In decades, the conventional construction industry has been considered as a labour-intensive, low-tech industry with low output. It seems structure sector has been left out by technologies inventions and sciences developments that have already reshaped many other industrial sectors. Engineering industry facing challenges to responds to change technical, financial and social conditions, there can be an increasing need of changing engineering technique, communication and management strategy within the sector.
Mass development and automation was unveiled in the early twentieth century. It had been a method of producing products in large volumes with relatively low cost. The merchandise were produced in a number of components and constructed into a finish product through an assembly line, the approach of this method has reshaped processing industry especially in the sector of auto, aircraft, train etc. it includes turned out that automation is the main element to increase output.
Industrialized construction (modular, panelised, sub-assemblies etc. ) became popular during the post-war period, because of the huge demand in enclosure. Because of the nature of the idea, instead of adopting automation technology to traditional structure methods, there's a potential possibility to assimilate and apply developing technology to allow a groundbreaking change in construction sector in conditions of design, creation and management.
The goal of this paper intends to find and recognise the opportunities and problems that advanced technology and modern developing process offer to the industrialized construction sector, and exactly how would the sector to adopt automation and improve the way its operate, along with the introduce of your integrated management system from developing industry. The paper will also provide a synopsis of the issues and troubles the industry will face during launching new technology enhancements and adopting advanced automated production process into engineering sector.
Challenges surfaced and changes have to be made within development sector because of the changes in global sensation, economic, research and technology.
There is a need for construction industry to improve its productivity, quality and overall flexibility, along with necessity to adapt technologies and management methods of other production industry.
The formation of off-site engineering sector gets the benefits to adapting technologies immediately from manufacturing sectors which support the guidelines of mass production and customization. Off-site structure methods can simply provide an successful design and management process to allow personalized products at mass development prices with a better quality, so an complete building will be no longer constructed with normal methods but to be produced as a product.
There are numerous advantages of using off-site development methods.
As the creation process is completed in a manufacturer environment which provides better communication between clients, designers and engineers, to ensure high quality expectations, increase the rate of creation as well as minimise effect on the environment by eliminating wastes. Lately, there's a growing curiosity about the area of adopting automation technologies to structure and many building systems have been developed by implementing robotic technology to aid both on-site and off-site activities.
The rule of future automated construction is to make a highly efficient automated system and also to produce a customer orientated product, which involves apply advanced systems both off-site and on-site, new design methods will be launched to develop of a new building systems, personalized software and various management way will be included in making process. Development of designed structure automation and robotics building techniques will assist component producing process and onsite building. Life cycle of the building will be increased by use of new materials and new explanation of building building.
However, in order to optimise the use of automated construction methods, it is important that design concept is compatible with technology available. It's important that research and development (R&D) sector performs a very important role in terms of select and discover available way for making methods. While designers and technicians need to apply the concept of automation whereby adjusting the design to match production because of this the structural, functional, and the overall flexibility of the building could be executed.
Under one roof
Design method evolution
The goal of Industrialised building construction is to establish a new approach to creating a per-engineered product somewhat than building in regular method. Completed design is completed by a group of assembled components. A building will be no more to be designed all together but developed as a range of components and accessories. The changing of design process results in the changes of routines.
Traditional building design methods will be challenged by automatic design methods. In the success of other produce industry has shown the benefit of using automated production methods. Building product development level will be a organized process; building system will be made with overall flexibility of using robotic erection. Compare to standard method, Designers will be increasingly counting on using CAD system and aided with other systems such as exclusive reality system (VR). Online simple fact system creates a computer- simulated environment, which allows a physical occurrence, discussion with real environment. Consumer assisted by the system enable the simulation of the design process. An on-line exclusive tool provides a collection of components; simulate real-time making and environment, then client can import chosen 3D design elements such as screen, doors, roof in to the system, to allow designer to gain a good conception of the job, the use of computer simulated tool in conjunction with automatic data collection tool to schedule and manage the project. The price, design, material utilization and assembling standards of the task can be produced automatically.
In the past two decade, Automobile industry has benefited from using Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) the machine has not only evolved the output of automobile creation but also described the concept of customer focused product concept. While the development industry still predicated on labour intense type of work, there's a need for automating building process, thus an improved production, quality and better working environment could be performed.
Overview of Industrialised building system (mainly on residential housing sector)
Nowadays, with property stock market reaches highest demands in many countries, take UK for example, government aiming to build 50, 000 units yearly to fill up the difference, however, if just rely on normal methods this concentrate on is unlikely to meet. Thus, sustainable and modern design strategies became increasingly more critical. Highly industrialized building method (modular, panelised, sub-assemblies etc. ) has been wildly accepted and advised. Factory made homes (prefab homes) are carried on site sim-finished, which might only take days or even time to complete, while in traditional construction method, homes are designed from tons of basic materials using on-site labor and strategy, which cost more and take longer to finish build. Advanced technology and automation in developing industry has setup a successful example to structure industry. Due to the uniqueness of building process, it is difficult to look at automation techniques from other making sector immediately. The advanced developing methods which chosen have to be amended then included gradually into engineering process.
Reduce labor costs, for example, to develop a tiny family house in Great britain, client expect to pay up to 250 per day to cover contractors and builder's cost, this not including costs of materials and gadgets, also the weather could effect on acceleration of on-site construction, as with extremely cool or wet condition, mortar will take longer to set due to frost, and one coat of plaster could take up to day to create, this will decelerate speed of development drastically and increase costs of labour. In comparison, off-site engineering has the majority of their role completed in factory environment with limited quality control and completely weather proof, specialist worker will produce building components at maximum efficiency.
Reduce materials costs; normally, client or contractor must set up a merchant account with local building stores and price priced is depending on amount of material purchased. Alternatively, off-site manufactures whose order certain materials in bulk straight from suppliers will normally receive better prices.
Environmental friendly, as most components is produced off-site and ready for on-site assemblage, it will decrease the amount of waste material during on-site development, Many prefab components are constructed of recyclable material and the building is usually to be designed more energy conserving.
Prefab building is not something new, but it was once re-homed tens of thousands family members in Britain following the Second World Conflict. However after generations, prefab housing has not been as marketable as traditional casing. There are amounts of barriers and drawbacks of using such system also have occurred in several cases.
Design limitations, while a prefab wall structure component are made for a flat roof covering to take a seat on, and then it is unsuitable for this to be designed for an alternative roof design.
Components are manufactured in huge number, if there is a fault made an appearance using one, and then the same issue could be entirely on all. This could lead to unnecessary time throw away.
Lack of personality, has shown on many post-war off-site designs. Even today, most off-site designed home is nearly same as customarily built house, they are often been cured as lower-grade or non permanent shelter by the general public.
Skill shortage, contractors and contractors are not familiar with the system, so on-site set up will be completed by factory engineers and specially trained labor, this might reduce the need of employ local companies and cost local labor market.
Despite the negatives of modular system, industrialized structure attribute vast numbers of benefits, there is a potential opportunity of future prefab building industry to look at advantages and reassess the negatives, growing new prefab techniques and materials to provide a much better performed building system.
Prefab System Performance
In many countries, such as Japan, Germany, manufacturers are reinventing the process of home building by adopting assemblage line automation methods to achieve mass creation. A number of new development materials are starting to be used as components in prefab property. Such as for example, structural insulated panels (SIPs) and insulating concrete varieties (ICFs). You can find systems produced by using prefab strategy, include prefab groundwork systems, material framing, concrete framing, large-modular systems, and so forth.
Prefab Foundation system
Due to different site condition, different Materials, drainage system and built structural support could be applied. Initially, in house designers and engineer clubs will exam earth type, contamination risks of the website, and other critical natural components of the given location, such as overflow hazard zone, or seismic area, once all data is accumulated and appropriate system will be finalized, the chosen system must be designed at the mercy of local building rules requirement also to be researched by local specialists over engineering period both off-site and on-site. The machine was created and manufactured as prefabricated components with account of drainage system used and complete integrated service installation details. Furthermore, corresponding to different kind of floor framework system used, interconnection devise and method maybe fluctuate, such as immediate fastening system, direct bolting system, or welding system. After the site is ready, the building blocks components will be delivered onsite and drop in to the footing or trenches while connecting with service point.
Panelised Wall membrane & Floor and Roofing systems
Panels can be produced in an automated stock environment, using computer program that exchanges panel-cutting instructions directly from digital CAD (computer aided design) drawings. The done product will be inspected and then move to jobsite.
There are many types of panelised system available, such as light measure metallic, insulating concrete forms (ICFs), aluminum cement and fiberglass components. They are really consist of pre-engineered panels, stock manufactured, that will be erected on site to form a structural envelop. The most frequent, Structural insulated panel (SIPs) which consist of an insulating layer of rigid polymer foam sandwiched between two levels of structural board, offering superior insulation, structural capacity. SIPs are durable, light in weight and dimensionally secure. The system will significantly simplify on-site farming and decrease the risk of health and safety issues took place from on-site construction. Equate to other modular system, SIPs provide more overall flexibility in terms of design, complicated patterns can be produced with noticeably low price. Structurally, SIPs wall -panel is deceptively strong, that could perform as load-bearing wall structure, roof composition, as well as inside dividing wall. Due to the exceptional load-bearing performance of the wall structure panel means variety of floor systems could be used. Compare with standard wood framing strategy, SIPs offer a dense, homogeneous and continuous air barrier with few thermal bridges, and little chance of inside convection, therefore less air leakages and reduce condensation happened by frigid bridging.
Eco-joists are one of the better flooring system for SIPs structure, they are contain parallel stress class timber overhangs connected with "V" formed galvanised metal webs. They talk about the same advantages as SIPs, they can be pre engineered, designed and manufactured regarding to deferent tons requested by the project. The systems are compact and easy to take care of on site, in addition all services such as electronic cables and waste material pipes and ventilation dirt could easily mount between the available webs. Meanwhile, roof covering engineering could achieve maximum useable space by using SIPs, because there will be no dependence on roof trusses heading across loft space, and it includes constant insulation to increase energy performance. Because of this, combination of the two systems provides an excellent sample of benefits of using prefabricated components in modern building.
Lifecycle of the Prefab system
Product orientated design
Firstly, building will be marketed as a product rather than a traditional building. To be able produce them in large volumes with relatively low priced, the key is to mass produce, but with infinite personal flavour, the blend of mass production and personal preference is mass customization, to give customer selections but inside a workable range. This will keep manufacturing processes test and economies of range can be integrated. For instance, car manufacturers allow customer to choose the coloring and certain technical specs of an automobile model. However, customers cannot specify the color of the steering wheel, and design of the chairs, even if it is achievable.
Future prefab system will be made to be more adaptable; while components can be mountable and de-mountable for reuse. Proposed building site will be aided by building robots with little human being intervention on site. The introduction of prefabrication in construction sector has confirmed you'll be able to adopt manufacturing strategy into construction process and to achieve automation. Prefab building process will take up an automatic system in terms of, design, anatomist, and construction, which means future structure process will move forward in an robotic manner. For example, customer could pick different shades of wall end and flooring or kitchen and bathroom pods from a product catalogue to match into a typical floor plan, just like buying a car with alternatives of different body coloring and interior accessories. The primary building components will be produced in higher quantities such as wall and floor panels, and accessories such as different designs of kitchen pods to be produced only once ordered, to allow parts arrive into development just when needed.
A new signing up for, and set up method will be developed with consideration of later on-site installation; building part will operate systemically as well as interchangeable to increase system performance and lifespan. While on-site, construction robots will perform multiple duties to cope with variety of site conditions, robots will have series or digital handled. Development robots will connect to each other on-site; identify issues and automatically respond to site personal such as, project manager. In case there is technical failures, all building activities can cope with by works personally.
The house has been designed versatile and adaptable to permit future alteration. To improve existing house, customarily, clients have to seek professional help to handle the building work or relocated to another property. On the other hand, because of the way that house been created, the inner and structural wall structure, roof covering and floor can be easily disassembly from existing framework and proposed components will be "plug-in" to form a better floor design or provide an additional accommodation to match client's need. The dealer will provide data using their database to protect information from the time of development on the materials used, floor ideas, piping and electronic lines, etc. Client then can use these specifications to acquire quotations from the supplier or other service providers. Site visit and inspection will be carried out by the chosen manufacturer, data gathered and design requirements of the project will be designed by computer involved development (CIC) system, design specs and cost will be produced expert manufacturing. The fully automated building process shall precede expert to the ultimate approval from your client.
Second hand housing market and restoration market will be fulfilled with a new definition, used house will be put on the market and buyer is no longer necessarily to relocate to where the house is. Used house will be dissembled and transferred back to the manufacturing plant for inspection and renewal; inspected components are finished off with new accessories and gadgets. The building components will be transported to the new site, utilizing the same approach, the building will be reassembled and ready for the new owner to go in. The same notion also applied on to those clients who extremely psychologically touched with their beloved home, rather than ditch the old one, additionally the home could be relocated wherever each goes.
The efficient, flexible and mass development idea of future prefab industry enable a distinct segment market to emerge within the building sector; a prefab house will be affordable to buy but offer high degree of design, flexibility. Customer will engage in the look process that may give the job their personal tastes, incorporate with the mythology of mass customization, and offer customer with an increase of options. The lifecycle of a building could be lengthened much longer by reclaim and disassembly the existing structure. Furthermore, the future prefab industry gets the potential to achieve automation in all construction stages.
Strategy & action of Future Prefab construction
For achieving the necessity of prefab building mass creation, all components need to be standardized for creation. Similar to car establishments, same parts might be produced and applied to fabricate different model, subsequently, materials can be employed in the most effective manner to create wide range of standardized components, such as common wall structure, floor and roofing system. Then the usage of same creation process, equipment, and skilled workers can be maximized then maximum efficiency achieved.
Mass creation and standardized product allow a higher amount of labor field of expertise with the development process. It is an possibility to use single activity robots to execute specific guideline repetitiously. In such working condition, automated technology could be applied and examined within the prefab engineering sector.
In order to obtain an optimal end result, a high amount of coordination must can be found between various relevant people such as custom, maker, owner, and builder. This is achieved via an integrated system where each one of these functions are performed under a unified authority (1)
Automation in future prefab development industry
Robotic commercial applications are incredibly more developed in the processing industry, while there is a very limited influence on the construction sector. Several benefits are expected from these automated systems, including better construction productivity, to get rid of the reliance on labor, and upgraded safety and quality. The impact of the integrated automation strategy is expected to be significant because of its high level of management between resources and techniques, and well identified environment for information copy. As a follow-up to the effort, several research issues need to be considered, like the design of materials handling systems that may maintain the efficiency of the automated building construction way. In Japan, the success of the automobile industry's automated set up plants, combined with the construction industry's worker scarcity, has helped encourage the introduction of Japan's automated and robotic structure operations. Although craze toward automation itself has produced some profits in productivity, the primary goal is to execute a specific task with fewer people in a safer environment. (2) The necessity for automation in building is clear; because so many building activities are repetitious, labor-intensive, and dangerous such that it is perfectly suited to automatic robot automation.
T. Bock (2007) illustrated a robotic precast concrete -panel factory that uses a multipurpose unit which allows versatile production of the concrete floor, wall membrane and roof sections. Here, according to certain CAD data, a multi efficient gantry type robotic unit with two vertical biceps and triceps places magnetos on the steel production table. The machine also connects shutters together with the magneto and then places horizontal, vertical and triangular reinforcement bars, according to design. A CAD-CAM managed cement distributor spreads the right amount of concrete while controlled by way of a CAD structure plan, which takes into account installation, screen or door starting. (3)
Swedish company Randek has developed lots of high-performance position manipulated systems for prefab house manufacturing. Those systems were developed like the creation industry and were designed to perform routine process in on location. For instance, their latest wall, floor and rooftop production line system SF021 is developed to be a versatile system for effective production of insulated wall membrane elements. Firstly, a framework is built with studs and top and bottom plates installed by by using a CAD-CAM manipulated nailing gun, and then wall sheet will be nailed in as the whole wall part is flipped over and ready for another work station. Second step, the wall membrane part will be insulated. The final level, the insulated wall will be flipped ugly and another wall structure sheet to be nailed on to seal up the aspect. The wall element is completed and ready for site delivery. The whole process is computer handled, and it is only require 3-4 operators to over start to see the operation.
In Japan, there will be more than 85 present of the homes are prefabricated, several leading structure firms are suffering from fully computerized system for making building components, such as Sekisui chemical substance, robots has played out active jobs at the production series. Robotic manipulators were used as assistants to individual. This approach allows the robot to be less autonomous and officially simpler, needing only limited sensing abilities. According to the approach, the individual performs the essential parts of the task, and the robot is utilized to develop the human being physical boundaries. Such systems, of less autonomous performance, can be more easily designed for assistance in a variety of building responsibilities.
(4) Off-site development collection may have successfully adopted automation concept, robots are capable of conduct many manufacturing plant based roles such as handing heavy materials, and they have benefited development industry greatly. On the other hand, robots still face many troubles due to the dynamic characteristics of construction site and cost-effective challenge. Construction industry has a variety combination of areas and it must deal with variety of circumstances on each task and site. In construction automation, the building also serves simultaneously as the work environment. Engineering robots will face great challenges when handle complexity of on-site responsibilities.
To tackle this, single-task robots need to be designed not and then assist human but also interact with human and improve the total performance; robots with specific function will be designed to work independently, such as on-site single-task robots will perform almost all of the assembling and heavy lifting assignments, as well as problem handling and data collection assignments. Single-task robots been suitable for a factory systematic environment free-standing robots will be moving along a production line on rims to complete development roles. While suspended robots usually have raising mechanisms to make it progress and down.
Mobile Robotic system also developed for material handing on-site. Personal interior concluding robot is developed to reduce human discussion. Engelbert westkmper et al (2000) developed a robotic system for the automated laying of tiles within certain tolerances on prefabricated modules. The pilot work contains a tile laying system that includes tile placement equipment, a centering and calculating system and transport unit; a tile resource system comprising a store and a measuring device; system for making process parameters; and handing and setting system having industrial robot and process control. (5)
Moreover, Neelamkavil, J (2009) have illustrated that single-task robots technology will progresses quickly through the introduction of human-robot cooperative (HRC) system, key technology development such as motion generation, remote control, operation control, and ability to move, there will be more discussion between humans and robots in place of work, human and automatic robot will assist each other and exchange causes on site.
Construction automation system involves four important components;
An on-site manufacturer guarded by an all-weather enclosure.
an automated jacking system
an automated materials conveying system
a centralized information control system
These systems have adopted manufacturing process as well as using "just-in-time" ideas for delivery of materials and club coding for traffic monitoring and positioning materials once sent on-site. The numbers of single-task robots used will depend upon the work. (6)
SMART (Shimizu Developing system by Advanced Robotics Technology) has exhibited a computer built in construction (CIC) procedure, which became aware the targets on; automated development off-site, with robotic assembly on site, handing heavy components and connect to one another. It has additionally utilized automatic planning and engineering site management technology, with using a computerized controlled system to monitoring building process on-site. The system has fully integrated industrial creation methods with development, where in fact the theory of "Just-in-time" (JIT) and "constancy" could be noticed throughout the building process. (7)
Economically, due to the high cost of expanding such automation system has have an impact on on the velocity of adding robotic systems directly into practice. By far the most development has been done by some leading construction practice recognized by many research organization. For example, in Japan the majority of major engineering companies has massive amount research finances and in-house research office working meticulously with universities and other institutes. Without strong financial capability an automated building site will be impossible to put into action.
Software and IT integration
Automated construction procedures are not only relying on software and IT technology, but also associated with other related solutions, such as data processing, and Virtual Fact technology. These technology control of building machines and improve the engineering efficiency. But moreover, software integration is essential for implementing the concept of computer integrated development (CIC), which will enable to combine prefabrication design process, advanced planning and management methods through a software system to encoding on site robots and simulate the construction process. Neelamkavil, J (2009) reported The European union Future Home assignments, the projects are suffering from the AUTOMOD3 system- an computerized modular engineering software environment, the system successfully integrated all periods of house-building construction process and automatic construction methods directly into a CAD program. Through using this program, each level is simulated; from copy 2D plan into 3D model to onsite robotic assembly each task can be executed automatically.
The launch of Computer aided design (CAD) has modified attitudes towards exactness and efficiency within structure industry. The advancements of newest software such as AutoDesk's Revit Architecture, SolidWorks are an update of traditional CAD-based software, which enables designer, engineers, constrictors to analysis each level of the building's lifecycle, from its theory level to demolition and recycling, it'll monitoring the whole building process. Through showing information options between key players within the company such as design data, financial data, legal data, and service design, this will improve team communication and increase efficiency, constructability and eventually predictability of most projects.
Construction industry facing troubles to responds to change technical, economic and public conditions, there can be an increasing need of changing structure strategy, communication and management strategy within the sector. This newspaper has explored the opportunities and difficulties that advanced technology and modern making process offer to the building sector, and illustrated few examples of how did the development of robotic technology is increasingly affecting the process of building automation.
The need for improved upon automation and efficiency of the development industry is clear.
There are numbers of factors are needed to be stressed, and will have an effect on on future use;
Change of construction methods, result in organizational revolution. Design practice, consumer communication, product development, on-site set up, use of building robots, job management, and software development issues are highlighted and credited for improvement.
The development industry shows a notable level of resistance to adopt new technologies, partly because the fragmentation of the industry makes it difficult for an individual organization to purchase the system and to expecting a higher return from the purchases. It's important to change behaviour in the structure companies, government authorities, and research and development industries to working jointly to develop something or product which could attract investments from other making industry.
The launch of computer included structure and adoption of IT technology has modified the way development companies operate, and specialized software and telecommunication tools will emerge.
Competition will drive development industry to acting fast and undertake changelings, which push building companies to increase automation and technology integration.
Fully automated engineering systems are technologically superior. A step-by-step strategy is needed enable to accomplish automation;
From design to fact, the design of your building will take into consideration of every stages of construction process, such as prefabrication, set up and travelling and recycle. Standard part will be utilized for variety of designs to increase development. System integration and software standardization to boost communication between architects, civil technical engineers, electrical designers.
Pre-fabrication technology will be increased and broadened. New materials and building system will be developed to aid mass creation. Building will be erected like a gigantic jigsaw. Computer Integrated Developing (CIM) system to be launched to redefine building as a person focused product, and can be bought from dealer's catalogues.
The use of robots and computerized machines is crucial to achieve automated construction. Development robots will be easy to regulate and with unnatural intelligent encoding. Specific types of robots are suitable for specialized task to maximize production. Real-time planning will commonly employed in tasks that want the robot to compete with undefined surroundings. Research work also needs to focus on various types of existing systems and machineries to identify opportunities for robotic alteration and also the development of multitasking robots with reduced human guidance.
Full automation is not cost-effective right now but it will continue to improve work environment, reduce construction time throw away, creating new jobs in engineering industry.
Future success of building industry is to acquire full automation; it is possible, as well as support of advanced technology, appreciate system integration as well as a forwards planning.
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