Sustainable Consumer Procurement Vs Green General public Procurement Building Essay

This section provides the background to the study and introduction or outlines the overall framework of the dissertation. It describe the research process which include research problem, problem declaration, aim, and targets of the study, the scope of research being investigated, methodology adopted and finally the summary of the overall research structure performed.

1. 0. 2 Background

Sustainability have become a widespread issue in developing countries as your time and effort to develop the country and conserving the Mother Nature at the same time increased. This work is also due to the commitment agreed after United Region Discussion on Environment and Development in 1992 set up Agenda 21. The Plan 21 which contains blueprints on sustainability in 21st century was arranged by most of the governments to include the sustainability idea in innovations and monetary area but nonetheless preserving the environment and natural resources. The building industry is within no exception.

Construction industry contributes 3. 5 % to the country's gross home product in 2011 (Jabatan Statistik Malaysia, 2011). These consist mainly of public sector tasks under government's development programme. This means that that the federal government have a major role to encourage the sustainability notion since they are the client with the largest purchasing vitality. The sustainability advancements by the Malaysian Green Technology Insurance policy 2009 will be the development of products, equipment and systems used to save the environment and resources, which reduces and reduces the negative impact of human activities.

While procurement is defined as an activity that produces, manages and fulfils agreement associated with various works such as building, leasing properties, discarding properties or give permission for a job (Watermeyer, 2004). The neighborhood government have the energy to incorporate sustainability in its task through ecological procurement. Ecological procurement ensures that the task tendered by company have the component of sustainability contained inside the documents. Through the use of their leverage to choose for goods and services that also respects the surroundings they can impact the contractor to include more energy conserving building system (Walker H. , Brammer, 2009). This give a clear sign to the procurement people to make use of environmental efficient technology in the structures as stated in the deal.

Among the neighborhood federal in other country which used ecological procurement system is the Dutch Ministry for Economic Affairs. Their agency, Senter Novem defined sustainable procurement as applying environmental and social aspects in all stages of the procurement process to ensure that this results the real delivery of product, service or work in line with such environmental and communal aspects. Additionally it is defined as engineering that brings about the required performance with minimal unfavourable ecological influences while encouraging economic, social and ethnical improvement at local, regional and global level. (Taipale, 2010)

Figure 1. 0 : The Three Spheres of Sustainability (figure extracted from Green Building Technology: The Structure Industry Point of view and Current Innnitiative, keynote address of Management in Engineering Researchers' Connection (MICRA) 10th Annual Conference and Getting together with, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, July 2011)

1. 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Sustainability is one of the five main areas of the Government Transformation Programme. Therefore, in order to achieve this, the policies have to be enforced. This is to ensure the implementation will take place and change can be seen. However, ecological procurement is also important that are not well known in Malaysian construction industry. There is a need to find out the amount of knowing of this procurement so that it can help policy creators to do regulations that can be applied to Malaysian environment. It is because Malaysia have a solid groundwork in the sustainability issue but still without execution level. As explained by Perera et. al (2007), law and policies aren't enough to change the usual traditional procurement system which derive from affordability as opposed to the whole life of value of the task. Matching to CIMP 2006-2015, street to sustainability is likely to come across 2015. However, 2015 is getting next to and the changes remain yet to be seen.

1. 2 Seeks AND OBJECTIVES

1. 2. 1 AIMS

This paper seeks to discover the knowing of development industry players of the ecological procurement. It is can be used to discover the problems that hinder or cause the industry players hesitant to incorporate sustainability in procurement even though there are numerous guidelines available nowadays. Through the use of natural materials in the look does not imply the building is 'ecological'. Everything that originated from the OUR MOTHER EARTH does not actually sustainable to get started with. For instance, tyres which made out of 100% natural element which is silicone. Therefore, it is hoped that the knowledge of 'sustainability' itself and the ability to incorporate lasting into procurement can be done.

1. 2. 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

a. To recognize the knowing of the development industry players about sustainable procurement.

b. To identify the issues in execution level.

c. To uncover appropriate suggestion to encourage the use of sustainable public procurement in public projects.

1. 3 Opportunity OF RESEARCH

The scope of the paper will limit on the procurements for public assignments as the projects in Malaysia are mainly from the federal government development programs. The scope will limit for federal jobs in Sarawak only.

1. 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research strategy will explain the way the objectives of the study can be achieved. This section will show the circulation and the technique used to assemble the info and information to attain the objective of review. The data and information will be adopted by specific strategy depend on the nature of the exploration.

It can be classified into two periods

Data collection methods are a fundamental element of research design in any research. Data can be collected in variety of ways and in different setting. Data can be acquired from main and secondary data. The principal data make reference to information which obtained from first hand experiences in the specific of studies. Then, the secondary data is the data which are collected from the publish data or the data collected which are already existed.

Figure 1. 1 : Flowchart of Research Methodology

Primary Data

Questionnaires

Questionnaires will be given out to Variety Surveyors, Technical engineers and other structure industry related job such as agreement administrators while others. The questionnaires are intended to assemble all the information that needed to prove the objective of the research newspaper.

Secondary Data

The Literature Review was carried out to determine some general knowledge of the research subject. A clearer framework of the research was proven for secondary data. These are all extracted from

1. Journals

2. Articles

3. Information from internet

4. Dissertation

5. Publisher research work

6. Books

7. 0 TENTATIVE CHAPTER HEADINGS

Chapter 1 : Introduction

The introduction will discuss on issues associated with sustainable building and sustainability in procurements. Other items included under this proceeding are problem statements, aim and objectives and opportunity of the analysis. This chapter will also lines out the research methodology of the study paper and its own significant to the development industry.

Chapter 2 : Books Review

Chapter 2 will review on the ecological procurement guidelines, the distinction between ecological and renewable procurement.

The chapter will also review the other countries that have used steps to implement lasting procurement in the public projects.

The characteristics, benefits and the procurement routines in Malaysia will also be researched under this heading.

Chapter 3 : Sustainable Procurement

This going will further discuss on the integration of the sustainability into procurement.

The section will also discuss the use of sustainable procurement far away such as United Kingdom.

The National procedures on sustainability issues may also be discussed in this section. This is to show that Malaysia have strong foundation on plan but lack in execution.

The roles of Authorities in implementing ecological procurement may also be discussed.

Chapter 4 : Data Evaluation And Findings

This section will discuss on the info obtained and conclusions on the research.

Chapter 5 : Bottom line and Recommendations

This section will conclude on the overall issues and recommend the suitable solution.

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2. 0 INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, the consumption of goods and services triggers the emission of chemical compounds, mass use of natural resources and other activity produces waste and air pollution. Lasting procurement ensure the environmental, social and financial target is achieved. The building industry uses a whole lot of natural resources, waste and pollution. To be able to control these problems, the perfect solution is must start from the procurement itself. Malaysian construction industry has no problem in implementing and utilizing the sustainable techniques however, due to lack of knowledge and scheduled to financial constraints the improvement are slow-moving (Othman R. , 2008).

2. 1 Ecological PROCUREMENT : AN OVERVIEW

2. 1. 1 Principle

According to United Region, sustainable principle is based on environmental, cultural and economic consideration. These three goal must be merged together to produce a sustainable procurement. The procurement strategy must consider the life span circuit value of the job, interpersonal impact and the economical benefits. The life span circuit value of the task will not means the worthiness in conditions of financial value only. The life span circuit value of the task in ecological procurement does mean the task have lower environmental impact. This ensures that the building is not only green first, but also after end of use. The building components must contain materials that are Eco labelled. Among the list of energy score label on product is Energy Legend. Energy Star is an international identified standard for electric product. A procurement official can check whether the product such as air conditioner have a power Star label. Other than that, the procurement officer can refer to the specification in Energy Star's website. This is to ensure the product is energy conserving and also have lower environmental impact.

Sustainable procurement provides impact socially by promoting the local businesses. Helping businesses by sole mother is also considered aiding the interpersonal level to advance. When support is given to these local businesses, their business will eventually grow and job opportunity created.

Economically, when there is a demand for green innovative product the market will try to supply more of the similar products and probably more competitive price can be acquired from the marketplace. This opens up a larger market for sustainable products. More variety of products with acceptable price will be available. The examination of financial sustainability considers not only the original investment in land and construction, but also questions such as the cost of keeping and functioning a building over a longer time of time. Social and societal sustainability ranges issues which are generally closely linked with financial and environmental ones, such as usage of basic services, updating poor housing conditions, creating reasonable jobs, fair trade of construction materials, transparency. of tenders for deals. , cultural values inlayed in old buildings, and accessibility to complexes. (Taipale, 2010).

2. 1. 2 Sustainable VS. Green

Figure 2. 1: Difference between traditional, ecological and renewable needs of your building (Source : Nills Larsson IISBE)

Although the term green and sustainability used interchangeably, there's a difference of green and sustainable building. For "green" buildings (the middle-size field), common stages of the life pattern for the building are integrated into structure. Indoor environmental quality is a changing added into the green building model compared to the typical building model. In inexperienced building, the stage of incorporating green character of the building only began during design stage. While for lasting, the concept are incorporated because the pre-design stage. During pre-design stage, all the look team, owners and all other parties involved need to determine and understand the objectives on sustainability. In addition they need to share their ideas on sustainability and acknowledge common priorities including the potential obstacles on reusing and refurbishing the building. They need to learn lessons from guidelines on other tasks to look at possible changes or enhancements for the suggested building. (Taipale, 2010)

In sustainable buildings (the bigger pack), the numbers of variables and periods of the building life-cycle considered are even greater. Predicated on the figure 2. 1, the idea of sustainability comprises of entire building life circuit value. Adjustable such as site selection, task planning and metropolitan design, service quality, communal and economic aspect and ethnic and perceptual aspect are put into this model. In pre design level, site selection is considered important. Collection of site must not give negative impacts to the encompassing environment. Impacts on groundwater, natural resources, reduction in accessibility, pollution to soil and orientation of sun and wind flow are several items which need to be considered for site selection.

2. 1. 2 Why sustainability have to be integrated with procurement?

Through procurement that will require sustainability to be designed in the construction, the market will discover a signal to provide more ecological products to meet the criteria. This is because where there is demand, there will be supply.

Layman's checklist implies that procurement is one of the problems that need to be studied account during building of sustainable complexes.

Figure 2. 2: Taipale's (2010) elaboration on Lasting Innovation Briefs : Structures and engineering as tools for promoting more lasting patterns of ingestion and production

2. 1. 3 Ecological Procurement: A WORLDWIDE Issue

Sustainable procurement has already been enforced in New Zealand, United Kingdom. . ___. The Marrakech Job is an activity force shaped to do the construction on sustainable procurement therefore from Agenda 21.

According to Marrakech Force,

Japan

According to Shohei Yamada from Ministry of Environment Japan, the main element Japan's success in inexperienced purchasing is due to regulations in green purchasing that are totally enforced and implemented in by Japan's administration.

Switzerland

Marrakech Activity Force

United Kingdom

Sustainable Procurement Action Plan

Figure 2. 3 : Chronology of Sustainable Development

2007

Bali Roadmap Towards International Contract on Local climate Change

2010

Conpenhagen Accord

2. 2 National Coverage On Sustainability Issue

Malaysia had used a step towards sustainability after Rio Summit in 1992. The summit requires various countries to commit on the lasting development issue. There were 27 concepts of lasting development identified during the conference. During Rio Summit, there is also a guideline on ecological development which is recognized as Plan 21. After Rio Summit in 1992, Malaysian administration unveiled the Malaysian National Environment Insurance plan. (elaborate)

The development of various initiatives and insurance plan of lasting development in Malaysia started out since the Kyoto Declaration in 2002 is agreed upon by various countries.

Benefits of Sustainable Procurement

There are many perks listed by Kennard (2006) for sustainable procurements. Included in this are

Control costs by implementing a wider method of very existence costing.

When wider approach to very existence costing is followed, the once considered expensive item will be observed as cost keeping in long term. That is through the productive use of the ecological materials and products. Several research and best practices proved that by analyzing the life routine value of the building, positive cultural and environmental impact may be accomplished. For example in choosing the sort of bulb to be used in a building. The energy preservation bulb first cost is expensive. But it uses less energy which brings to less electricity current. The bulb also long lasting therefore it does not require change regularly. This reduces the maintenance cost of the building procedure.

Comply with environmental and communal legislation.

There are various tools executed by the federal government in environmental and cultural legislation to improve sustainability such as changing Ministry of Communication, Normal water and Energy to Ministry of KETTHA. There are also guidelines in developing a ecological development in Country wide Urbanization Policy.

Incentives are also given such as exemption from tax if a designer achieves the Green Building Index license. There is also a Green Technology Money Scheme (GTFS) where the structure fulfils the criteria in Table 2. 0.

No.

Criteria

Elaboration

Requirement

1

Energy Efficiency and Alternative Energy

By using the building orientation as a strategy to optimise the intake of energy. For instance to get good natural lamps, the orientation of the building must be for the sunlight. The building also have to use building services that use green energy, ensure proper testing made to the services and do regular maintenance.

Minimum ENERGY CONSERVING Performance

Compliance to least dependence on MS1525:2007

Renewable Energy

2

Indoor Environmental Quality

Good indoor air quality, acoustics, visual and thermal comfort. This consists of utilizing a low volatile organic mixture materials, use an excellent air filtering, proper control of air temp, activity and humidity.

Minimum IAQ Performance - Lowest indoor quality of air (IAQ) performance to improve indoor quality of air in building, thus adding to the comfort and well-being of the occupants.

Low interior air pollutants, mould prevention

3

Sustainable Site Planning and Management

Selecting appropriate sites with planned access to general population transportation, community services, open up spaces and landscaping. Preventing and conserving environmentally delicate areas through the redevelopment of existing sites and brownfields. Implementing proper structure management, storm drinking water management and reducing any risk of strain on existing infrastructure capacity.

Environment Management

Conserve existing natural area

Restore broken area to provide habitat

Promote biodiversity

Maximize wide open space by providing a high proportion of open up space to development footprint to promote biodiversity.

Earthworks

Construction activity pollution control and

Reduce communal impact to bordering.

Public transportation access

Reduce pollution and land development effects from vehicle use.

Storm normal water design to limit the disruption of natural hydrology

Reduce heating island effect.

4

Materials and Resources

Use products that are from environmental friendly and recyclable source. Use a proper waste material management system, with storage, collection and reuse of recyclables and engineering waste material and formworks.

Materials reuse and recycle content materials and structure waste material management.

Use of environmentally-friendly Refrigerants and Clean Realtors.

5

Water Efficiency

Practices rainwater harvesting, normal water recycling and drinking water saving fittings

Rainwater Harvesting to reduce potable water utilization.

Water Recycling to reduce potable water intake.

Water Efficient - Irrigation/ Landscaping

- Encourage the look of system that does not require the use of potable drinking water supply from the neighborhood normal water reticulation.

Water Efficient Fittings - Encourage reduction in potable water use through use of reliable devices.

Metering & Leak Detection System

- Encourage the look of systems that monitors and manages normal water consumption.

6

Innovation

Use an innovative design and initiatives to advertise energy efficiency that complies with the purpose of Green Building Index

Innovation in design & environmental design initiatives that contribute to reduce impact to the surroundings.

Green building accredited facilitator

- To support and encourage the design integration necessary for green / sustainable building rated properties and streamline the application form and documentation process.

Table 2. 0 : Standards and Requirements for obtaining Green Technology Funding Scheme (GTFS)

(Source : http://www. gtfs. my/page/criteria-building-and-township-sector)

There are also rebates for individuals who procure the air conditioning, refrigerator or chiller that are rated 5-star by Suruhanjaya Tenaga. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT are pushing the consumers to make use of energy efficient devices by listing the 5-superstar rated products in the website. They also provide a savings calculator showing how much saving the consumer can get if indeed they use a power efficient electrical gadgets. That is to help make a culture of effective use of energy into consumers and business entities.

Manage risk and reputation.

In order to put into practice the ecological procurement, a business needs to totally change its insurance policies and procedures. It really is vital that the sustainability requirements are integrated into the management itself before it is put on other areas such as procurement.

The existing procurement practice and insurance policies need to be assessed to clarify what the organization really needed to purchase. The procurement insurance policies need to look at sustainable strategies to be able to manage pointless consumption and demand thus minimizing the impact of energy use to environment.

By creating a guide of the procurement plan, the performance of lasting procurement can be measured in future. Thus sustainable procurement goals can be developed from time to time. This process will provide a way of measuring for re-evaluating the sustainability of the source chain and build a reputation for the business as an organization that procedures good honest value of sustainable in procurement. (Kennard, 2006)

2. 4 Summary

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3

3. 0 INTRODUCTION

According to Kallet (2004), a study's validity is judged predicated on the method section of a research paper which provides all the information in a study. Therefore, a good research technique planning precise information of every action must prepare yourself before the commencement of a specific study.

The credibility of the results of the study and how the research can be applied in a general inhabitants interest is referenced as validity (Kallet, 2004). Therefore, the authenticity of content in a study paper are with regards to the degree of the validity of its final result to the entire population and potential of the study paper to be used as future reference point.

Hulley et. al (1988) as cited by Kallet (2004), explained that the credibility of a study is solely determined by the degree to which bottom line drawn from a study appropriately what actually transpired throughout a review, known as Internal Validity. Additionally, Kallet's 2004 review (Hulley et. al, 1988) explained that as for External validity identifies whether the result of a study with respect to the degree of the study can be generalized to a larger population.

Planning a research methodology before the execution of a research study is essential in ensuring that the outcome of the analysis which was predicated on its targets can be reached and its amount of validity is credible for future reference.

3. 1 RESEARCH Technique IN THE TOPIC

3. 1. 1 Goals of the Study

The research on the has three most important goals or aim which consists of the following

To identify the awareness of the structure industry players about sustainable procurement.

To identify the problems in implementation level of ecological procurement in engineering industry.

To find appropriate advice to encourage the utilization of sustainable open public procurement in public projects.

These three main objectives were lay out as a guide in executing the study study on this issue. The methodologies used in order to obtain valuable information because of this research study derive from resources from both Primary and Supplementary Data.

Primary Data because of this study was obtained by means of interviews with numerous specific and site visits. Among the barriers in obtaining the primary data was the limitation due to governmental plans, availability of the individual in- fee, communication obstacles, bureaucracy hassle, general population transportation break down, financial limit, time constraint, and weather condition. For the Secondary Data, the information was obtained from journals, articles, electronic information, dissertations, publisher research work, and publication of related theme.

3. 1. 2 Brief summary of Research Methodology

3. 1. 2. 1 Key Data

Due to the effect of degree of validity of a study review to the credibility of the results of the analysis, the data obtained for performing the analysis is scrutinized and filtered to be able to obtain only the worthwhile information.

Primary data can be explained as the first hand data that was obtain by the researcher before the commencement of the study, it is the foremost resources of information which was from both interviews and site appointments. Before the these data gathering can start, a notice of consent for get of agreement for using the task as a case study was posted to the liable being for authorization and established notification.

The interviews were carried out essentially at the mentioned general population department. Among the average person interviewed was the top of the Creators, Variety Surveyors, Civil Technical engineers, Architects, and Contractor and various parties that engaged and understand the procurement content.

3. 2. 2. 2 Secondary Data

According to Stacks (2002), secondary data can be explained as report on the outcome of the principal data. It isn't as authoritative as the principal data as it often provides extensive background and immediately improves one's learning curve. Therefore, definitely the secondary data is much less reliable as the primary data. The supplementary data found in this research is obtained from catalogs related to the study topic, articles, publications, electric information, dissertations, and public works research.

3. 2 SOURCE OF RESEARCH DATA

3. 2. 3 Principal data

Primary data obtained for the purpose of the study contain interviews and site goes to.

Interviews

The interviews completed for the purpose of this review can be split into two, namely

Semi set up interviews.

Informal interviews.

3. 2. 3. 1. 1 Semi Structured Interviews

Rashid (1998) recommended that it's more desirable to execute a semi-structured interview which is closer to the qualitative research method to become balanced and attempt to obtain more information that would enrich the quantitative data obtained through questionnaire review. As the nature of the exploration is a blend of qualitative and quantitative that seek for the response for open-ended and close-ended questions of 'why' and 'how' therefore, it is appropriate to conduct semi-structured interview where it offers opportunities to researcher to capture both data.

To ensure the smoothness and assist in the respondents in responding to the questions, the next guides and procedures were followed

The main instructions were obviously explained during the beginning of interview trainings.

Each respondents were wanted to discuss on one or more specific projects that has been picked during content research prior to the interview in which they were immediately involved in the proper briefing process.

The respondents were permitted to express their thoughts and opinions freely in the future outlook of ecological procurement in engineering industry, to be able to explore potential variables and concepts that may have been overlooking during literature review.

The questions were design to be short and simple, which developed from goals of the research. A five-point rating scale were used for close-ended questions with alternatives of reactions of :

1 Not at all aware 2 Slightly aware 3 Slightly aware

4 Reasonably aware 5 Extremely aware

3. 2. 3. 1. 2 Informal Interviews

Informal interviews were carried out by means of telecommunication such as calls, emails, and Brief Messaging System or better known as Text message. This sort of interview were conducted to be able to obtain basic information like the availability of the person in control, hardcopy information for appendix purposes, and other related personal references.

3. 2. 3. 1. 3 Questionnaires

The final level of data collection is a postal questionnaire study. The primary purpose of postal questionnaire survey is to measure the degree of client's procedures during briefing. In addition, it carried out to gauge the level of project success predicated on conception of the architects in-charged for the preferred project. Replies and variables on client's techniques during briefing and degree of project success obtained from the study were used to validate conclusions on semi-structured interview on the prior level of data collection, to be able to obtain reliable, impartial and important data.

Given that the location of the respondents were relatively remote, financial restriction and constrained by timeline of the study, a postal questionnaire survey was observed as the utmost appropriate method to collecting data from the respondents. According to Sekaran (2003), the main advantage of email questionnaire is that a wide geographical area can be protected in the review. Naoum (1998) added it is more suitable for assembling scores of information at the very least expense in conditions of finance, individual and other resources.

A group of question was developed for the purpose of the survey in which divided into several parts that covered background of the respondents, degree of knowledge and idea of ecological development and building, program of sustainability in procurement, barriers to implement ecological procurement in engineering industry and future perspective of the sustainable procurement in building.

To encourage high response rate and ensure the required information were obtained, the next guides and methods were implemented

The questions were design to be brief and simple, and were formatted on A4 sizes newspaper.

The main instructions were obviously printed in the front site of the questionnaire form.

The questionnaire was split into several sections, matching to research targets and group of information required.

Refer to Appendix 1 for copy of questionnaire found in the postal questionnaire survey.

Secondary Data

According to Ober (2008), extra data is not as good as the principal data, however, it isn't the worst kind of data you can use in completing a study study. Furthermore, there a wide range of advantageous in applying the supplementary data as a way in completing a research study, this is because of the facts that it is low in term of cost and less frustrating than gathering principal data, therefore, supplementary data can help save money, energy, and time. However, it also retains its own disadvantages in conditions of the grade of the available data and its own availability for a particular topic of a study study.

Most of the supplementary data collected in this research was obtained from construction publications and articles. The extra data because of this research was also collected from the digital medium of information such as development websites and more. Catalogs were also used as part of the way to obtain information because of this particular research study and the catalogs were obtained from the library. Previous dissertation correlated to the research was also used as the supplementary data in order to complete the study study. Extra data were also from the publisher research works. These references is cited in the related wording and the source of its information were shown in the referrals section of the study study.

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4

4. 0 Introduction

This chapter will discuss about how the integration between sustainability principles can be integrated with procurement. Procurement of materials in building play an important role in lasting building. Every aspect, process, management or systems used gives impact on the efficiency of the building itself.

4. 1 Sustainability Integration Through Procurement

Sustainable procurement is not really a new concern but recently various researches have been made to prove the importance and advantages of integrating sustainability into procurement process.

4. 2 Requirements of Sustainable Procurement

Sweden is known as the most impressive country in sustainability field. Many reports have been manufactured in the area of lasting procurement. This includes the construction for sustainable procurement in various governments' division. In conditions of construction sustainable procurement, Swedish Environmental Management Council has come out with procurement conditions for ecological building procurement. The requirements are created to guide construction companies in shaping the construction of your environmentally sound need and specs for a whole life span of the building. The requirements take into account the whole life cycle of the building to lessen the negative impact to the surroundings and to the health of the occupants in the building.

The documents made are intended to give exemplory case of how the sustainable procurement of materials can be included in the building agreement. It specified the way the requirement for a sustainable building performance can be formed throughout the building process. The complete record is also helpful for all kind of building procurement method. It shows the company how to foresee the performance of the suggested building or composition can be evaluated. The technique to confirm that the designed energy efficiency of the building performed as it should is also designed into the doc. Overall, the conditions of the ecological procurement for a building is well thought in this record and it can be applied to all types of building procurement.

Criteria for Sustainable Building Procurement

During Pre- Tender Stage

In the pre-tender level, selection of advisor is also important standards in guaranteeing a lasting procurement of building can be achieved. The requirement lay out by the record designed to guide your client in collection of appropriate advisor for the project. The requirement that require to be determined in expert are

Qualification in the Consultant

The Consultant must have ISO 14001 qualification for the company. This is to ensure the company practice environmentally friendly management system in the management as well as in the tender they produced.

Contract Conditions

In the requirement for consultant, there should be a specified division or person in the business that is expert in environmentally friendly issue. This is to control and ensure the management actually applied and used environmentally friendly plan in the company.

The company must also have personnel that has routine knowledge of the sustainable procurement to prepare the tender. They must have the required knowledge in special area such as how to control moisture, energy, in house quality of air and materials selection but also take into account the sustainability requirement for the building.

Tendering Stage

In choosing contractor

Qualification

The certification of the builder act like consultant. It requires the contractor to possess ISO 14001 certification and a document for practice of environmental plan in the management as well as in agreement.

Contract Conditions

Similar to requirements required in choosing expert, the deal condition must insert requirement of a person responsible for enforcing environmentally friendly plans and requires the personnel to at least have routine knowledge of the ecological procurement.

However, there are enhancements to contractor's requirement. The service provider need showing their implementation plan by any means degrees of sub-contractor, nominated sub-contractor and domestic sub-contractor of the way the sustainability will be included.

No.

Item

Requirements

Justification

Energy

The building must be installed with meter for

The building total heating use

The total use of electricity (for local and non-domestic)

The total of hot water use (for home and non-domestic)

During planning stage, there should be method of dimension and re-checking program for the areas that susceptible to moisture, air tightness and warmth leakage, That is for easy modification.

Water

This need is incorporated into the criteria of lasting procurement to lessen the water usage and the effect of grey water.

Among the requirements that are listed in the ecological procurement file are

Use environmental friendly touch, sanitary fittings and WC cistern. This type of sanitary fittings can be discovered from the feature of the merchandise in the brochure during quotation.

The control of drinking water circulation from the rooftop and other rigid areas must flow into the appropriate drainage system.

Material Selection

Hazardous substance should be stored appropriately to avoid the probability of leakage or spillage. Any spill or leakage can seep into surface water and contaminate way to obtain water.

All the materials used must be stored carefully to prevent damage by temps, moisture, normal water or dirt and grime.

No fuel reservoir should be in the path of any machines or vehicle.

Material Handling

i. Dangerous chemical substance should be stored correctly to avoid the possibility of leakage or spillage. Any spill or leakage can seep into floor water and contaminate way to obtain water.

ii. All of the materials used must be stored carefully to avoid damage by temps, moisture, normal water or mud.

iii. No petrol tank should be in the road of any machines or vehicle

Building Waste

Building waste have to be reduced and sorted before disposed.

Consultant role

During planning level, consider using prefabricated materials, using made to assess products, require product or materials without its product packaging if possible and returning packages or pallets that can be re-used.

Contractor's Role

Identify who's responsible for waste material handling.

Ensure that the amount of waste will not exceed pre-determined waste products kg/m2 depending on size of site.

All the throw away on site must be sorted into recyclable material and non-recyclable material.

If you can find unsorted waste that need to be deposited on site, the amount of waste should never exceed a certain kg/m2 depending on size of site.

Indoor Thermal Weather and Ventilation

Consultant's Role

Insert the standards for quality of ventilation and the interior thermal environment in sensitive.

Specify the method of dimension and checking arrange for the necessity of the operating system for ventilation, quality of air and thermal weather.

Contractor's Role

Carry out the measurement and method of checking plan based on the specification stated in deal.

Moisture Resistant

Project Manager

Appoint a employees to check on the moisture content content to check on, formulate requirement and eliminate the preventive solution to prevent moisture related problem in building.

Noise

Noise is also considered as disturbing human comfort in a building. Minimization of noise is important to lessen the individuals comfort in buildings.

Project Manager's Role

The structural requirement of party surfaces and sound levels indoors must be built according to the given requirements.

Open area, rooms near to stairwell, houses close to nurseries, shophouses or other noisy activity and properties near to streets must have more noise hurdle against external noises.

Contractor's Role

Establish an inspection and dimension of sound level plan.

Lighting

The purpose of this requirement is to permit ideal amount of daylight in to the building. This assists to reduce the installation of light system in a building thus decrease the amount of energy used.

Project Administrator and Contractor's Role

The amount of daylight that can enter the building must be minimal 1%. That is important in an area where people always utilize. Daylight factor can also be given by the percentage of glass area to floor area.

Magnetic Field

The magnetic field of a location where people hang out more than occasionally must be as low as possible. Magnetic field are known to trigger health problem. Magnetic field in our environment usually comes from transformer (the step up or step down voltage), fluorescent light (the halogen content inside fluorescent) and anything with electric electric motor (Hall, Joe, 1997). Which means need to ensure that the magnetic field is low in a regularly occupied area is important.

According to the Lasting Procurement guidelines, the requirement to make sure magnetic field is low can be done by guaranteeing

Magnetic flux density in the living area is not more than 0. 2 tesla

Consultant's Role

Consult with Job Manager on how to plan the inspection for magnetic field level.

Contractor's Role

Carry out the inspection based on the plan given by consultant.

Transportation, place and machineries

This requirement is intended to ensure the emission of greenhouse gases are reduced during the move of material.

Contractor's Role

Heavy pickup trucks more than 3. 5 tonne

Light Trucks less than 3. 5 tonne

Post Contract

1. Handing To Client

Contractors and specialist must hand over the operating and maintenance instructions to the client. This is to guarantee the building can be maintained and run in the correct way.

2. Handing To Occupant

4. 3 Tasks of Authorities in Sustainable Procurement

4. 4 Summary

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