In project management providing the project as stipulated time in the agreement is the most crucial factor to be focussed by the contractor and the implementer. Time is one of the three factors in job management should get main concern beside cost and quality. These three factors are related to the other person and will give impact if one of the factors neglected. Time estimation has been discovered as one of the key performance to be addressed in providing best value to construction customer. To anticipate the development duration of project based variables which are construction period, building type, procurement road, company selection method, kind of client, agreement value, building function and complexity of the building.
Construction management decisions are created based on schedules that are developed during the early planning level of assignments, many possible situations also is highly recommended during construction. Construction programmes are very important for an effective timely delivery of properties or infrastructure assignments. A well developed project program model is a active tool you can use to anticipate when the job work that remains to be completed can sensibly be expected to be achieved.
There is no specific tool in deciding the exact time for project duration practices in JKR. Most of the project length of time was predicated on past durations of the project which were not the same element of each project. By using the past experience it might not shows the correct length for the project. Out of this estimation of task duration JKR use the history of project length of time based on the price tag on the project, how big is the job, location and complexity of the project. This method is used since the lifetime of JKR. No specific method for estimate the duration of the project.
It is important that the job implementation routine is planned such that it functions according to find out other than conclusion on timetable without delays which could affect the other activities expected by the end-user. Good plan will ensure the execution of realistic; given plenty of time for activities such design agreement procurement, construction, testing the line and so forth.
Scheduling that fails to take into account the important concerns will result in projects having extension of time, or termination. This will affect the finish user entail additional bills, including financial liability, worker relocation and storage area of equipment and problems inventory. Delays in the conclusion of a whole project anticipated to poor scheduling can also create havoc for owners who are willing to get started on using the constructed facilities (Gomar et al. , 2002).
1. 2 Problem Statement
Delivering the project on time as mentioned in the deal to the client is important to JKR as an implementer. The main problem in JKR's current practice is estimating appropriate time in JKR project. Failing woefully to deliver the task promptly to the client will show the performance of JKR. One of JKR's aims is to deliver the entire project with time as arranged with the client. Inaccurate time estimation will lead to later completion of the job. Inaccurate time estimation may cause your client additional functional cost.
Incorrect in determine the task duration will shows the ability of JKR as a technological department in government. That is one of the reasons for job to get extension of energy (EOT) beside other reason such as the contractor picked cannot give full commitment to the task. Bottom part on the JKR's record the majority of the task will have at least one EOT.
From the data provided by JKR Job Monitoring Unit demonstrates more than 50% of the projects in Ninth Malaysia Plan supervised by JKR are completed behind time. This demonstrates time estimation for those jobs are not exact. This study will generate a standard model to be used to estimate project duration.
Aim of the study
The main aim of this review is to develop appropriate mathematical model and strategies that can be used by the practitioners to improve current approach to time estimation for JKR's jobs.
Objectives of the study
To accomplish that aim, the following aims have been delineated
To identify the factors that impact the completion time of the JKR assignments.
To study the relationship between JKR's approximated times with the actual completion predicated on 5 years historical data
To develop mathematical model improving time estimating for university job by JKR.
Scope of the study
This study use school building task by JKR only. Historical data for this study will count on project that had been completed within earlier five (5) years. Mathematical model that'll be used is multiple regression approach. Other more advance technique will be used as the research progress if found suitable.
The methodology is divided into three periods.
The planning level is where in fact the topic of review determines, purpose and objective is set. Besides that books search is done to accommodate literature review.
Data Collecting Stage
At this level the methodology used in conducting this research is through literature search, data collection and set up interviews with the professionals or expert -panel who get excited about time estimating of the task and questionnaires study to JKR's personnel who directly involved with determining enough time of the job.
Data collection will be gathered from the job as stated in the opportunity of study. Through the results, the questionnaires review will be conducted among JKR staff within the category of the study to assess their thoughts of the conclusions towards the objectives of the study. Aside from the questionnaires survey some interviews has also been conducted with the professionals as the expert panel, project director, engineer and volume surveyor to assess their opinions for the findings predicated on data that have accumulated. The interviews are split into face to face questions and answers session and responding to the set up questionnaires. The qualitative data produced from the questionnaires have been examined using statistical method and finally inferences were made to support the study findings.
Reporting and Validating Stage
At this stage a written report will be produced predicated on the research done in second stage. The new process created from the finding will be tested and validated by the expert and selected JKR personnel who involve in the process.
The overall series of analysis process carried out is shown in shape 3. 1
DATA COLLECTION STAGE
REPORTING AND VALIDATING STAGE
To identify the factors that affect the conclusion time of the JKR assignments.
- to evaluate current practice
- to determine factors that impact project time completion
Validation of the model
Develop mathematical model expressing the relationship
Interview with Expert Panel
- to determine current practice
- to look for the current process
To study the partnership between JKR's projected times with the genuine completion predicated on 5 years historical data
Defining Study Goal, Purpose and Scope
Document search about current practice
To develop mathematical model strengthening time estimating for university task by JKR.
To establish mathematical model showing relationship between completion time and factors that affect completion date
Report and Finding
Validation of the process
Figure 1. 1 Research Methodology Process
SCHEDULING PRACTICE IN Structure PROJECT
2. 1 Introduction
To drive the setting of datelines for planning and delivery of projects
To guide in determine the cost of contract.
It is important to make time estimation as suggestions into other techniques used to organise and structure all tasks. People always neglected or underestimate the needed time for you to implement project. It may reduce large task to some smaller project if a great time estimation technique has been used.
An essential requirement of Project Management is scheduling time effectively. This is a major component of Project planning as this will determine the deadline for the completion of a project, whether small, medium or mega. (Suri et al. , 2009)
Stage of your energy Estimation
Time estimation should be taken into account during planning of the project. During this stage it's important to set the prospective date for completion of the task. However, a reliable estimation of the building time at the first periods of design development will reduce uncertainty, give a key concentrate for the look team, and can verify beneficial to the entire management of the development process (Nkado 1992).
Forecasting of engineering cost and time is very important to contract administration as time prediction and cost building a basis for planning, monitoring, budgeting and litigation. You will find two methods of estimating building cost and time.
According to available budget by your client and time constraint
through a detailed evaluation of work to be achieved and resources available, using quotes of the time and cost requirements for every single specific activity
The detailed estimation of construction activities usually relies on the estimators' experience and judgement to properly interpret task and site information and make the best possible decisions. (Alfred, 1988)
Current Time Estimation
With the utilization of computer software, the estimation of structure time can be motivated. This is despite the fact that lots of computer-based time forecasting techniques have been developed through research and geared to construction specialists, including quantity surveyors, for the purpose of forecasting construction time at early on design phases (Brandon 1990; Nkado 1992).
In some sectors, there are books recording industry requirements for use by cost and routine estimators. In every industry area there will be a body of knowledge that affiliates the success of known work work with time period. Interviewing those who have got experience with similar tasks is the best way to determine how long things will really take.
Construction time calls for the concentration of attention of all the key individuals in the building process and is usually a basis for analyzing the success of a job and the efficiency of the job organisation. Alternate procurement approaches (Masterman 1992; Turner 1990) help in the overlapping of design and building times.
Scheduling is a process that anticipates the near future and enough time taken up to complete the project can not be anticipated exactly. You can find techniques that can raise the odds of being close if planning and estimating is performed hand and hand, the task can be managed to achieve the timetable by accelerating some work or modifying approaches to meet required times.
Project Administrator is liable in creating a project schedule. Regarding to Job Management Institute's Project Management Body of Knowledge identifies a project schedule as the organized dates for accomplishing agenda activities and the organized dates for getting together with program milestones. The practice of timetable development leverages knowledge gained from activity classification, sequencing, and estimating to make a formal series of job activities, the job timetable, that outlines when required work should start, when it's expected to be completed, and who will do the work. Successful project professionals "are those that can plan for the surprising and are flexible enough to accommodate the unforeseen. " (Needleman, 1993)
SCHEDULING PRACTICE IN JKR PROJECT
Time estimation still the main agenda when JKR finding your way through any new project. It is very important for public jobs to be completed on time, as the clients, users, stakeholders and the general public usually take a look at job success from the macro view where their first criterion for task success were the conclusion time (Lim and Mohamed, 1999). Development time performance recommendations has identified that time along with cost and quality will be the three critical success in construction project. Books review on construction projects recommended that the normal criteria for job success are generally considered to be cost, time and quality/performance (De Wit, 1988; Wright, 1997; Arditi and Gunaydin, 1997; Frimpong et al. , 2003; Williams, 2003; Luu et al. , 2003).
3. 2 Time Estimation Practise by JKR
In project management time is the top criterion in being able to access the improvement of the construction. Regarding to Nkado (1995), development time has been proven to be the most influential in the overall time performance of jobs. Experience is one of important criterion in scheduling process as well as experience with standard scheduling in the project area. From days gone by experience of engineering projects revealed that more time was given during construction. This time around was decided either by JKR or by the service provider with respect to the type of tender. The fixed duration time was dependant on JKR. Their estimated length of time mostly is based on their earlier experience and as a result, these estimations were found to be inaccurate. The predicted time was done basic on the 'guidelines of thumb'. As the construction time often must be compressed in order to fit into the imposed time constraints, there may be insufficient buffer a chance to overcome surprising interruptions, or ''disruptions'', to the organized agenda. (Isaksson, 2005). Practitioners prefer to rely instead on the experience or to refer to historical records of that time period performance of previous assignments (Atkin et al. 1993).
3. 3 Consideration for Estimation
contract size (in conditions of Ringgit Malaysia);
tender type - three types of tender, i. e. available tender, available to bumiputra only (indigenous Malay contractors) or selective tender;
bid ratio (the difference between awarded bid and next lowest bet);
bid pass on (the difference between least expensive and highest bid);
percentage difference between awarded bet and estimation;
extra project cost;
number of bidders;
size of company (class A, school B, school C and school D and E);
project complexity (less intricate, moderately complicated or highly complicated);
type of design and supervision (jobs both designed and supervised by appointed consultants, tasks designed by expert and supervised by authorities engineers, task both designed and supervised by federal engineers);
experience of contractors (similar to the work tendered, equivalent or other experience); and
project regional location (northern, american, eastern and southern region).
poor site management,
low speed of decision making affecting all project groups,
client initiated modifications,
necessary variants of works
inadequate company experience.
In estimating time of job, a factor on the characteristic and factors of the job must consider during planning. The factors that JKR consider for the task that believed are cost, location and complexity. These factors are used base on the history of construction in JKR. To be able to gets more appropriate time estimating a few other factors should be consider not only the above.
Reaction by JKR Top Management
Director Basic of JKR Malaysia (2002) in meeting with Directors of JKR Malaysia has point out about the project duration put in place by JKR. Quoted from minutes of achieving the by Director General of JKR Malaysia
(i) akan keterangan bahawa tempoh pembinaan yang ditetapkan adalah sesuatu yang tidak mustahil untuk dicapai. Pembinaan sekolah dalam tempoh 6 bulan merupakan sesuatu yang praktikal dan telah dibuktikan dengan kejayaan pembinaan Projek Sekolah Kebangsaan Paya Besar Lunas, Kulim yang disiapkan dalam tempoh tersebut.
(ii) akan keterangan bahawa Projek SRJK(C) Tropicana Damansara berjaya disiapkan dalam tempoh 5. 5 bulan sahaja.
(iii) akan keterangan bahawa Pengarah INTAN begitu kagum dengan penyiapan Projek INTAN Kluang sehinggakan beliau meminta JKR melaksanakan semua kampus INTAN yang lain. "
Base on the above offer by Director General of JKR Malaysia it shows how important exact time estimation in JKR Project to top management. JKR has used set duration time for the engineering of school and it is successful. Another standards to be consider in determining enough time is approach to construction.
Most of the building tasks implemented by JKR in the next fifty percent on Ninth Malaysian Plan (RMKe 9) are employing Industrialised Building System (IBS). Bottom part on the instructions by Ministry of Fund through the Treasury Round Words No 7 12 months 2008, at least 70 % (70%) of part must use IBS for federal project. This training will lead to another criteria that accurately estimate the time in JKR job.
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