This review level is to recognize this is and background information of Industrialised Building Systems in Malaysia construction industry. In order to achieve the goals, a systematic books review is usually to be conducted that may cover books, institutional and statutory magazines, periodicals and trade/academic journals, seminar and seminar papers. Because of this project has brought a lot of information from CIDB Malaysia.
Industrialised Building Systems
Definition of Industrialised Building System (IBS)
Industrialisation process can be an investment in equipment, facilities and technology with the objective of maximising development output, minimising labour reference and bettering quality while a building system is define as a set of interconnected element that joint mutually to enable the designated performance of a building (Warswaski, 1999).
The industrialised building system (IBS) can be identified where all building such as wall membrane, slab, beam, column and staircase are mass produced either in manufacturer or at site manufacturing plant under stringent quality control and little wet site activities. In another description by Esa and Nuruddin (1998) claimed that IBS is a continuum beginning from utilizing craftsman for every aspect of structure to something that utilize manufacturing production in order to minimise learning resource wastage and enhance value for end users. (Junid, 1986) clarified that elaboration of IBS whereby the IBS in building industry includes the industrialised process which the components are conceived, planned, fabricated, carried and erected on site. The machine balance combination between the software and hardware components. The software elements include system design which research certain requirements of end user, market evaluation, development of standardise components, establishment of creation and assembly design and process, allocation of resources and materials and explanation of a building developer framework. The software elements provide a prerequisite to generate the conducive environment for industrialized building system (IBS) to develop.
The hardware elements are categorised into three major communities which are include body and beam system, panel system and container system. The framed constructions are defined as those that bring lots through their beams and girders to column and the ground whilst in -panel system weight are sent out through large floor and wall membrane panels. The container system includes those system that utilize threedimensional modules (or boxes) for fabrication of habitable items that are capable of withstanding insert from various directions because of the internal steadiness.
Classification of IBS
The building system asserted by Warszawski (1999) can be classified into few types that happen to be depend on the particular interest of these users and suppliers. The classification use construction technology as a basis for classifying different building systems. This way, four major groupings can be distinguished such as system using timber, steel and solid in situ concrete and precast concrete as their main structural and space enclosing materials. These systems can be further labeled regarding to geometrical configurations of these main framing components that are the linear or skeleton (beams and columns) system, planar or -panel system and three dimensional or package systems. The Industrialised Building System (IBS) is a structure process that utilizes techniques, products, components or building systems which involved prefabricated components and on-site assembly. Through the structural classification, there are five IBS main groups that are being used in Malaysia as shown below:-
a) Pre-cast Cement Framing, Panel and Container Systems
b) Steel Formwork Systems
c) Metallic Framing Systems
d) Prefabricated Timber Framing System
e) Stop Work System.
The pre-cast concrete components are among the most common prefabricated elements that exist both locally and in another country. The pre-cast concrete elements are concrete products that are produced and healed in a herb environment and then carried to a job site for assembly. The elements are columns, beams, slabs, wall space, 3-D elements (balconies, staircase, toilets, and lift chambers), long term concrete formwork and etc.
The material formwork is prefabricated in the factory and then installed on site. However the steel encouragement and services conduit are installed on site prior to the metallic formwork are installed. The installation of this formwork is easy by using simple bracing system. Then cement is poured in to the formwork and after a week, the formwork can be removed and there is some system whereby the formwork dished up as part of the framework itself after concreting. The material formwork systems are used in tunnel varieties, beams, column moulding varieties and permanent material formworks.
The components of material framing system are rolled in to the specific sizes and then the elements are fabricated that involves cutting, drilling, shot blasting, welding and painting. Fabricated elements are delivered to the engineering site to be then erected whereby welding and the tightening up of bolts at bones are conducted. The elements include material beams and columns, portal structures and roof covering trusses. The prefabricated timber framing system is normally used in the traditional rooftop truss and timber frames. The timber is prefabricated by becoming a member of the associates of the truss by using material plate. It is important that all participants are cured with the anti pest chemical substance. Then, the set up is performed on site by attaching the prefabricated roof truss to the reinforcement of the roof covering beams. The elements of stop work system include interlocking concrete masonry systems (CMU) and light and portable concrete blocks. The elements are fabricated and treated in the manufacturer. The elements are usually used as bricks in constructions and interlocking cement stop pavement.
Types of IBS
Based on structural aspects, IBS can be split into five major
- Type 1: Pre-cast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box
The most typical group of IBS products is the pre-cast concrete elements - pre-cast concrete columns, beams, slabs, walls, "3-D" components (e. g. balconies, staircases, toilets, lift chambers, refuse chambers), light and portable pre-cast concrete, as well as long lasting concrete formworks.
- Type 2: Metal Formwork Systems
Considered as one of the "low-level" or the "least prefabricated" IBS, as they generally require site casting and are therefore subject to structural quality control, the merchandise offer high quality finishes, and fast construction with less site labour and materials requirement. Included in these are - tunnel forms, tilt-up systems, beams and columns moulding varieties, and permanent steel formworks (material decks).
- Type 3: Steel Framing Systems
Commonly used with pre-cast concrete slabs, steels columns and beams, metallic framing systems will always be the favorite choice and used thoroughly in the fast-track structure of skyscrapers. Recent development in this type of IBS includes the increased utilization of light material trusses comprising cost-effective profiled cold-formed channels and steel site framework systems as alternatives to the heavier traditional hot-rolled parts.
- Type 4: Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems
Among the merchandise outlined in this category are timber building frames and timber roof covering trusses. As the latter are popular, timber building body systems likewise have its own niche market; offering interesting designs from simple dwelling systems to buildings needing high aesthetical worth such as chalets for resorts.
- Type 5: Blockwork Systems
The construction approach to using classic bricks has been revolutionised by the development and usage of interlocking concrete masonry products (CMU) and light concrete blocks. The boring and time-consuming traditional brick-laying tasks are greatly simplified by the use of these effective alternative solutions.
The concept of IBS is not new and can be followed back to as soon as 1624 when panellised timber residences were transported from England to the new settlements in THE UNITED STATES (3). The Industrial Trend of the 1700s provided the development industry with scientific boost. The engineering of the first solid iron bridge over the Severn Gorge, at a location now known as Ironbridge in Shropshire, Britain, revolutionised the way constructions were built. Then, numerous magnificent iron-based structures were constructed; including the modular-dimensioned Crystal Palace in Hyde Recreation area, London for the 1851 Great Exhibition and the Eiffel Tower for the Paris World Expo and People from france Revolution Centenary Celebration in 1889. The introduction of metallic and other pre-engineered materials marketed the race to build tall structures, particularly in the United
States where material frames tend to be combined with pre-cast panels in building skyscrapers. While material structures of street and railway bridges were common in preindependence Malaya, the utilization of pre-cast concrete in the local construction industry showed up much later. In 1966, the Malaysian federal government launched two pilot tasks - the Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur and the Rifle Range Street Flats in Penang; both using precast concrete elements to generate these high go up low cost flats. Pursuing these pilot projects, PKNS acquired pre-cast concrete technology from Praton Haus International,
Germany and built numerous real estate projects ranging from low cost homes to high cost
bungalows from 1981-1993 (4). The success of pre-cast, metal and hybrid structure added to the immediate creation of several beautiful and quality set ups; particularly through the 1995-1998 period.
These include the engineering of the Bukit Jalil Activities Complex and Game titles Community, the Petronas Twin Towers and the LRT lines and tunnels. IBS's benefits are inherent in the beautiful set ups of the Putrajaya precincts and in the assignments to improve Kuala Lumpur's infrastructure. Others include the construction of enhanced highways using pre-cast concrete container girders as well as the monorail lines utilising arched pre-cast concrete beams.
However, even after practically four generations of introduction, it would appear that the utilization of IBS in Malaysia is still low in comparison to that of other developed countries such as Japan, UK, Australia and US. It is a damage for the neighborhood industry players as IBS offers solutions to the issues previously determined (5), which would exert a significant impact on the industry - productivity, quality, health and safety, and the environment.
Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Risk in IBS
The IBS development is examined and there are several strength, weakness,
opportunity and threats in IBS that can be distinguished. All these factors can
impact the utilization of IBS in the united states and therefore solutions of the problems need
to be tackled quickly concerning encourage the utilization of IBS in this country.
2. 4. 1 The effectiveness of IBS
The new progressive engineering system especially IBS has several advantages and positive effect to the development industry in Malaysia. First of all, the use of IBS can decrease the dependency on overseas labours especially the semi skilled and the non skilled employees to roughly 40% to 50%. This also alleviates the problem of the lack of foreign employees in Malaysia.
Next, the construction period using the IBS construction can be reduce which can save precious time and really helps to reduce the economic losses. The development of the IBS can begin concurrently with the earthwork level after the design has been affirmed. Additionally it is unaffected by the current weather conditions because of the managed environment of the casting wait and this will eliminate the excusable hold off in the conventional construction. In a few projects, probably the speed of building is not required in structure; instead a reliable swiftness may be appealing anticipated to other constraints such as financial decision at the very top management degree of construction.
The quality of the IBS is more secured because the manufacturer imposed demanding quality control over the materials, creation process, the curing temps and etc. The concrete combination and the stripping time can be handled and monitored tightly and thus produces high quality components with high aesthetical value.
The use of IBS can greatly reduce the utilization of conventional timber and then the environment will be preserved. Moreover, the process of producing IBS elements are designed to be repetitive and thus nominal wastage will be experienced at the manufacturer and the building site.
IBS elements give a safety working platform for the personnel to work on and then the risk on modest damages to fatal accidents can be averted. This is cause by the non congestion of workers and the reduction of waste material on site.
Advantages of Industrialised Building System (IBS)
The conventional building methods have been known and proven to be wasteful, dangerous and sloppy due to the process of building buildings. It's important for the Malaysian development industry to advance and be ready for the globalization era whereby increase of output, quality and basic safety are compulsory and the reduction of cost and development period must be studied into consideration. The advantages of using Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) are:-
a) Reduction of unskilled workers
b) Reduce wastage
c) Increase in quality
d) Safer working environment in building site
e) Reduce development period
Malaysian structure industry has been heavily determined by the unskilled international personnel especially from Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam and etc. The absence of foreign workers during the Amnesty Programme launched by the federal government in 2005 have crippled the majority of the construction tasks throughout Malaysia. This may prevent the development in this country and it can result in a huge damage in term of cost especially to the neighborhood developers and contractors.
Implementation of IBS can reduce the variety of unskilled foreign staff in the development industry and therefore the money siphoned by the foreign workers to in another country can be minimised which will benefit the local economy. With less labour mixed up in IBS building, overall development time is shorter. This will likely permit the constructor to save lots of on the over head cost mixed up in construction.
The reduced amount of workers will enable workers to just work at simplicity without much congestion relating several crews of personnel at the same time such as concretor, brick part, plasterer, carpenter, electrician, plumber and etc. Making use of the IBS structure, the service from concretor, plasterer, brick coating and carpenter is no longer needed on site however in the IBS stock and their site responsibilities will be substituted by
a band of assembler which consist about 5 persons per project compared to the standard method.
The conventional building methods normally generate about 20% of wastage in terms of cost. The usage of IBS elements eliminates or greatly reduces typical timber formwork and props. This reduction will eventually decrease the utilization of timber and the forest can be kept from destruction. In addition, it reduces the use of nail for the conventional formwork. Furthermore, the elements produced in the plant and mostly designed to be repetitive and therefore little wastage will be experienced at the stock and construction site.
The IBS elements are produced in a shaded and environmental guarded casting area where critical factor including healing temperature is taken into account. Heat range control is important to avoid structural cracking and also to avoid weather related delays. The concrete combine design and stripping time can be managed, monitored carefully or accelerated using additives or vapor curing. This can ensure that the attributes of the precast products are better than the ensemble in situ concrete.
The prefabricated products on the market give a safe working program for workers to work on. Prefabricated elements will help reduce the utilization of nails and bricks which can be the main reason behind accidents in the country. The reduced amount of workers will enable workers to just work at decrease without much congestion relating several gangs of staff at the same time. In the conventional development, brick laying is started as soon the strip form is completed. However, in the some circumstances, the bricks will arrive on site before remove form. This may cause the congestion between your carpenters and the brick part and therefore the workers are at risk of dropping formwork.
The IBS development will save valuable time and really helps to reduce the risk of project wait and possible monetary losses. The look and production of elements can be began while the building site is under study or earthwork.
The production of the IBS elements are unaffected by weather conditions because of the controlled environment of the casting area. The utilization of large structural sections speed up the structural works and thus other investments such as painting, electrical power wiring and domestic plumbing works can begin work sooner. The average delivery time for a whole house using IBS building is approximately three to five 5 months whereby the traditional system can take about 18 months to complete.
2. 4. 2 Weakness in IBS
There have several weaknesses that may be discover in the implementation of IBS. The IBS structure takes a high initial investment capital for the purchase of machineries, steel mould, international technology, vehicles and the wages of skilled employees for the unit installation process. The usage of IBS need the governance of a specific organisation which are expensive of money in conditions of standardisation of sizes, enhance the building restrictions through research, quality of the products and others. The excess cost also involved in the training of foreign unskilled and semi skilled labourers to allow them to entail in the IBS engineering process. However, working out will be in vain if the workers went back again to their country and the frequent change of workers and the retraining of new workers will be wasteful.
The IBS will allow the companies and manufacturers that put into action this technology to monopolise the marketplace. It is because many companies are still reluctant to improve due to the high investment cost. Then the small and medium business that are unwilling to improve will be influenced and this will bring about an bad competition among them.
The site condition will also have an impact on the utilization of IBS. Because the IBS components are carried to the site and involved heavy machineries for the unit installation process. The site must have fair highway surface and short-term site gain access to for heavy vehicle and therefore big money will be devote to improving the street conditions and crusher run need to be laid to enhance the existing site access ground condition. The distance between the site and the factory must be looked at for the most economic time for the manufacturing plant to rotate the loading and unloading period.
Lastly, the transportation used to transport IBS components have to be redesign to have the ability to carry larger sections. Lorries that are redesigned must meet the suitability and at exactly the same time to follow the road regulations. Currently, the transporters can bring limited weight, period and depth of IBS components stated in the street regulations therefore the maximum carrying capacity is not satisfied.
1. Goal and Use of Formwork
The formwork serves as mould for concrete structural components unless such mould is provided by the earth,
other structural components, etc. It moulds the placedfresh concrete, which in this stage normally is viscous,
to the shape given in the drawing.
Consequently, the formwork must already be accessible when the required metallic reinforcement and concrete
mix are placed. Proper making of formwork decides on the reliability to size, power and surface carry out of the
concrete components. Formwork is required wherever monolithic concrete and strengthened concrete structures
or structural components are constructed, such as for
' solid buildings (foundations, columns. . . ),
' set ups with special functions (containers, chimneys, hydraulic set ups. . . ),
' constructions to meet great statical requirements (bridges, towers. . . ),
' reconstruction of constructions,
' public properties and structures of irregular agreement.
Generally, each formwork is of provisional mother nature and is usually to be removed after hardening of the concrete placed.
The formwork is never to be built as strong as you possibly can but as strong as necessary only!
Therefore, formwork stripping must always be considered when erecting the formwork.
To avoid unneeded troubles of work preventing harm from formwork parts, the following
' Do not drive in way too many nails.
' Only use as much timbers, braces, tie wires, etc. as necessary.
' Consider, which panel, -panel or squared timber is to be stripped first, to fix them in order to
permit easy removal in the proper sequence.
Formwork making guaranteeing the necessary durability but also considering aspects of inexpensive use of
material and easy formwork stripping demands extensive specialized knowledge of the direction of makes when
placing the concrete mixture.
Improperly made formwork, which gives way or breaks when the cement is placed, leads to heavy material
damage or, in the most detrimental case, may cause serious personal injury of individuals.
On the other side, an too much strong formwork requires high physical initiatives of the persons stripping the
formwork and normally ends in the complete damage of the formwork parts.
2. Functional and Load Requirements of Formwork
The formwork is the key means of work in the moulding process of the concrete. Basically the process of
' The structural component to be produced is usually to be moulded with the projected dimensions
keeping the admissible tolerances.
' The dead loads of the new cement and of the reinforcement as well as the temporary
load of persons and working tools must be properly resisted and taken off to the dirt or
supporting associates of the framework.
' The cement must be guarded against too high or too low heat as well as
' The slim concrete mix should never flow from the formwork.
' The future concrete component must have a surface finish meeting the mandatory quality
' The keeping necessary metal reinforcements must be easily possible during the
erection of the formwork.
' Stripping of the concrete components produced must be uncomplicated.
What are the basics of formwork making?
Loading of vertical formwork
Vertical formwork is used for strip foundations, concrete wall space and columns.
Immediately after position in the formwork until accomplishment of its natural balance, the concrete combination, under
the effect of its own fill and of compaction by vibration, exerts lateral pressure on the formwork which is
called lateral pressure of the concrete combination.
' Structure and properties of the concrete mixture (density, kind of concrete, quality of
' concrete placing technology (concreting quickness, compaction, vibration depth, total elevation of
the concrete combination)
' ambient conditions (temperature, air wetness).
Tie wire connections (tie up rods) are used to take up the lateral pressure of the concrete mix. They are to be contained in the
The maximum lateral insert with external vibration occurs at the foot of the formwork and with inner vibration
above the feet.
In addition to the lateral pressure of the concrete mix, the concrete blend also produces buoyant causes which
may cause lifting of the formwork. This is the case specifically with groundwork formwork. To avoid this,
the formwork is usually to be anchored in the subsoil.
Another way is loading the formwork through concrete parts.
Advantages of Steel Frame
Lightweight steel frame is faster to erect than timber shape, fireproof, and highly
accurate as it is factory-produced and transported to the website in sections. As it is strong
it allows for large internal available plan spaces. In addition, it appears to compare very favourably
in price with what is generally accepted as the least expensive method of building - dual
skinned blockwork. Some systems allow for the parts to be produced and assembled
on site. Insulation is easily installed: some systems have walls with a U-value of 0. 7 and
houses built in this fashion are easy to extend and change.
Disadvantages of Material Frame
The main one is apparently public perception. Despite the fact that thousands of homes
have been built in this way in other countries English people somehow appear to believe it is
both expensive and for some reason difficult to achieve. Neither holds true.
The other clear disadvantage is reasonable transmission. Steel framed properties are
potentially poor from the point of view of reasonable transmission. Regarding airborne
sound this can be overcome by packaging the framework with quilting. In cultural housing with
party wall space, impact sound, which is sent through the floors, can present more of
a problem. However in individual self-builds, where in fact the surfaces are of timber or
chipboard, this is less of the problem as the noisy elements can be isolated and dealt with
One company experienced in metallic frame engineering that is now turning its sights to
the self-build market is Cressey Engineering. They lay claim to have the ability to build a complete
150m2 house in 12 weeks at a cost of around 550/m2 all in.
Another young company, Bristol-based Metek Building Systems uses metal rolling
machinery that can be carried onto site to convert material coils into cold-rolled steel
frames for fast keep track of buildings. Within the housing field this has up to now only been used for
social housing however the company is also now taking a look at the self-build market. Managing
director Dr Alan Rogan rates a cost of 30/m2 for finished wall structures. The company
can also supply full insulation and a choice of a brick slip or rendered walls. They are doing not
generally supply roof systems. "You will find no real drawbacks with this system, " Dr
Rogan says. "We will offer bespoke frames extremely quickly - sometimes within 24
hours - the machine is very good thermally and acoustically and also easy to extend. "
Advantages of Timber Frame
Timber structure systems have always been popular with self-builders because they are fast
and convenient. With the main components constructed in the stock and transported to
the site, the roofs and walls go up way quicker than with a conventional masonry system.
A timber shape structure can be erected and weathertight in just a matter of days and
work can commence on first fix inside whilst the roofers start on the tiling.
Another advantage is that you can often deal with just one single company, that may design,
manufacture and erect your timber structure. Very often the business will also supply the
roof structure, doors and windows.
Timber frame homes are also excellent from an insulation point of view. Nowadays the
standard timber frame sections of 89mm need to be augmented by extra insulation on the
inside to be able to conform with the U-value dependence on 0. 35. However many
companies are actually offering 140mm as standard, a practice which some timber framers
refer to as "super insulation. "
Many self-builders also like the idea of living in a residence where the primary frame is
constructed from a sustainable resource where the timber source is guaranteed to have
come from alternative, carefully managed forests.
However, if timber structure is your choice you should remember that regulations of diminishing
returns can be applied: the power savings attained by super-insulated wall space are surprisingly
small and should be well balanced against not only set up costs but loss of internal
floorspace in situations where in fact the planners determine a maximum area for the footprint of
Disadvantages of Timber Frame
With most masonry systems the materials are readily available. Once you have your
planning permission and also have found a builder you can find the materials very rapidly
and start. With timber body a waiting amount of 12 weeks is not abnormal. Beware, too, of
hanging heavy objects inside walls. If you wish to turn the inside of your house
into a picture gallery then timber framework, with its compact stud walls covered with
plasterboard, is not for you - although this problem can be generally overcome for a few
hundred pounds by the use of fibre reinforced plasterboard. Another possible
disadvantage is that unless you have high quality labour it is very easy in timber framed
houses with brick outer skins to get normal water penetration round window and door
Timber structure is also usually more costly than brick and block, although most
timber framework companies would argue that in case a self-builder opts for 140mm stud surfaces,
which provide a U-value of less than 0. 30, the additional costs will generally be recouped in
a couple of years by reduced heating system costs.
Others claim that timber body is acoustically inferior compared to brick and stop. The actual fact that
with timber framework the wall space are generally hollow matters against it as it pertains to sound
proofing. Financial firms a difficult one because reasonable vacations in two ways - through the
air and through impact. While masonry will tend to absorb airborne audio better
because it is denser than timber structure, impact sound can be transmitted through all
kinds of materials and there are many circumstances of masonry homes constructed with heavy
concrete intermediate surfaces which have failed to meet the impact audio requirements
of the Building Polices. Good detailing in timber shape property can reduce the
effect of airborne sound transmission so that it suits the best a masonry house can
achieve. Additionally it is possible to add further products specifically made to improve
sound insulation, but these all add to the price of the house.
Timber frame building using panels will not give itself to large spans. If you wish
to have a really large reception room you may need to resort to by using a post and beam
Whilst timber shape clad in timber is one of the cheapest finished walling options,
timber framework can be considered a relatively expensive choice if the walls should be clad in natural
stone. A greater thickness of stone, or a support block, will be required to increase
Open Panel vs Closed Panel
The prospective buyer of any timber frame should become aware of the difference between
the 'available' and 'sealed' frame systems. They are essentially the United kingdom system against
Closed panel systems are when the complete wall is made in the factory and simply craned into
place on site. In this way it is possible to assemble a completed house in time. It also
ensures a straight standard of quality control.
Open -panel is the more prevalent system in the UK. Boarding is fixed to the exterior of
the sections in the stock. The interior face of the walls, including the insulation, is
completed on site. The semi-finished open up panel method will suit English selfbuilders
better than the fully-finished Scandinavian systems, in which all the service
pipes and cables are included in the stock produced walls. The reason behind this is
that many English self builders don't have fixed ideas about how precisely they will complete off
their homes at the stage when the frame is delivered.
2. 6 Execution of IBS in Malaysia
In Malaysia, the execution of IBS idea by using precast concrete
building were introduced in Malaysia in 1966 when the government launched two
pilot tasks for precast casing that involves the engineering of Tuanku
Abdul Rahman Flats in Kuala Lumpur and the Rifle Range Street Flats in Penang.
Both assignments were the very first time whereby precast elements were used to construct
Since 1980's there are rigorous marketing strategy launched by the
Malaysian federal to present modular coordination, its approval has
received poor reactions for the building industry. As a result even partial
introduction of IBS such as lintels and staircase has not been possible (Trikha,
Previously in the 7th Malaysian Plan, the country intended to develop about
800, 000 items of houses because of its populace using the IBS development. Indeed,
585, 000 products were planned for the reduced and low medium cost homes. However
the accomplishments are disappointing with only 20% completed houses reported due
to use of normal construction method. Although the federal government introduced
numerous bonuses and deals to encourage cover developers to invest in
such casing category (Ismail, 2001). Beneath the 7th Malaysian Plan, the
enforcement of Modular Coordination through the Structure Industry Standard
1&2 only pertains to the reduced cost housing projects initiated by the Ministry of
Housing and Local Government Malaysia (CIDB, 2001). The enforcement by the
local authorities didn't connect with all the celebrations involved in the construction
contribute to the failure of the execution in Malaysia. Furthermore, the
incentives that promised to get to developers by the federal government does not
clearly explained in regulations of Malaysia. This non conformance leads to the use
conventional method which is less dangerous to the developers.
In 1998, the Ministry of Casing and MUNICIPALITY and CIDB has
come up with the Modular Design Guide which contain the modular coordination
concepts, design rules, drawings and preferred proportions for architectural
finishes materials such as bricks, glass, gypsum table and etc. The important
aspects of prefabricated concrete in terms of modular sizes, strength,
stability and the flames protection specifications aren't suggested. The Uniform
Building FOR LEGAL REASONS (UBBL) has presented several clauses to encourage the use of
a) The next line brought up that '11 meter square gross area' is
replaced by the '10. 8 meter square nett area'. This is well suited for the
area of room that gets the dimensions of 3000x3600mm and using the
b) The fourth collection, '9. 3 meter square gross area' is substituted by the '9. 0
meter rectangular nett area'.
c) The fifth series, '6. 5 meter square gross area' is substituted by '6. 3 meter
square nett area'.
In the conventional construction the local expert only given the authority
to inspect the task after the conclusion of the task which is not useful. The
government should consider allowing the local authority to check the task in
the developing process up to the construction stage and last but not least to the project
completion to ensure that quality is not jeopardized.
In 12 months 2001, the Government set the Malaysia Standard 1064 in order to
standardise the IBS components in conditions of dimensions. Nevertheless the MS 1064
still have a whole lot of loop holes that still can be upgraded. The important
specifications such as types of material, design standard, interconnection types,
construction method and the machine implementation are not included. These items
will ensure the quality of IBS components can be improved and the contractor can
implement a standardised system easily which will encourage the use of IBS in
Malaysia especially in the private sector. However the standards must not be too
rigid concerning allow for technological improvements in construction method, system
Many innovations in materials and components are made before their
application in the building process. Generally, construction firm functions as system
integrators and catalyst for changing new technology into marketable
products. These play an important role modifying and expanding new
technologies that impact as opinions loop to providers in the upstream. The
forces for technology for version are strongest among materials, component
manufacturers and high quality equipment for creation purposes. Property
developers and authorities policy manufacturers also supply the stream for advancement by
funding in research and development activities (Salihuddin et al, 2003).
Roadmap Towards Successful Execution of IBS in Malaysia
Having identified the major impediments to the launch of IBS in the
country, it is important to suggest actions to assist in adoption of IBS. As we
can clearly note that insufficient enforcement of the legislation, regulations, guidelines
and standards will be the major hindrances. Which means process of enforcement of
regulations must be done detail by detail to enable the IBS to be standardised
through modular coordination.
The first step is to review the current status of the building industry in
terms of managing the aspect of the prefabricated concrete product. The
study includes legislations, planning, design, production industry, construction
technology, surveying work and etc. The consequence of the study is used as a
foundation to plan for the execution of modular coordination in IBS in
Malaysia. Additionally it is used to formulate the National Modular Coordination Standard
MS 1064 as a basis to standardise the sizing for the look of creating and the
prefabricated components using metric system.
Next, the tactical planning for the implementation of modular coordination
need to be done. This strategic implementation plan must consider the
construction organisation framework, the collaborative methods and the further
improvement that can be made to the current system practised. That is to ensure
that the implementation of IBS using the modular coordination can be done
Then, your time and effort will concentrate on the preparation of Malaysia Standard MS
1064: Guide to Modular Coordination in Building. Currently there are 15 parts
has been approved for execution by the federal government of Malaysia.
Lastly the execution of modular coordination through legislation is very
important to succeed in the industrialised building programme. The
implementation of modular coordination in to the Uniform Building By Law,
planning standard and the building specs have to be executed. The
government section such as People Works Section and the local
authorities are dependable to present modular coordination through the building
regulations and specifications at the earliest opportunity.
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