Abstract: In Malaysia, there is absolutely no research done specifically on collecting development output data to provide as a guideline and criteria for use by all players in the development industry. Just like JKR, as the major implementers' of authorities projects, the current practice on authorization the schedule of works that posted by companies are mostly predicated on the technicians 'gut' sense/opinion and earlier experience. There is absolutely no standard process and guidelines to review and checking the period and resources allocation in each activity in contractor's work program. As an attempt, this study begins with focusing on the recognition of factors that influencing roof works productivity in construction task. Those factors can be acquired through a series of statistical analysis predicated on the data collected from questionnaire and interview with professionals. Data from past jobs also very important to be able to get the actual efficiency rate for roof works. Finally, the expected finding because of this analysis will be: a) List of factors that affect the production rate for roofing works, b) The critical factors impacting most to production rate for roofer works, c) A metrics of production rate for roof works as a standard and guideline for improving JKR projects arranging.
1. 0 INTRODUCTION
Managing construction tasks always requires frequent monitoring of task performance and the updating on project agenda. Project performance data and efficiency data from the construction field is a key role in evaluating and predicting job performance in term of cost and schedule. According to Motwani et al. (1995), the productivity in construction is definitely very hard to evaluate and control. Despite the fact that, productivity in engineering hard to measure, there's a need to utilize it for well-timed decisions and decrease the negative effects on cost and program. Therefore, the integration of historical efficiency data with the on-going performance data in structure field are required (Hwang and Liu, 2005).
Hwang and Liu, (2009) offered that an accurate production prediction is important for managing construction assignments. In fact, a construction job is commonly to reach your goals when it is delivering within its budget and timeline. The look and control process also clarifies the importance of accurate output estimation which first, estimating time and cost of engineering activities that inevitably requires productivity quotes (Hinze, 1998), and second, included management of your time and cost must involved output factor (Dawood and Molson, 1997).
There are most earlier studies concentrating on defining factors effect productivity and calculating limited parts of activities at micro level to research the relationship between factors and productivity. A standard building productivity metric system that more reliable is a crucial element in building productivity performance analysis and improvement process. There need a tool to drive performance improvement through inside and exterior benchmarking. Playground, et al. , (2005) present that nowadays, demand from the construction industry on producing acceptable construction productivity metrics and standardized productivity data are the key issues to target by the industry players and researches.
As the main technical companies for the Government of Malaysia, Public Work Division (PWD) or Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) entrusted to use development tasks throughout the country. It is the goal of JKR to ensure that the business is run successfully and effectively to be able to achieve the vision, quest and aims of the section. JKR is responsible to ensure that the projects must be put in place well, complete promptly, within the budget and offer quality products. In 9th Malaysian Plan (RMK 9), almost all of JKR projects cannot be deliver promptly. For instance, about 41% of projects in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur can't be delivering promptly which is almost all of it are anticipated to wrongly estimate the duration of the building activities in job scheduling. It is also regarding to insufficient competency of JKR officials in researching and providing advice to companies especially in preparing genuine project's work program. This problem can be categorized as serious matter and give high impact to the entire performance of JKR due to unsatisfaction of customer with JKR's reputation. As the biggest technical government firm, there must be ways to solve the challenge so that it will improve JKR image and give high reputation to the customers.
1 Master Student, Faculty of Civil Executive, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
2 Supervisor, Teacher Dr, Lecturer of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
There should be considered a standard efficiency rate of every activity in the task in order to steer the service provider and the JKR supervision team to plan and put into practice the projects successfully. Therefore, the study on productivity rate of rooftop works for building job scheduling as an attempt and starting point to develop the typical production rate of project activities for JKR's tasks. Actually, this analysis is constant with JKR strategies and action plan in attaining Effective Implementation of Malaysia 5 - Years Plan especially to ensure that tasks are carried out through appropriate execution methodologies to meet customer needs and results. One of the action plans explained in JKR Strategic Framework is to determine effective job performance monitoring system which is JKR must examining all data that related to the task in order to improve JKR project execution (JKR, 2007).
The aim of this research is to establish the productivity rate of roof covering works for JKR building assignments scheduling. To be able to achieve this, listed below are the objectives of the study:
To identify the factors that impact the output of rooftop works
To establish the partnership between effect factors and efficiency of rooftop works
To create a metrics of productivity rate for rooftop works
Scope of Study
There are certain limitations to be follow to ensure that this analysis is completed within enough time frame given. First of all, this review only takes into consideration on all tasks which put into action in central region of Peninsular Malaysia i. e. jobs in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur and JKR Selangor. Second, the sample for this review is concentrate only in school projects which are the almost all of JKR projects execution in 9th Malaysian Plan. Since standard design was using in school projects, the area of rooftop is set. This given the standardization to calculate the productivity rate for roof covering works discussing the ground area included.
Roof trusses in development projects can be categorised in timber roof covering trusses, hot rolled rooftop trusses, cold form roof top trusses and etc. The third limitation of the study is only taking into consideration of the chilly form roof covering trusses because almost all of the school assignments are using this kind of trusses. Furthermore, JKR already has a set of 22 labels of cold form roof structure trusses suppliers which their design have been evaluated and approved by the JKR Structure Expert Department. This list is ideal for the JKR officers in express and district office to decide for their projects especially school tasks. Forth, part of rooftop covering because of this study only consider one(1) types which is concrete roof covering tiles including insulations.
2. 0 Books REVIEW
Recently, construction output is on a long-term slide and it is named industry obstacle. System, people, materials, information and energy must flow effectively and effectively to produce its target at high efficiency to complete building at lowest possible cost with possible shortest timeframe (Picard, 2005). Efficiency is critically important in building industry. Many research workers have expressed their matter over output in construction industry. Defining output is not really a simple activity to everybody. Differing people will give different description and understanding. Many of them decided that marketable result was essentially the main measure used.
Increased efficiency was a leading concern to all or any Committee stakeholders such as users, contractors, and development labor unions and led by the owner. The development users emphasized the need of collecting data straight relevant to productivity improvement. The Committee was figured the front-line structure foreman/supervisor would be a reliable source of information. These informants would be asked to provide their wisdom of the best impediments to a profitable construction project (Tucker, 2003).
Definition of productivity
Within these several ages, many analysts have identified the efficiency term in their studies in several ways. The word productivity has different meanings to differing people. Many individuals automatically think only of labor unions when the term "productivity" is stated. Others associate capital expenses with the term. Each one of these interpretations is merely partly accurate (Adrian, 1993). Many analysts have attemptedto define precisely the meaning of productivity and below are some of it that known from other studies:
Oglesby et al. (1989), presented that productivity can be explained as "in-place value divided by inputs". Some research workers have defined it as works-hours divided by the same quantity of work. In construction, efficiency normally can be realized as work variety divided by man-hours (or work-hours) used to accomplish the work.
Productivity = Work Number Man-hours
According to Dolman, Parham, & Zheng, (2007), production is a strategy in order to know how much outcome is produced per unit of insight.
Diewert & Lawrence, (2006) shown that productivity can be defined as the level of economic outcome per unit of source and also per staff member. Productivity is important to the wealth and well-being of the nation and present efforts to really improve productivity occur by any means levels of modern culture.
Thomas and Mathew, (1986) offered that no standardized production definition have been proven in the structure industry. It is difficult to specify a standard efficiency measure because companies use their own systems which are not standardized. Connection simply illustrates the production between an end result and an insight. The form has been trusted and existing in books through the years in development industry is; Production = Input/Output
2. 3 Dimension of productivity
There is controversy surrounding production that rooted in the variations in data collection. It really is due to incorrect in assuming production measured uniformly and that all published productivity ideals have the same basis (Whiteside, 2006). Overall conception of output is difficult to express or to evaluate. It is sometimes indicated either in terms of output from labor or from services or from capital spent. These parts of expressions often do not give an accurate picture of the entire position. Although, there are measurements of some or every one of the inputs and outputs of the industry nonetheless they still failed to combine these measurements into any acceptable way of measuring efficiency. Actually, the ratio is not hard to compute if the unit uses a one input to produce a single outcome (Choy, 2008).
Although there are amounts of publications are present on construction productivity, there is no agreed upon meaning of work activities nor a standard productivity way of measuring system. Most of researchers have concluded that it is difficult to secure a standard solution to measure structure labor efficiency because of job complexity and unique characteristics of the construction tasks (Oglesby et al. 1989). The uniqueness and non repetitive of procedure in construction assignments make it is difficult to build up a standard efficiency definition and measure (Sweis, 2000).
Factors influence efficiency in construction
Lim et al. , (1995) has examined that factors affecting efficiency in the engineering industry in Singapore, mentioned the problems influencing efficiency were difficulty with recruitment of supervisors, difficulty with recruitment of personnel, high rate of labor turnover, absenteeism from the task site and communication issues with the foreign staff. Olomolaiye et al. , (1996) also researched that factors impacting on output of craftsmen in Indonesia show the conclusions indicating craftsmen in this country put in 75 % of their own time working productively. You will find five specific production problems were discovered such as lack of materials, rework, absenteeism, lack of equipment and tools.
Kane et al. , (cited in Herbsman et al. , 1990) has labeled the factors impacting on construction output into two main groups which is technical factors and administrative factors. The scientific factors involved those related to the design of the project and the administrative group factors are related to the management and development of the task. Technological factors are consists of sub-groups such as design factors, materials factors and location factors. Administrative factors are consists of sub-groups, such as development methods and procedural factors, equipment factors, labor factors and interpersonal factors. Predicated on Heizer and Render (1990), they classified that factors influencing site production into 3 groupings that happen to be labour quality factors, task work conditions factors and non-productive activities. Olomolaiye et al. , (1998) also stated that factors impacting construction output are rarely frequent and may change from country to country, from project to project and even within the same task which can be depending on circumstances. They categorized the factors influencing construction production into 2 categories that happen to be external and inside. Which means its representing those beyond your control of the firm's management and the ones originating within the organization. The external factors included the nature of the industry, construction client knowledge of construction process, weather and level of economic development. The inner factors included management, technology, labor and labor unions.
Choi, (2007), explained that based on his finding, weather and poor communication end up being the best impediment to roofer production, whereas the field staff remarked that roof pitch, level and get older of the roofing along weather were major causes for insufficient productivity in their job at site. He also pressured that roofing contractor generally not consider security as a higher top priority in their business.
Metrics - an overview
According to Melnyk et al. , (2004), they mentioned that metrics are fulfill with the essential activities calculating (evaluating how exactly we are doing), educating (communicating what is important and how we plan to deliver value to our customers) and directing (flagging potential problems by size of space between your metrics and benchmarks). Preferably, metrics are constant with just how operation delivers value to the clients. Based on Melnyk et al. , (2005), they shown that metric is a verifiable solution which involves three elements such as; a) the precise measure, b) the standard (the numerical principles that identifies the minimum threshold of performance, and c) the environment which the activity or person being measured operates.
In order to attain the objectives, Number 1. 1 illustrated the schematic of research technique for this study. Generally, it consists of four distinct stages, which are stage 1, phase 2, period 3 and stage 4.
3. 1 Stage 1
Selection of this issue has been done after been through JKR listing of significance subject areas that can contribute to department as a whole. Topic of the study and proposed production rate of roofing works is important to JKR building task scheduling to ensure all task can be completed promptly with good quality. Based on previous analysts, there are several measurements on efficiency rate in building. This study will be concentrating on the recognition of factors that influencing roofing works efficiency in JKR assignments. From this situation, the objectives of this study has been recognized which are discovering of factors affect, the partnership and the establishing efficiency rate of roof covering works. In such way, the emphasis of this matter must maintain line with study limitation.
In order to bolster knowledge and ideas in this research area, comprehensive reading from publications and literature must be completely done. Besides that, primary site observation has been conducted to the preferred site. Furthermore, the preliminary interview was conducted to get overview information about efficiency rate of roof top works. Because of time constraint, the observation has been done only for school tasks.
3. 2 Period 2
A few samples of studies will be identifying purposely for running through the method of productivity measurement for getting correct and useful data. Observation on level of rooftop works per man time should be accomplishing at site. During observation at site, interview with the expert is use as a tool to acquire information data on how the production rate of roof structure works can be estimation and what are the factors affects the efficiency rate
Several interviewees will be decided on based on certification and experienced more than 10 years especially companies and suppliers. Beside that, questionnaire will be allocated to complex person such as supervisor, engineer, manager and contractors to acquire their view in term of efficiency rate of roof covering works.
3. 3 Phase 3
In this stage, all the info from the questionnaires and interviews will compile. The info will be analyze consequently and transform into output rate. Data analyzing, there will be a confirmation on what are the factors affect efficiency rate of roof structure works will be getting through data analyzing, while standard efficiency rate metrics of roof structure works will be producing after transform all the data into production rate by using appropriate statistical examination.
3. 4 Phase 4
Extract from data obtained in Period 3, some proposal or suggestion will be outlined in order to enhance a metrics of standard efficiency rate for future building task scheduling.
The expected results of the study in next semester are:
a) List of factors that influence the productivity rate for rooftop works,
b) The critical factors affecting most to efficiency rate for roof covering works,
c) A metrics of efficiency rate for roof works as a typical and guide for improving JKR projects scheduling.
Selection of Topic
Identify the target and Scope
Preliminary Site Observation
Identify the factors influence
Observation on level of works/ man hours
Interview with Experts
Selecting several experts with experience more than 10 years
Figure 1. 1: Schematic of Research Methodology
The following desk is the tentative schedule for final job in next semester:
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