The NEED FOR Street Lighting Construction Essay

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1. 1 Introduction

Street light ensures security to basically every citizen in Sri Lanka by giving guidance and direction across the huge territories throughout the country. Citizens have become accustomed to driving a vehicle the avenues, rural highways and busy metropolitan thoroughfares, counting on improved awareness and protection afforded them by generous lamps conditions provided by several block light benchmarks of the roadways. In the same way, the protection and ability to maneuver along walkways and sidewalks, in both congested and remote control areas, is greatly increased for pedestrians and cyclists. Streets equipment and lighting must be designed therefore to reduce glare and render increased colour acknowledgement to meet people's aesthetic needs in observing items.

1. 2 Need for Street Lighting

Street lighting is an essential general population service that delivers a safer environment at nighttime to commuters as well as pedestrians. Proper use of road lighting can be considered as a defensive method which gives economic and sociable benefits to individuals including

Elimination in nighttime accidents and financial loss

Aid to authorities protection and enhanced sense of personal security

Facilitation of even traffic flow

Promotion of business activities and the use of public interactions during the night hours.

While this service is often available in developed countries, there is a lack of proper road lighting facilities in many areas in growing countries scheduled to lack of financial resources. Having less adequate light at night has given climb to poor living conditions and as such, street crimes, and other mishaps are commonplace.

Street lighting is perhaps more interesting theme for politicians to get their supporters. It is the most conversable topic among people and essential activity of local regulators, Pradesheya Sabhas and municipalities where in fact the electrical consumption can be considered as having a completely stable load routine (kWh) during specified operating hours for each and every and every day. The number of lights and electricity requirements stay relatively steady above the nightly operating period. Really the only variation is the amount of operating time each night as dependant on enough time of the entire year. On the other hand, some extent of weather is varying where picture cell control systems exist during dark and misty schedules where areas like upcountry. As a result, we have very predictable fill habits and energy principles for street light that mainly operate including peak ability extracting time periods taking into consideration the Ceylon Electricity Plank (CEB) countrywide grid.

One chance to talk about the demand-side of the issue is to save lots of electricity via technical upgrades of street lighting by making use of municipalities and local government bodies. Electricity used for streetlights accounts for up to 1 1. 1% of electricity employed by national grid explained in Statistical digest in 2011, shared by CEB. It is worth noting that large amount of non-metered street light profiles exhibit a reliable state operation on per month by month basis despite the fact that the new avenue light fixture installations have been expanded by 30% annually as revealed by street light fixture census this year 2010. This plan will be most detrimental through the election durations. Thus, the virtual billing value which is submitted by local specialists to the energy and energy ministry, do not truly symbolize the actual fill information. In response to the plotting of the billing information, both municipalities and local specialists need to be taken action to ensure true representation of insert profiles with representing of CEB staff to witness the real requirements of the street lighting instruments.

The electricity consumption of road lighting constitutes an important part of total energy ingestion. Conserving energy in street lighting fixtures is therefore very important to total energy savings. It is known that avenue lighting levels are extreme oftentimes. For instance, in the case of low traffic volumes, the lighting levels are unnecessary and may be reduced so that energy savings can be achieved. On the other hand, in specific situations and then for traffic safe practices reasons, light levels should be increased even in the case of low traffic quantity.

Reductions in energy usage through the installation of modern lighting equipment, control and management practices have a primary impact on the level of greenhouse gas emissions from avenue light. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are straight related to reductions in energy consumption; hence the actual savings are of the same order and vice versa.

1. 3 Motivation

This research will keep the give attention to energy efficiency actions in the street lighting sector. The street lighting situation in Sri Lanka continues to be typically dominated by inefficient solutions, most importantly standard incandescent, low efficiency fluorescent pipe or mercury and sodium vapour lighting fixtures. Although cost-effective when regarded as over the full life-span of the lamp fixture, better options, such as leds (LEDs), induction lights and solar driven systems struggle to penetrate the market. Several campaign programs for energy conserving lighting are available by the government in recent times ( research???).

This research is concerned with possibilities to market the methodology of energy efficient street lighting systems for grid-connected or off grid utilization in Sri Lanka. This process is initiated to judge the economic, technological, and functional feasibility of upgrading the existing road lighting fixtures with LED light options. Specifically, the following areas were evaluated as part of this research

Energy and maintenance cost savings of LED bulbs over the prevailing street lamps

Energy and maintenance cost benefits of solar driven LED bulbs over the existing street lamps

Optimum luminance that should be looked after on various highways and streets in compliance with English and IESNA standards and equivalent those to the roadways lighted by the existing RUTHLESS Sodium (HPS) vapour lights that have been installed in the majority of the town and highly congested areas where more luminance is needed.

Cost-effectiveness of deploying a photocell or timer switching for street lamp fixture operation.

The energy and maintenance cost savings are key inputs to the cost-effectiveness analysis of LED. The performance metrics in the financial analysis includes simple payback as well as the web present value of cost savings over the duration of the LED fittings. This research findings point out the key market obstacles for technology uptake in the pub lighting sector and discusses the current express of technology promotional programs.

1. 4 Goals of the research

The first aim of the study is to get an inventory verification of various kinds of neighborhood lamps connected in every over the united states and secondly, to analyze the performance of existing lamps and its control systems. Road surface luminance is one of the control parameters in intelligent street lighting control systems. The 3rd objective is to recognize the optimized luminance intensity on the roads within assessment for successful street lighting systems. The ultimate objective is to find a best option for energy efficient street light.

At present, in urban roadway light applications, RUTHLESS Sodium (HPS) and mercury vapour bulbs which are the most widely used light resources. In semi - urban and rural area highway lighting, fluorescent bulbs and CFL is widely applied. LEDs are fast producing light resources and are believed as one appealing light source for general lighting. However, LEDs are not used already for road light applications in Sri Lanka, because the preliminary cost of LED is high as yet. Currently, HPS lamps will be the dominant light source used in streets lighting because of long light fixture life time and high luminous effectiveness.

The research diagnosis is a comparative life circuit examination including other cost-effective analysis that was performed on Incandescent light, Fluorescent lamp, High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamp fixture, Mercury Vapour light fixture, Induction light fixture and Light Emitting Diode (LED) streetlight technologies. It also focused on the categories of energy efficiency, light quality, global warming influences ect.

The majority of streetlights are individually manipulated by manual procedure and some are by photocell and timer turn. It is unveiled that some local government bodies such as Colombo Municipal Council (CMC), have installed and improved a system that allow light levels to be controlled in certain time periods in addition to the photocell procedure. Maintenance of streetlights consists almost totally of upgrading burnt bulbs or other defective components. Lights handled by photocell aren't watched remotely in Sri Lanka and are substituted when reported by problems of people or observed during regular inspections. Light bulb replacement is performed by relevant local specialists or municipalities.

1. 5 Outline of the Report

This research conducted an in depth study of how to execute an energy productive street lighting technologies in Sri Lanka. This research supplies the data and analysis necessary to examine whether changing existing road lighting system is a worthwhile investment, not only financially but environmentally as well. The adoption of newer technologies could save the millions of rupees in every year by minimizing both energy and environmental costs while reserving them to invest in other infrastructure updates.

This thesis includes seven chapters like the literature review, technique, case studies, monetary research and results, and discourse. The literature review is the chapter 2 which points out the basics behind street lamps, the several types of lamps technologies, that they work, the way they affect the environment, and exactly how they meet current lamps requirements along with their benefits and drawbacks. The methodology section explains the way the analysis was conducted with an in depth description of both methodologies and monetary calculations. This section presented some calculations to confirm the data that are highly relevant to this study. The way the data was put on these methodologies may also be explained in section 3.

This research thesis consists of three circumstance studies. First one is the basic structure of this thesis, so that, the road lamp study conducted to learn the total no of lighting fixtures in the country. It gives a basic understanding of the key end-use applications and focus on sectors of the various light types, control systems and a concept of the power efficiency potential available in the street lighting sector. The second is illumination evaluation for HPS lighting fixtures linked in Galle street section. The car operated street lighting system executed in Balangoda town area and neighborhood lamps control system performing in Sri Lanka also talked about as the case study 3 in this chapter. All these circumstance studies are provided in chapter 4. The chapter 5 includes economic analysis for many case studies and sets the insights gained throughout the research is enlightened by monetary analysis. The economic performance was calculated as simple-payback for substitution of LED and solar powered LED answers to the existing bulbs that includes in accounting for light life-span, maintenance costs, and electric costs. Conclusion section covers the results from the study to include their awareness to changes in costs associated with power creation, maintenance costs, fixture costs, and service life. Environmental costs with carbon emissions cost savings and effects were also calculated and discussed with regards to the different lamps technology including solar powered stand along LED system. Finally, discussion section reviews the conclusions of this analysis and recommends the plan of action that should be taken for execution of energy efficient street lighting along with areas for future research.

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