Civil engineering has performed a essential role in individuals development. It has also enhanced the grade of live of individuals today, through the provision of basic water resource, pollution control, travelling, industrial/commercial, urban infrastructure. Each of these executive work has made life more comfortable, convenient, accessible, healthy and much longer not limited to the local inhabitants (Nigerians), but for all. The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering ( 2007a).
A Nigerian civil engineering company, that was a subsidiary of Bilfinger Berger AG, called Julius Berger Nigeria Limited was designed in 1970. The business became shown in the Nigerian stock market as Julius Berger Nigeria PLc, to handle sophisticated and diverse engineering assignments in Nigeria. Among which is the Eko bridge designed in 1965. Others include Properties, offices, personal facilities, functional buildings, sports activities/recreational facilities, structure of highways, bridges, railways, airports, dams and drinking water supply, crops and factories. Julius- Berger( 2010). The business has modernised a lot of the vehicles infrastructure in Nigeria since 1970 and it is responsible for the look and structure of the new Nigerian capital at Abuja. ide-Jetro ( 2010).
It must be emphasised that the same infrastructure developed in the united states, and the economies and standard of living these gigantic facilities support, is adding to environmental degradation because of the size and level of its results on the environment. There are obvious and unambiguous indicators that show that the population is currently impacting negatively to the global environment, thus intimidating our life support systems. The Canadian Population for Civil Anatomist (2007b).
SUSTAINABILITY AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC)
In defining sustainability from the point of view of Julius Berger Nigeria PLc. it is essential to understand that it's much less easy as the written text book explanation of sustainability which lays emphasis on the near future. A sustainable population is identified "to be aware of the needs of future decades and it is farseeing enough". New Civil Anatomist (2010a). However, corresponding to them, in real life most societies aren't run like that. It is because politicians are definitely more interested in how a project performs throughout their tenure in office than the complete life circuit of the task. This is why why projects neglect to be sustainable. The one reason a newly designed bridge collapsed in India right before the commencement of the 2010 commonwealth video games, or why the system halted working and needs immediate maintenance. Relating to New Civil Anatomist (2010b) that cited a written report from the American Contemporary society of Civil Engineers 2 (ASCE), 27 percent of 1000 thousand bridges in the US are structurally lacking or functionally obsolete. This is actually the case also in Nigeria. Where there are so many unsustainable projects. "Nigerian metropolitan areas are witnessing high rates of environmental deterioration and are ranked among cities with the lowest livibility index in the world" Adedeji and Eziyi ( 2010a). The truth is that "these old systems are subjected to the end with their life and there are some duties about the maintenance of the infrastructures". New Civil Executive (2010c). The obvious problem is that federal government still insists on taking the traditional course, of assigning absolutely unsustainable tasks for the mere reality they are less high priced options. Ecological development should be the one that "meets the needs of today's without compromising the power into the future years to meet their own needs". The Bruntland Record (WCED) (1987). This is the general classification of the idea. The harsh reality is that "Nigerian places are greatly under developed and unsustainable. That is inspire of the fact that Julius Berger Nigeria Plc is the largest construction company in the country. Majority of the condition can be followed to a number of factors. These include the colonial antecedent of most Nigerian locations (Ogbazi, 1992 ; Ikya, 1993) the high rate of urbanization, bad mental orientation of urban residents on the surroundings as well as poor environmental management tactics (Meale, 1991; Agukoronye, 2004).
Sustainability is "improving the quality of human life while living within the taking capacity of aiding ecosystems" IUCN; WWF and UNEP (1991). These generally accepted explanations are recognized also at Julius Berger Nigeria Plc, where management and in simple fact all the stakeholders are aware of the new concepts on sustainability which based on the Canadian Modern culture for civil engineering ( 2007c)includes the recently emergent issues of weather change, peak engine oil, sustainable travel, environmental restoration, ecosystem disruption, ethics and equity and infrastructural businesses and maintenance, as it concerns the building industry. However in practice, Julius Berger Nigeria Plc hasn't done so much to use sustainability. For sustainability to be executed in the Nigerian built environment, there has to be four recognized management levels of that your environmental sustainability of the built environment can be influenced. These are the environmental cooperation exercises, environmental technology guidelines, environmental laws and bonuses. Bossink, (ed) (2010). Sustainability at Julius Berger should simply consider the whole life cycle assessment (LSA) of the alternatives when creating a task. New Civil Anatomist (2010d). Quite simply the business should first consider the complete life pattern of the product before construction starts. This may have minimal effect on the environment and biodiversity as well as the capitals which have been eluded earlier.
Practically regarding to New Civil Engineering (2010e), "this entails a detailed review of the periods of making, using and disposing of the product before choosing on an option. The stages of the merchandise which starts off from removal of the recycleables necessary for the project to the design of the task, the formulation, specs, processing, manufacturing, assemblage, construction, presentation, use, maintenance, refurbishment, reusing, recycling and finally disposal". What obtains at Julius Berger today is the fact that after the project has been critically analysed and studied to ascertain the cost, in terms of its success and affordability. The business would then decide on the foundation of capital for the project. Then after wards the task is assigned to personnel for engineering.
Julius Berger Nigeria Plc idea of sustainability is enhancing the quality of assignments for future generations of Nigerians.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA PLUS THE ROLE JULIUS BERGER SHOULD PLAY IN NIGERIA (On Sustainability)
The Nigerian environmental problem has been determined to have serious adverse socio - economic and ecological implications. They are traceable to factors like high rate of urbanization, poor environmental management etc (Rashid, 1982; NEST, 1991; World Standard bank, 1992; Anih, 2004). This means that Julius Berger Nigeria Plc is confronted with an enormous problem caused by a rapidly growing society. Corresponding to Adedeji and Eziyi (2010b), rural - urban migration remains one of the major contributors to the increasing urban population progress in Nigeria. Also in Nigeria, Mba et al (eds) (2004) determined several other types of environmental problems that have been grouped as ecological, poaching, loss of habitat, increasing desertification and soil erosion. These were further subdivided into pollution, deforestation, global warming and slum development. The coastal regions currently experiencing widespread contamination from petroleum exploration, gas flaring and engine oil spillage. In this regard, Julius Berger Nigeria Plc should understand that infrastructural development can no longer be done in a microcosm on a job level - a more holistic addition of the complex interactions of human society and the environment upon which this will depend, is necessary. The Canadian Modern culture for Civil Engineering (2007d).
JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC AND SUSTAINABILITY
Julius Berger Nigeria Plc, should instil the idea of sustainability which is a concept which includes the triple bottom line and a life routine assessment in to the planning, design and operation of civil infrastructure, and in this way promote the development of new solutions and management practices for the utilization of energy, non - renewable resources, and the development of waste materials The Canadian World for Civil Engineering (2007e).
There are several lasting development conditions that affect Civil Executive practices that needs to be understood and applied by Julius Berger, Nigeria Plc to mitigate their ecological impact. These include climate change. The potential impact of weather change after the built environment (civil infrastructure) changes in extreme hydrological and meteorological occasions, and there should be a growing work to lessen greenhouse gas emissions, as well as version requirements. Already the result of local climate change can be thought in Nigeria "Where environmental problems scheduled to oil exploration has inflicted marvelous harm on the ecosystem, health insurance and livelihood of the folks of the spot" Adedeji and Eziyi, (2010c). According to the Canadian Population for Civil Engineering (2007f) Julius Berger Nigeria Plc should choose guidelines for eco-efficiency, such as increased energy/normal water efficiency, the minimization of waste and resource utilization and the employment of clean technology. Also explained by them, there must be the use of performance based standards and recommendations identifying the results required instead of a prescriptive path that must definitely be followed to permit designers to achieve better results.
There is also depleting olive oil and natural gas reserves which have severe implications (Peak petrol). The world and indeed Julius Berger Nigeria Plc must meet certain societal priorities and put into practice policies: included in these are energy saving and efficiency, expanding alternative renewable sources and strategies to reduce throw away. Julius Berger Nigeria Plc should also endorse "Green Construction" - engineering that achieves the beneficial aims of engineering use the lowest possible utilization of recycleables and energy, both during and after development. The Canadian Modern culture for Civil Anatomist (2007g). In this respect every decision used should try to minimise environmental burdens of weather change, tool depletion, energy depletion, the loss of biodiversity, and individual health, genetically customized products and altered environmental vectors.
On the issue of sustainable transport, Julius Berger should bring in the use of pedestrian amenities, mass transit, and energy conservation in travel systems. The Canadian Culture for Civil Engineering (2007h).
Effort should also be produced by the business to sensitise federal about the necessity for environmental recovery. This includes reconstruction of natural features, and seafood habitat in rivers and channels, the control of sediment runoff and the removal of dams and tidal barriers. There also needs to be cleanup and/or redevelopment of contaminated sites. Corresponding to (Adedeji and Eziyi, (2010d). "An example of this is seen in the problem of end of gas flaring and oil spillages in the Niger Delta region".
An portion of equal importance to the populace which can eventually bring to a finish the restiveness of the children especially at the Niger delta area is transparency and collateral in the provision of basic man services to disadvantaged people, adding to poverty alleviation, individual health and public welfare. Julius Berger Nigeria Plc can donate to this by implementing its commercial responsibility to communities. However, so far corporate interpersonal responsibility does not play an important role in Nigeria, and has not been the subject of a wider general population debate. Bertelsmann. (2009). Program of lasting energy sources to develop linearly distributed interpersonal infrastructure is a key allowing factor that will energize grass root financial development, stem the prevailing talk about of crime, access sufficient levels of clean drinking water, maintain acceptable criteria of food and goods development, sanitation and health of the people of Nigeria Udoma and Arciszewski (2010). Infrastructure operations and maintenance is also vital to ensure an ideal use of the infrastructure.
RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Tight project agenda, design variations, variations by your client, unsuitable construction programme planning, event of dispute, price inflation of construction materials, excessive authorization procedures in administrative administration departments, incomplete authorization and other documents, imperfect or inaccurate cost estimation and inadequate program schedule.
Tight project plan, design variations, unnecessary approval steps in administrative federal government departments, variants by your client, incomplete endorsement and other documents, unsuitable building programme planning, insufficient programme scheduling, bureaucracy of federal, high performance or quality expectation, variations of development programmes
Tight project routine, inadequate programme arranging, unsuitable construction program planning, incomplete or inaccurate cost estimation, low management competency of subcontractors, high performance or quality targets, variations of building programmes, unavailability of sufficient amount of skilled labour, design modifications and the lack of coordination between job participants.
Tight project schedule, variations of structure programmes, unavailability of sufficient pros and managers, increased approval strategies in administrative administration departments, variations by the client, inadequate or insufficient site information(earth test and survey article), low management competency of subcontractors, powerful or quality objectives, inadequate programme scheduling and serious noises pollution brought on by construction
Tight project schedule, low management competency of subcontractors, unsuitable building programme planning, modifications of construction programs, general safety mishap occurrence, powerful or quality anticipations, design variations, insufficient coordination between assignments participants, excessive authorization steps in administrative administration departments, unavailability of sufficient amount of skilled labour and unavailability of sufficient specialists and managers.
Sustainable Risks and Opportunities, Followed from: Zou, P. et al (2010): discovering key hazards in construction projects: Life circuit and stake holder perspective.
SUSTAINABILITY - Hazards OF JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC
The identifiable hazards of Julius Berge Nigeria Plc are socioeconomic factors which include environmental protection, general public safety regulations, economical instability, and exchange rate fluctuations. Other dangers are organisational relationships which offer with contractual relationships, attitudes of individuals, and communication. There are also technical problems experienced by the company. Included in these are design assumptions, site condition, building procedures, and development occupational safe practices. Civil Engineering Blog (2010a)
Environmental Protection plays a part in our company's doubt. This is due to the company's incapability to know what will be needed and enough time it will require to get approval from the environmental company of Nigeria. Requirements associated with continued re analysis of problems and the lack of definitive criteria which can be practical have also resulted in additional cost. Civil Anatomist Blog (2010b). Matching to them, monetary conditions have added to the uncertainty our company activities. High inflation and high interest levels, the deregulation of finance institutions have created problems associated with the financing of building.
The stakeholders of Julius Berger Nigeria Plc (talk about holders and management) are interested in obtaining some financial rest through that will help lower the price tag on assignments and eliminate prolonged delays.
The hazards related to organisational associations also affect the business. Strained romance sometimes occurs between your various organisations involved in the design/development process. Regarding to Civil Anatomist Blog (2010c), when problems appear discussions often centre on duties rather than project needs at the same time when the target should be on dealing with the condition.
The dangers associated with technical advancement also have an effect on Julius Berger Nigeria Plc. Some new technologies present problems to designers and constructors. Many design assumptions which have served the occupations well before may become outdated in dealing in working with new types of facilities which may have higher complexity or scale or both. Civil Engineering Blog ( 2010d).
SUSTAINABILITY - OPPORTUNITIES OF JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC
Investment in human being capital, investment in new technologies, corporate social responsibility and carbon footprint.
AUDIT TO RECOGNIZE A TASK (CONSTRUCTION OF A STORM WATER Job) THAT ADHERES PARTIALLY FOR THE PRINCIPLE OF SUSTAINABILITY.
Identify every activity on construction
Identify the real activities that are not sustainable
Identify the amount of activities that are Partially sustainable
Identify the amount of completely ecological activities; check if building was based on guidelines for eco - efficiency.
Identify the environmental impact of activities during construction
Calculate the existing cost of the sustainable construction
Julius Berger Nigeria Plc development activities can't be regarded as "Green Structure" which was defined as building that achieves the beneficial targets of engineering use the lowest possible ingestion of recycleables and energy, both after and during engineering. The Canadian World for Civil Engineering ( 2007h). An audit conducted to identify if the company's storm normal water job adheres only partially or completely to the rules of sustainability revealed that the business's decisions on building work were partially aimed at lessening environmental burdens under five global implications: resource depletion, energy depletion, weather change, biodiversity, and human being health. The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (2007i). Guidelines for eco-efficiency, such as increased energy/water efficiency, the minimization of misuse and resource usage, the career of "clean" systems were not hired. The Canadian Modern culture for Civil Anatomist (2007j).
SUSTAINABILITY MANAGEMENT TOOL
Sustainability management tools you can use to develop a sustainable solution to the storm normal water task include an EIA, ISO 14001 and GRI.
Environmental Impact Evaluation (EIA): There are two assessment techniques launched under 2006 EIA polices. These include;
Basic Examination: This involves a simpler and faster process of which the general population involvement process and development of the basic assessment report happen before the submission of a credit card applicatoin. Jones (2010).
ISO 14001: The international group for standardization 14001 was shared in 1996. It is the most well known and widely used specification standard on environmental management systems. Starkey and Welford (eds) (2005). ISO 14001 are also a series of voluntary, auditable criteria that can provide a realistic guarantee of the accuracy of the performance claims of companies. Weybrecht (2010a).
GRI: The Global Reporting Effort (GTI) is good for disclosure on economic, environmental, and interpersonal performance. This is as commonplace and equivalent as financial reporting, so when important as a company's success. Weybrecht (2010b).
AN IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SUSTAINABILITY SOLUTION HIGHLIGHTED WITHIN THE AUDIT
Promote the wise use of non - green resources, throw away minimization and recycling in executive activities and the development of alternatives to the use of non - alternative resources;
Select materials and systems with low embodied energy and easy reuse;
Promote the rules of conservation and energy efficiency;
Rigorously examine the essential functions and purposes behind a job to discover options and alternatives that will increase sustainability;
Identify appropriate technology for ecological development, recognizing which could mean low-tech solutions;
Choose a built form and orientation that donate to environmental economies and future adaptability, flexibility useful and reuse;
Select structure methods that lessen the effects of structure and demolition in conditions of land take, waste products and pollution;
Aim to lessen natural, unintentional and wilful hazards;
Consider person and cumulative public, economical and environmental impacts (the Triple Important thing) including long-term and indirect impacts; and
Adopt practices, insurance policies and design goals that focus on efficiency, conservation of materials and energy, and throw away minimization.
Adopted from: The Canadian Contemporary society for Civil Anatomist (2007k).
For structure activities at Julius Berger Nigeria Plc to be sustainable, the business should simply consider the complete life cycle assessment (LSA) of the alternatives when building a task. New Civil Anatomist (2010f). Quite simply the business should first consider the complete life pattern of the job before construction starts off. This will likely have the least effect on the surroundings and biodiversity. Regarding to New Civil Executive (2010g), "this includes a detailed study of the stages of making, using and losing the merchandise before choosing on a choice. The phases of the task which starts off from extraction of the recycleables necessary for the project to the look of the task, the formulation, standards, processing, manufacturing, assemblage, construction, packaging, use, maintenance, refurbishment, reusing, recycling and finally disposal". What obtains at Julius Berger can be an evaluation of the task to ascertain the cost, (profitability and affordability) and the best possible approach to carry out the task. However, even where every treatment is taken to reduce natural, unintentional and wilful hazards, with focus on social, financial and environmental influences, the project is performed using the standard unsustainable approach the business has adopted effectively over time.
It is evident that real human societies have in the past decade or so taken a path which is clearly unsustainable. In Nigeria for illustration there have been a whole lot of unsustainable activities by oil exploration and producing companies. This in conjunction with many years of unsustainable building and metropolitan planning, poor environmental techniques by the citizens, poor regulatory tactics and a lack of conformity by multinational companies, has led to environmental problems like, oil spillages, gas flaring, erosion, earth and water contaminants, acid rain etc in the oil abundant country.
Sustainability therefore is becoming an unavoidable way forward in the face of a looming environmental catastrophe. As the years go by, fewer resources than we are actually counting on in Nigeria will have to support the almost over 150 million Nigerians that want food, normal water, clothing, shelter, electricity and other modern amenities of life. A growth in the populace of Nigeria will put an additional stress on available resources. This is where sustainability in the built environment becomes very necessary.
A development company like Julius Berger Nigeria plc may use this opportunity and provide sustainable civil engineering solutions to environmentally friendly issues that Nigeria faces today. The opportunities or advantage of sustainable structure will have on the contemporary society is, cleaner environment, resource efficiency, compliance and effective risk management etc.
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