The Building Services Engineering

Introduction

Notice that if you go through the above it should say Heading 1 on the top still left of the display screen of MS Expression. Here you should state the purpose of the job, its location, the areas investigated, the particular areas researched in-depth. Add a picture of the positioning, a picture of the building (if available). Background information could be included here, but keep it concise, the advantages should be 2 web pages long potential. Please use the headings and subheadings design of daring 14 point for section headings, headings 1, and striking 12 point for sub-section headings.

Aims and Objectives

The following five points will be the key aims and objectives of the suggested building design

1. To supply your client with an energy reliable building design.

2. To utilise green energy systems to reduce the properties carbon footprint.

3. To work with materials in the engineering of the building textile that minimise high temperature losses / benefits to be able to reduce the loads on the assistance systems, and therefore the energy consumption.

4. To supply a versatile, 'let able' HVAC system solution for the landlord / tenant.

5. To supply a design solution in accordance with current Building Restrictions.

Building summary

Heron Tower can be an office block situated in Central London near to Liverpool Street train station. The site can be found on a traffic island bordered by Camomile Road, Outwich Avenue and Bishopsgate. The building has a footprint of around 1610m2.

Site Location

Heron Tower is a light and portable steel frame construction, with a concrete structural slab. The external faade of the building is mainly glazed. The building consists of a basement level, Surface Floor and 2 Surfaces above surface. The basement will mainly be utilized for plant and storage. The bottom floor includes an entrance lobby / reception area, retail area and a loading bay. Each of the floors above ground will be broken down into two unique areas, any office area and the main area. The building has a set roof that's available for use for seed and equipment.

The office area is to be let to tenants and will be open up plan, with a floor area of approximately 1270m2. The primary area will be under the control of the building landlord and can house the lifts, stairs, toilets, service risers and will own an allowance for space for tenants' herb. The center area has a floor area of around 340m2. The total floor area is therefore approximately 6440m2, which 3900m2 is chosen landlords space (i. e. flower, safe-keeping, services, retail etc. ), and 2540m2 to be let.

Occupancy

Design Criteria

Alert the reading where you are getting the information to create each room of the building, what standards you are trying to meet / exceed.

From experience, this is best offered as a cut down of the Excel in the appendix by means of a desk. This sheet should have criteria for each and every room. Minimize it right down to all sorts of room, so that it fits using one webpage, usually rotated, confusing.

Environmental data from CIBSE Guide A

Lighting data from CIBSE LG7 -Light for Offices

Ventilation

Cooling

Heating

Domestic Freezing Water

The domestic cold water service will be provided with a cold water booster established, taking water from a mains fed storage reservoir. This service provides water for taking in, toilets, cleaning, mechanical pressurisation units, and can also supply the domestic warm water system via an unvented storage calorifier. The cold water service will be measured the following
Occupancy
Cold normal water demand
Hot drinking water demand

Domestic Hot Water

The domestic hot water service will be provided via a two-pipe system given from a central unvented storage area calorifier, with a system pump to circulate this particular to keep the temperature. It is proposed that the primary method of home heating the water is produced using an indirect solar hot water heat.

The system will include a solar array on the top of the building that will heating the domestic hot water via a coil in the safe-keeping calorifier. The system drinking water will be circulated through the solar panels and coil using a pump.

The calorifier provided will have dual coils to allow the solar heat to be supplemented by the primary building heat. This supplementary coil will be utilized to heat this if the solar system fails to meet hot water demand. Both coils will be managed using automatic 3-interface control valves

For more descriptive information about the solar hot water heat see section 6. 1.

Acoustics

Lighting

Electrical Services

Supplemented by wind turbines on roof

Distribution of Services

Landlord Areas

Mechanical

Electrical

Tenants / Public Areas

Mechanical

LTHW and CHW pipework to air conditioners will be housed in the ceiling void.

Electrical

Distribution of small capacity to any office area will be via floor containers fed from an elevated floor. Ability for air conditioning units and lighting will be allocated via the roof void.

Energy Metering

Metering will be provided on both incoming service mains to the website and on sub-circuits within the building for monitoring by the building energy supervisor. Metering procedures will enable the vitality manager to feature at least 90% of the power use to specific systems, e. g. light, heating etc. in accordance with The Building Restrictions Part L2A. The meters provided will be BMS compatible to allow for automated data collection. The metering strategy for the building is as follows

Mains Metering

Electricity

Electricity will be metered on the inbound mains to keep an eye on the buildings overall electrical energy usage as well as for billing purposes (relative to ??)

Water

Water will be metered on the incoming mains to keep an eye on the overall drinking water usage as well as for billing purposes (relative to drinking water bylaws).

Gas

Gas will be metered on the incoming mains to screen the entire gas usage as well as for billing purposes (in accordance with ??)

Sub-Metering

Sub-metering will be provided to monitor energy utilization on sub-systems so that the overall energy consumption of the building can be broken down into the various systems and analysed by the building energy manager. Sub-metering may also be used to differentiate between energy consumption by the landlord and tenants for billing purposes. The sub-metering strategy has been devised relative to CIBSE TM39. The sub-metering strategy for the building is as follows

Electricity

The landlords and tenants resources will be fed from separate syndication boards to permit differentiation between energy usages. The feeds to these syndication boards will be metered at the L. V switchgear. Metering may also be provided at the neighborhood distribution planks to monitor energy consumption across the key categories of electricity use. The categories which will be monitored are

Lighting

Office small ability (including computer equipment etc. )

Ventilation plant

Heating plant

Cooling plant

Air conditioning units

Heating / Air Conditioning

Heating and air conditioning in the landlord and tenant areas will be fed by separate sub-circuits. The used by each of these circuits will be supervised by using in line pipe high temperature meters found in the service risers.

Water

Domestic hot and cool water utilization at the toilets on levels 1 & 2, and in the personnel areas in the basement will be watched using water meters situated in the service risers.

Gas

Gas is only used for the gas terminated boiler flower. As the gas is metered at the incoming main no sub-metering is required.

Solar Domestic Hot Water System

The productivity of the solar hot water technology system will be measured by putting in a heat meter inline to the supply from the solar array to the storage space calorifier. This heat meter will gauge the flow rate of the as well as its heat range to be able to evaluate system end result. A meter may also be installed in the sub-circuit feed from the LTHW system to ascertain how much LTHW should be used when the solar warm water generation system does not satisfy demand.

Wind Electricity System

Energy made by the wind generators located on the roof of the building will be metered to provide the building energy supervisor with data on the real output of the wind generators. This will be metered on the normal feed from the turbines to the storage battery.

The discussion on changes to the technical

guidance for Part L granted in June 2009 proposes

The result of 'any renewable energy system

provided within the works' must be

separately supervised.

Safety

Benchmarking

This section is to give the reader a concept of the lowest standard to be achieved by your suggested design. Usually BSRIA Rule of Thumb gives you a starting point in W/m2. You can find usually guidance in the form of Best Practice for a particular kind of building: school, hospital, office, leisure centre etc.

CIBSE guide A

Table 6. 2 Benchmark allowances for inner heat gains in typical buildings

BSRIA Rules of thumb 4th ed

Heat Calculations

You should calculate the current baseline design using typical development materials. This may be done using Hevacomp, IES or Excel. Then you might consider orientation, shading and engineering materials to recalculate temperature loss /benefits. Typically, better U principles for windows are believed, but you must justify the decision based on costs / environmental pollution etc.

Could are the unoptimised design, if the building is a refurbishment. You will include any restrictions, shown building, planning constraints etc.

Heat losses

You should make the calculations, say in Hevacomp, but only add a summary in the written text. This consists of the U ideals for the building elements: wall structure, floor, roofing, door, home windows, these could be calculated from scratch, taken from the CIBSE guide, Hevacomp databases or manufacturer's data.

Literature Review (In-depth research)

The literature review should think about one or two particular areas. You need to use a range matrix to focus on two or three potential solutions depending on your requirements (your client usually wants the least expensive development- low capital cost) usually you want either low C02, low energy bills, low maintenance, highest protection etc. You need to be able to protect your selection.

Now investigate the options based on the choice matrix, you don't need to supply production information, nevertheless, you might need to hassle manufacturer's for cost information, or size information (e. g bore hole depths for floor source heat pushes, GSHP)

Heating resource for example

You could select gas or electric or CHP or GSHP or ASHP or petrol, liquefied gas etc. Choose several and research options in-depth

Heating systems

You could make a decision between radiators, under-floor warming, electric storage space heaters etc.

Ventilation Requirements

Ventilation is a means of changing the environment within a space in order to

Provide oxygen for respiration

Preserve air levels in the air in enclosed spaces

Control carbon dioxide

Control water/humidity

Remove heat from processes completed in just a space

Remove atmospheric contaminants such as odours, smoke and dust

Maintain comfort conditions

Provide oxygen for combustion

Types of Ventilation

Ventilation might take many forms and the method of ventilating complexes will vary from project to project. Whatever the precise design for ventilating a building may be, it can continually be split into three categories- natural ventilation, mechanised ventilation and air-con. Designers may decide to focus the look of the buildings ventilation system only on one of the three methods, or to use a combo of the three.

Natural Ventilation

Natural ventilation is the most economical method of ventilating a building as it uses the different parts of the buildings structure, such as house windows, louvres, trickle vents and air bricks to provide the buildings ventilation, therefore requiring little or no energy to operate (although it can donate to the buildings energy losses).

When deciding to utilize natural venting in a building design the following factors should be taken under consideration

Location: is the building situated in an area where having house windows open for the purpose of ventilation is going to allow high sound levels or smells into the building?

Size: how big is the building? If the building is large are there internal rooms that aren't close to exterior walls/windows and may therefore be insufficiently ventilated obviously?

Temperature maintenance: what methods will be used to maintain an appropriate internal temperature if the external temperature ranges are fluctuating?

Energy consumption: although utilising natural air flow will reduce energy ingestion by not requiring any mechanical vegetable to operate, constantly having windows open will lead to greater heat loss than would be expected from an identical sealed building. This can increase the energy use of any warming systems set up.

Seasonal weather: will natural air flow provide enough cooling down on hot summer's times to keep comfortable conditions? Does it still be sensible to have glass windows open on particularly cold days and nights?

If natural ventilation is employed as a properties sole method of ventilation then it could be very difficult to maintain comfortable conditions all year round, as you are depending with an unidentified and uncontrollable factor i. e. the elements. The only control that is absolutely available is to start or close glass windows or other building components.

Mechanical Ventilation

Mechanical ventilation systems are installed where natural ventilation is impractical or there's a necessity to attain a specific volume of air changes per hour to be able to adhere to legislation and regulations. Mechanical ventilation systems can take three forms

Mechanical consumption with natural extract

Mechanical draw out with natural intake

Mechanical absorption and extract

Whilst both the capital and running costs of an mechanised system are greater than that of a natural system, mechanical systems will provide a trusted and controllable air change rate that's needed is in a few circumstances, and is merely not possible via natural venting.

When deciding to use mechanical venting in a building design the following factors should be studied into consideration

Size: is the building big enough to warrant installing a mechanical venting system?

Location/use of rooms: does indeed the building have inner rooms that have no other means of smell/heat extraction such as toilets or kitchens, therefore demanding a mechanical venting system?

Cost: does indeed the building's need for ventilation warrant the expense of installing, running and retaining a mechanical air flow system?

Maintenance: is maintenance of the system heading to be easy and affordable?

Space: is there going to be enough space in the building for the place/distribution systems required for a mechanical air flow system?

A mechanical air flow system supplies the occupants of the building with a higher degree of control over comfort conditions than would be provided when relying exclusively on natural ventilation. It could not however provide the degree of controllability that can be attained by an air conditioning system.

Air Conditioning

Air fitness is the procedure of controlling condition of the air supplied to a space by subjecting the environment to a number of operations including heating, air conditioning, humidification and dehumidification. Air-con is utilized where close control of comfort conditions is required, or where appropriate internal conditions can't be achieved using either natural or mechanical ventilation.

When deciding to utilize an air conditioning system in a building design the following factors should be studied into consideration

Size: is the building big enough to warrant installing an air conditioning system?

Location/use of rooms: does indeed the building have internal rooms that have no other means of smell/heat removal such as toilets or kitchens, therefore necessitating installing a mechanical venting system as well as the air conditioning system?

Cost: is the necessity to maintain comfort conditions and temperature great enough to warrant the price of installing, operating and retaining an air-conditioning system?

Maintenance: is maintenance of the machine going to be easy and affordable?

Space: will there be going to be enough space in the building for the plant/distribution systems required for an air conditioning system?

Efficiency: is the flower that is going to be installed heading to be energy efficient?

An air conditioning system gives by far the greatest level of control over comfort conditions. Temps can be controlled locally and accurately, meaning that people in different areas of the building can choose the conditions that they feel preferred. The installation of an air conditioning system can also remove the requirement for a separate heating system, when a multi-functional fan coil device system, or comparable, were to be installed, therefore allowing conditions to be taken care of comfortably throughout the year.

Renewables

Now the Mayor of London has put his backing into renewables, it must be included as a potential strategy.

Typically students investigate hydrogen, solar warm water, PV, tidal, wind or biomass. You will need to decide which one is suitable then make some computations. Please figure out how to use formula editor (its under Put in -> Object). Regrettably, its not installed by default by Phrase, but you can truly add it in with a add/remove option in Office Set up.

From your decisions you ought to be able to assess the CO2 and energy personal savings, based this upon a standard condensing boiler and the current price of gas and electricity. Include grants or loans / tax breaks into the calculation.

Finally, financials including simple repay period should be included, but you should rerun the calculation based on future energy prices as well.

Solar Hot Water Generation

Wind Electric power Generation

Conclusions

Nearly at the end Sketch together the trouble, the selection criteria, the investigated solution, the benchmark statistics, formerly X and Y W/m2 and exactly how this is achieved in the the optimised solution, combo of improved cloth, optimised heating/cooling solution and renewables, so simple arithmetic. Finish with preferred renewables, savings, payback. It should all match two pages.

Bibliography

Books used

Course Records used

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)