the job. In this task client's having less idea about design and development procedure. So our company is taking the design and build procurement process.

The responsibility for both design and development needs by main company and can use in-house designers or employ consultants to carry out the design. All the structure work will be completed by sub-contractors. All the works were subdivided and allocated to the specialists or sub contractors.

As contractor tenders against a client brief and frequently follow an initial concept design made by consultants appointed to recommend client. As well as the development of design and work will be completed for a fixed price by the contractor. Tendering is more expansive, it bears more risk for the service provider than traditional way. This is really because of contractor must develop an overview design and detailed price.

Design-Build approach to procurement provides client an individual point of agreement.

Client commits to, Cost of engineering and cost of design and also much earlier than traditional approach. The chance is shifted to the company. This risk will be included in maintaining the look liability insurance. The changes created by your client in design could be more expensive some times because it will affect complete design built contract. In this consumer have a designed well prepared concept and company takes and completing off the design and construction. Builder may re-employ the initial designers to complete the look.

Organisations to be commissioned:

At the starting time of job your client appoints the service provider or a advisor which were going to handle total project strategies till hand over time. The company may need to appoint design and build coordinator, design management, directors, task manager, site manager, document controllers, Engineer by any means levels, Estimators whatsoever levels, Foremen, Health insurance and safeness, Planner, Surveyors at all levels and suppliers. This team will perform in prep of project brief, setting up drawings with all specifications and expectations. The technicians, foremen, sub companies and suppliers will keep on the website execution work and the management team finance required for work, planning, split the work directly into plans and divides the tasks with their employers for proper execution of site work.

Conclusion:

With the increased consciousness in the general benefits of alternative procurement strategies many clients now employ various procurement routes for their projects. Nevertheless the current procedure for procurement selection tends to be completed in a rather unstructured and cursory manner which may give go up to the adoption of the procurement system beyond one's deliberate choice. The poor selection of procurement method may cause many obstacles and could lead to inability of job. From days gone by studies of engineering procurement selection several rational procurement selection variables are identified like time certainty, cost certainty, velocity, flexibility, responsibility, complexity, price competition, risk allocation and quality. Because of this project some of the main aims are value for time, value for cost, value for quality, sustainability, importance of management, modern technology and trustworthiness of the client's group. The report advises that the look and build is the best suitable procurement method for the project to achieve the objectives. This permits the job to complete with time, reduces the risk, will be affordable and the product quality may be accomplished in this procurement method. This record also advises the precise risk evaluation which is very important for success of project. The report helps to identify the stakeholders of the task. The report helps to focus all possible factors in depth which makes task successful.

According to client requirement expanding the racecourses in order to boost their business, a proposal was designed for development of racecourses. This proposal advises using design and building method of procurement as it was your best option, which was cost effective and also permits to complete the job in time. In addition, it met the product quality and sustainable dependence on client. This article recommends detail risk examination procedures which is vital to the task.

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