Solar photovoltaic cells convert sunshine into electricity and many solar photovoltaic electric power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. As of September 2010, the major photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Sarnia Photovoltaic Electric power Herb (Canada, 80 MW), Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 60 MW), the Strasskirchen Solar Recreation area (Germany, 54 MW), the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany, 53 MW), the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 50 MW), the Moura Photovoltaic Vitality Station (Portugal, 46 MW), and the Waldpolenz Solar Recreation area (Germany, 40 MW). 
This proposal is perfect for establishing a 50 MW (10 MW x 5 Phases) capacity solar photovoltaic ability plant based on latest High Electricity Modules using cells consisting of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Technology / Tandem Junction Thin Film Technology, which has been effectively developed for commercial implementation and has been providing reliable power era about the world for some years now. The solar photovoltaic vitality project is proposed to be create in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, India which is among the finest matched locations in terms of higher annual direct normal insolation (DNI), favourable climatic conditions and land availability Some photovoltaic electric power stations that happen to be presently proposed will have a capacity of 150 MW or even more.
Many of these plants are included with agriculture plus some use innovative monitoring systems that follow the sun's daily course over the sky to generate more electricity than normal fixed-mounted systems. You can find no fuel prices or emissions during operation of the power stations.
This proposal examines the techniques of job management used in development of a solar photovoltaic power plant Project. The backdrop of the job will be explained including its planning, Execution, Operation & Maintenance and Financial analysis a project; critical success factors for the job implementation are identified presenting a synopsis of project composition, methods, hazards, etc.
The aims for the task will be the successful conclusion of solar photovoltaic electric power vegetable, on budget, on time and safely and securely. The objectives are also to develop 'world course' job management guidelines within the solar industry.
The PMBOK Guide says that projects are composed of two kinds of process: project management techniques and product-oriented processes (which specify and create the task product). Project management procedures are further split into initiating, planning, execution, controlling and closing procedures. This proposal mainly specializes in the core functions of planning, execution and managing.
The task management process teams depicted in figure 1 are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and managing, and closing. Initiating defines and authorizes the project or a project period. Planning defines and refines targets and plans the plan of action required to attain the targets and opportunity that the job was undertaken to handle. Executing integrates people and other resources to handle the project management arrange for the project. Monitoring and controlling regularly methods and monitors progress to recognize variances from the job management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project targets. Closing formalizes popularity of the merchandise, service, or consequence and brings the project or a job phase to an orderly end. Physique illustrates the comparative depth, breadth, and interrelationship between these process groups.
Planning in organizations constitutes both organizational procedure for creating and preserving an idea; and the emotional process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some level. Therefore, it is a fundamental property of clever behaviour. This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of an idea or integration from it with other strategies. It combines forecasting of innovations with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them. A significant albeit often ignored facet of planning, is the partnership it keeps with forecasting. Forecasting serves as a predicting what the future can look like, whereas planning predicts what the near future should look like.
The above situation is often used to spell it out the formal strategies found in the creation of documents, endeavour, diagrams, meetings to discuss the top issues to be addressed, objectives to be satisfied and the technique to be followed. Beyond this planning has an alternative meaning with respect to the political or financial context where it is used.
activity period estimating
10. Project plan development.
The end result from these processes project plans makes up an suggestions to the performing processes. A variation is made between the project plans proper and the task performance baselines.
Executing contains the process used to complete the task defined in the project management plan to complete the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources as well as integrating and doing the actions of the task in accordance with the job management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as described in the job management plan.
Project Plan Execution - carrying out the activities
Complete Tasks/Work Packages
Scope Confirmation - popularity of job scope
Quality Confidence - analyzing overall project performance frequently; meeting standards
Team Development - growing team and specific skill sets to enhance the project
Monitoring and controlling
Monitoring and handling involves those processes which have performed to see job execution so that potential problems can be discovered regularly and corrective action can be studied place. When necessary to control the execution of the job. The key gain is that job performance is detected and assessed regularly to recognize variances from the job management plan.
Measuring the on-going task activities.
Monitoring the job variables (cost, effort, scope, etc. ) from the job management plan and the task performance baseline.
Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly.
Influencing the factors which could circumvent included change control so only approved changes are implemented
This must be achieved in an integrated manner at regular intervals, not in a haphazard, arbitrary way. Any significant departures from the budget and the timetable must be reported immediately, because these anomalies affect the viability and the success of the complete project.
This will lead to adapting the job plan, budget and/or work plan as necessary to keep the project on the right track. The project progress and changes must be documented and communicated to the team members in a consistent, reliable and appropriate manner for every level of the project team.
Success criteria for job control
Use the job plan as the principal guide for co-ordinating your project.
Consistently monitor and update the program.
Remember that quality communication is an integral to regulate.
Monitor improvement on the project against the plan frequently.
Adapt the task agenda, budget and/or work plan as necessary to keep the project on the right track.
Document project improvement and changes and converse them to associates.
What monitoring should complete?
Communicate project status and changes to other project team members
Inform management (and clients or customers) about the position of the project
Provide the justification to make project adjustments
Document current plans set alongside the original job plan
Project Performance must be measured regularly to recognize the variances from the plan. Variances are fed into control techniques in the many knowledge areas. To the amount the significant Variances are observed. Adjustments to the program are created by repeating the appropriate job planning process.
clearly state the current position of the project
compare actual accomplishments with the organized target achievements
draw attention to critical issues
identify problems and propose solutions
promote effective management and control
Project status reports
"It isn't simply a subject of keeping the opportunity from creeping, or a matter of completing the least expensive and fastest project; it is creating the appropriate Opportunity and delivering the commensurate product, service, or result".
All the aforementioned operations have been iteratively unveiled/implemented during the Proposed Solar Photovoltaic Electric power Plant project, which was revealed below.
The proposed plant shall include High Vitality Modules using skin cells comprising Multi-Crystalline Silicon Technology / Tandem Junction Thin Film Technology. Efficiency is differing from 6% - 18%. Temps beyond 25oC have nominal influence on the efficiency of the modules. White Tempered Goblet, EVA Resin and weather evidence film along with Al body is employed for extended outdoor use. Lead cable with weather evidence connector will be used for result terminal.
Both the technology are standalone type which needs no external power or water source and therefore is most appropriate for desert region of Rajasthan. Small amount of processed normal water or compressed air is necessary limited to cleaning of the machine.
Indicative range of work
Supply, fitting, fixing of PHOTOVOLTAIC Modules with appropriate component mounting buildings and frames including overall planning and design of the power plant.
Supply and installing Junction containers of appropriate requirements with required security and isolation system.
Design, supply and installing AC power fitness items with all protections and handling arrangement according to features to get the required performance. String monitoring and MPPT features are included according to requirements.
Interconnection of Solar modules, PCUs, transformers LT & HT factors, LT switchgear, etc with appropriate wires and associated materials including supply of materials.
Design, manufacture, supply, assembly, interconnection and interfacing of computer aided data acquisition device as per specification.
Supply, set up complete earthing as required for AC and DC vitality system, PCU, LT switchgear, Transformer, all metallic cubicles, HT switchgear with materials as required as per relevant criteria.
Providing earth-mat and interconnection of array structures with earth pits in the PV array yard.
Design, fabrication, source, installation of LT electricity interfacing panel to evacuate capacity to the grid through PCUs with appropriate capacity circuit breakers, isolators, indicators, metering layout with selector swap, CTs, PTs, and copper bus-bars as per requirement in complete.
Design, fabrication, supply and installing plant monitoring desk to keep an eye on the status of all major equipment's through remote control monitoring system including connection to all major equipment's and position to be monitored.
Supply of all other BOS parts e. g. cables, electrical, etc as per the Invoice of Materials (BOM) which is not covered above.
Emergency DG Place 15 KVA with power bank and power supply charger.
Control Room and Others
Electrical wiring in the inverter room, control room and array lawn with way to obtain cables and wiring, switchboards, switches, Junction Boxes, distribution planks for lights, supporters, exhaust fans, vitality tips for both 5 Amps and 15 Amps.
Supply and installation of lightning arrestors for inverter room, control room according to relevant benchmarks.
Supply, fitted and repairing of CFL lighting fixtures, FL lights, LED lights for lighting indoor and outdoor various installations including array yard with required accessories.
Providing of flames extinguisher and sand buckets complying with nationwide or international safety standards.
Civil Works for solar Systems
Design and development of appropriate foundation base for having the module mounting composition with supply of all essential materials, excavation, concreting, backfilling, shoring and shuttering, etc.
Construction of electric power plant buildings including inverter rooms, control room as required, office, canteen, etc.
Barbed wire fencing of 3m elevation for complete ability vegetable and sub-station.
Cable trenches, drainage, etc.
Main gate, side gates and Security safeguard rooms.
Erection and Installing Power Evacuation Arrangement
Erection, supply, assembly and commissioning of fifty 0. 415/33 KV intensify transformers and three 33/132 KV intensify transformers, 3 stage, 50 Hz, with associated switchgear comprising of circuit breakers, isolators, LT sections, CTs and PTs, etc including metering and protection like over-current, earth-fault, invert power safety and handles, etc.
Other Fixed Assets
Furniture for inverter rooms, control room and supervision/office.
Pantry equipment, change room lockers, etc.
Store racks and cupboards.
Standard Mechanical Maintenance tools.
Engineering and Task Management
Design and Engineering
Project Management and development supervision
Insurance through the job period.
Project execution schedule
Based on international procedures and technological breakthroughs, it is estimated that first 10 MW capacity stage of the job will be provided, installed and commissioned from task approval and additional 40 MWp of the job will be installed and commissioned in 60 months from project authorization.
Executing contains the processes used to complete the task described in the task management plan to attain the project's requirements. Execution process entails coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the actions of the job in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as described in the project management plan.
Total project will be completed within 60 a few months in 5 (five) stages of 10 MW each from night out of sanction of the project.
The modules will be surface mounted and tilted 27 diplomas to face the sunlight. The ground mounting will require a set level surface and will be set into concrete. The modules will require a location that is unshaded from the sun. Any vegetation underneath the modules will need to be stored to an even below that of the modules to avoid shading. All of the modules will be at least 1. 0m from the bottom. It is assumed that is adequate to keep carefully the modules above the elevation of sand deposition at the website during sand storm.
Monitoring and controlling
Monitoring and handling consists of those processes performed to observe job execution so that potential problems can be discovered regularly and corrective action can be studied, when necessary, to regulate the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is witnessed and measured regularly to recognize variances from the project management plan.
Measuring the on-going project activities.
Monitoring the project variables (cost, work, range, etc. ) resistant to the task management plan and the job performance baseline.
Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly.
Influencing the factors which could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented
In multi-phase assignments, the monitoring and controlling process also provides opinions between project phases, in order to put into practice corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into conformity with the task management plan.
Operation and maintenance
Whether a solar seed carries out well in the long-term and remains theoretically available is dependent to a large degree on servicing and regular maintenance. This will be completed by designated electro-mechanical experts together with technicians from the particular component manufacturers.
To keep all components optimally available, an electronic data processing device in the solar power plant will permanently gather and examine all relevant performance data and possible problem messages. Using aim for/actual comparison, data from the energy plant will be continually compared with data from an on-site weather train station.
Possible errors will be accurately located and immediately offered via email, Text or fax to the relevant service technicians. They can then, using their workplace, conduct problem repair through on-line distant maintenance.
Assumptions & estimates
Provide Safe Working Condition
Consistency of Processes
Adhere to Design Standards
Adhere to Standard Components
Follow the Platform Agreements
The suggested Solar Photovoltaic Vitality Project is of 50 MWp capacity. Estimated cost of the task is INR Rs. 17 Crores per MWp. (2. 42 Mil Pounds) The total project cost is Rs. 850 Crores (. Gross aggregate electricity era has been attained 83. 22 million kWh per annum. The capacity utilisation factor (flower insert factor) is 19%.
Project cost break-up & means of finance
Apart from equipment, installation and commissioning cost, interest during development, financial institution fees and margin money for working capital is part of job cost. Project financial examination has been completed considering debt collateral ratio of 70:30. Interest rate at credit debt part has been considered at 14. 29%.
The fulfilment of original quality requirements
Develop industry task management guidelines that are measureable and repeatable
Operational terminal both in the short and long-term
The 89 pet watts of sunlight achieving the Earth's surface is plentiful - almost 6, 000 times more than the 15 terawatts exact carbon copy of average power consumed by humans. Additionally, solar electric era gets the highest power thickness (global mean of 170 W/m) among renewable energies.
Solar ability is pollution-free during use. Production end-wastes and emissions are controllable using existing pollution control buttons. End-of-use recycling technologies are under development.
PV installations can operate for quite some time with little maintenance or treatment after their original set-up, so following the primary capital cost of building any solar powered energy plant, functioning costs are really low in comparison to existing power technology.
Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid interconnection or fuel move is difficult, costly or impossible. Long-standing for example satellites, island neighborhoods, distant locations and sea vessels.
When grid-connected, solar electric era replaces some or all the highest-cost electricity used during times of peak demand (in most climatic locations). This may reduce grid launching, and can eliminate the dependence on local battery to provide for use within times of darkness. These features are enabled by world wide web metering. Time-of-use world wide web metering can be highly favourable, but requires newer electric metering, which may be impractical for some users.
Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus minimizing transmission/distribution loss (transmission losses in america were roughly 7. 2% in 1995).
Compared to fossil and nuclear energy options, hardly any research money has been invested in the introduction of solar panels, so there exists significant room for improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar panels curently have efficiencies of over 40% in case of concentrating photovoltaic skin cells and efficiencies are quickly increasing while mass-production costs are quickly falling.
Photovoltaic are costly to install. As the modules are often warranted for up to 20 years, much of the investment in a home-mounted system may be lost if the home-owner moves and the buyer places less value on the system than the seller.
Solar electricity is seen to be costly.
Solar electricity is not produced at night and is a lot reduced in cloudy conditions. Therefore, a storage space or complementary power system is required.
Solar electricity development depends on the limited ability density of the location's insolation. Average daily end result of a set plate collector at latitude tilt in the contiguous US is 3-7 kilowatt and on average lower in European countries.
Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (utilizing a grid tie up inverter) when used in existing distribution grids. This incurs a power loss of 4-12%.
Week 1 - 2 (01 - 14 Oct, 2010)
Assemble common information through explore resources
Week 3 (15 Oct, 2010)
Research Proposal Task 1
Week 3 - 4 (16 - 28 Oct, 2010)
Organize meetings and cart out reviews
Week 5 - 7 (29 - 18 Nov, 2010)
Gather and compile key Data
Week 8 - 12 (19 Nov - 23 Dec. 2010)
Lettering and discourse with supervisor
Week 12 - 13 (24 - 30 Dec, 2010)
Week 14 (31 - 5 Jan, 2011)
Review and submissions
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