The Toyota Production System Analysis Construction Essay

The Toyota Creation System (TPS) which was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation in 1970s is the Toyota's unique development methodology and it becomes the worldwide request of development system in many companies (Moden, 1991). The main aim of TPS is to boost their manufacturing process by slicing off overburden and unevenness and eradication of waste in the process.

The reason for this assignment aims to determine the progress of the medium-sized structure company which is employed in commercial jobs and sometimes on design-build projects. On your behalf of youth era of the company, the writer recognises that there are many problems existing along the way of performing a task of the company. Hence, benefit and reputation of the company is seriously affected by their flaws on the process.

In this record, the author try to research all problems are occurring in the company in term of two phases in a construction project that are pre-construction and construction phase. The author afterward will suggests the theory of "lean in construction" to apply in the company in order to solve problems. The improvement of the business will be analysed bottom part on the style of TPS House diagram. Finally, the execution and additional development of the whole process will be reviewed.

1. 2. Company overview

In this assignment, the author will analyse a structure company as explained in assignment scenario. It really is a mid-sized construction firm working generally on traditional office and commercial assignments (gained through bidding) and sometimes on design-build jobs. As a construction firm, the business knows the role of planning is the vital procedure for any task. Harris (2006, p65) indicated two types of planning which are strategic and operational planning. The first type has been performed by your client and included team which involves proposal outline of the job such as scopes, procurement course, time and financing. The operational plan, in contrast, will depict the procedure achieved in each level of project in detail. The procedure of planning process and engaged problems of the business will summarize below

The company has a systematic planning and management system for engineering projects, beginning with a master program and related incomplete plans for vegetable, workers, materials etc. ; plans for shorter term are derived from the expert plan, extending to weekly strategies, and the progress is watched and opinions to management.

The current concern is the usage of the program; it appears not being attracted staffs to the expert plan, as people largely do not analyze this course of action. Even if the get better at plan can be used, all the tasks in this course of action are not sorted in rational way, hence the plan looks chaotically. Consequently, the job cannot go easily and the business always meet an anxious dash when the deadline is approaching.

The company could begins their structure process in only two weeks after earning the bet, even if the job has been occurring for a long time and it's been designed for twelve months. In order that, sometime the contractor does not have enough preparation because of their work, they'll start the task as soon as they can.

Financial control in the company is limited, and every materials and work program is procured because of its most affordable price.

Sometime, the structure works in the website need to be delayed or even discontinued due to shortage of material and labour resources in the building site, especially in big job, those situations happen regularly.

The communication on the site is not really good. It is the lack of cooperation among sub-contractors.

The site staff of company often seem to be fatigued by extended hours and frequent troubleshooting

The company seems too difficult to modify the design and build jobs when they are the D&B contractor of your task. This thing results from insufficient of design experience control of the business and the management connection with D&B procurement method which is extremely popular in engineering industry in the United Kingdom

Finally, the quantity of physical waste transported from site is very lager; moreover the huge benefits from small financial control seem to be to be lost by such cost leaked.

As shown in the explanation above, it is obviously to note that the company has many down sides in order to control a project. Within the later parts of the assignment, the author will try to analyse particular problems and make advancements based on the Toyota Production System theory.

Chapter 2: Analysis of production process in the company

2. 1. General outline of the process map

Oberlender (2000, p140) concluded planning is the vital procedure for any project, the better planning is, the better job is achieved. Within a construction job, Harris (2006, p65) indicated that there are two types of planning that happen to be strategic and operational planning. The first type has been executed by your client and integrated team which involves proposal put together of the task such as scopes, procurement way, time and funding. The operational plan, in contrast, will depict the process achieved in each level of project at length.

In this project, the complete map of procedure plan in construction process which is include the planning and execution process and the service procurement process will be attracted and analysed to make the correct improvement of the company.

2. 2. Current process of the company

In this project, the author is going to use UML activity diagrams to illustrate the map of pre-construction and building processes.

Fig 1 below show procedures of construction job including pre-construction and engineering level which is applied in the business.

Figure 1: Pre-construction process

Figure 2: Engineering process

2. 3. Research of pre-construction process (1-12)

2. 3. 1. Description of the map

In the pre-construction level, the business will divide engineering work into many work deals and develop strategies for tendering. They need to prepare everything about job and open up a tender; finally they'll choose appropriate sub-contractors and material suppliers. You can find two main stages of this level which are production information and sensitive action.

Production information: normally, the D&B builder will divide the complete work into many work packages with information of work, responsibility, program and the cost for each program. The purpose of this stage is to help all the sub-contractors understand and prepare what they have to do with their package. However, to get this done, sub-contractors need to prepare and get for the sensitive of those deals. Even three ideas of any good project that happen to be time, quality and cost are believed; the business always put the low price as the most notable of top priority.

Tender paperwork and tender action: the business will be the customer of work packages which are carried out by sub-contractors. Sub-contractors are required to spend time to study product documents as they want to be a part of the sensitive i. e. work plans. They also need to get ready the tender report and arrange for their own plan of works before they post those documents to main builder. Based on the grade of the tender documents and the trustworthiness of sub-contractors, the company will select suited contractors for every single package and put together the contracts with them. Normally, the companies that offer the best price will be preferred.

2. 3. 2. Existing problems in the process

There is inadequate information from the business in tender action; moreover the business really focus on the price and the "most affordable price" builder would be picked. Consequently, many areas of task have been neglected i. e quality and time.

2. 4. Research of construction Stage (13-49)

2. 4. 1. Information of the process

This is the key stage of any project with the finish product is the complete CTG. The stage starts when the business establishes agreement to sub-contractors which was indicated in the previous stages. Sometimes the design changes or the design groups make some improvements. The changes in design in D&B procurement will lead to numerous risks to client, so that before executing the works, main service provider and sub-contractors should hang out to review the aspect design and make suggestion to avoid the risks. Through the stage, the company is the key actor who arranges the site, and executes main works such as excavation, main building structure and so on; meanwhile sub-contractors should have their own arrange for implementing their works at the right time.

According to Angus (2003, p137), in this level, changes may be appreciated in either term design or development even they are not expected in advance. In the event the changes happen, the expense of the project will change, the effect may be serious in D&B procurement method. Hence, in this stage, accurate planning and sufficient managing could possibly be the most critical concern to attain the construction of job. Whenever, the change is attainable, all the concerned people should take part in discussions in order to find a way to decrease the bad effects as much as possible.

The current planning process can be divided by four main parts as follow

General Master Plans (made 3 regular monthly for the whole life time of the task; process 13-16): Planning division under the control of task manager will establish the get good at plan to be able to ensure the project will be executed within the specified constrains with the connection of health insurance and safe practices problems (Mawdesly, 1997).

Develop Sectional Expert Plans (made once a month for another three months; process 17-25): The General Master Plan will be produced by the planning office based on the overall grasp plan and scopes which are issued by Project Manager (Mawdesly, 1997). Greater detail plan for personnel, labours and material will be extend to ensure that goals of general get better at plan will be obtained. Once all the departments have the sectional master plan, they have to review the program and make revisions to make a feasible arrange for the whole groups.

Develop Weekly Ideas (made each week for next 3 weeks; process 26-36): Weekly plans derive from the Sectional Master plan. All of the involved people have to build up their own plan and make the recommendation to Planning section in order to ascertain a proper plan. Regarding to Mawdesly (1997, p10) the weekly plan have to ensure the efficiency of resources mentioned from the previous plan so as to reach the project objectives.

Construction process (36-48): The structure works begin with the prep of construction site. As the primary contractor, the business will execute all the primary work on site, on the other hand other contractors (sub-contractors, material suppliers) need to have intend to deliver their products as mentioned on their strategies. Every week, all the contractors require issuing the progress report and sending them to project supervisor and client's organisation in order to control the engineering works. This schedule, corresponding to Mawdesly (1997), there may be little change of the program because it will badly affect to construction improvement of a task when uncertainty happens.

2. 4. 2. Problems happen in the process

The company always put into practice the project very soon after they gain in a sensitive, sometimes they could not gather adequate inputs from involved parties. As the effect, less natural and practical routine are issued.

Due to the lack of communication among gatherings in the task organisation, the overall get good at and the sectional grasp plans aren't appropriate and the discord happens within sub-contractors.

There is insufficient update for each week plan because of scarcity of attention on planning and the scarcity of management skills. Thus, uneven workloads are unavoidable and almost sub-contractors have to rush near the deadline in order to finish works. As consequent, many critical areas of successful task such as quality and time are not guaranteed.

The company put the reduced price tender at the top of priority ends up with large amount of unused inventory in structure site. Hence, atlanta divorce attorneys project, there may be large numbers of wastes occurring. In addition, least expensive price will bring about bad quality of material using in jobs.

As mentioned above, an incorrect plan will lead to a problem of material circulation which may also be there are superabundant materials on site whereas sometime insufficient material. All those things have bad results bad performance of the engineering process.

2. 5. Other problems in structure site

2. 5. 1. Team work and collaboration

As talked about in the business summary, the communication and collaboration among get-togethers in a task is bad. This problem ends up with many errors on the building site so when the argument happen the progress of engineering will be infected.

2. 5. 2. Staffs motivation

The assumption of the business indicated that their staffs are not considering making plan arranging for the job and they seem to be not to have sufficient motivation to contribute to the development of those plan. You can find many reasons cause the reduced determination of staffs. One of them will come from the lack of communication and team-work among users; staffs sometimes do not really know what they should do. The indegent quality of plan is also another reason behind the drive of staffs.

2. 5. 3. Physical misuse on site.

Based on the idea of Toyota development system that was provided by Liker, J. , K. (2004), there are seven kind of waste (Muda) in this scenario, these are

Overproduction

Waiting

Transportation

Inappropriate processing

Unnecessary inventory

Unnecessary movement

Defects

In this project, those issues below are major reason for physical waste products on site

Unnecessary transfer or conveyance; Extra inventory and Pointless movement: Because of low quality plan routine (in both sectional and regular plan), the program of delivery material is not suitable, leading to those kind of wastes.

Defects: The bad quality material and design may cause many defects to the job. Hence, reparation, re-construction or replacement unit of any structures will increase waste materials in project.

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Chapter 3: Toyota Development Lean Principles

3. 1. Introduction into Low fat Principles

According to Liker (2004), the major idea of Lean creation is to maximise the worthiness for customer whilst getting rid of waste added in the development process. Within the other ways, trim production signifies producing more value for customers with fewer resources.

The lean development, quite simply "Toyota Creation System or TPS", were firstly adapted by Toyota, the largest car manufacture on the globe when they developed a new mode of production, in which they focus on the clients and endeavour to reduce all type of waste whenever you can. Within their new settings, Toyota is rolling out such tools which is becoming popular across the world, they are: Just-In-Time (JIT), Kanban replenishment system and 5S theory.

The notion of lean thinking was indicated in the Womack and Jones (1996) e book, where there are five guidelines

Specify value - An accurate understanding of the precise needs of the customer is required. Hence, the business needs to determine what the customer wants.

Identify the Value Stream - Value stream is the set of all necessary activities to attain an explicit product. Womack and Jones (1996) indicated that determining entire value stream for each and every product is very important step in order to identify muda (waste), keep up with the value-adding activities and add more customer value (which should be continuously upgraded).

Flow - McCarron (2006) concluded that in a process, all activities must run in a continuing flow. This means that work circulation should be progressively without breaking up.

Pull - Womack and Jones (1996) figured it is best the make the customer pull the merchandise rather than let the company force their product. So that, the company will produce what customer needs hence, removing waste.

Perfection - Last but not least, is the excellence, it can be referred to as the right amount of value put into clients. In the complete process, all activities, work moves have to go easily with minimising of misuse. Moreover, the determination of staffs needs to be turning over.

3. 2. Toyota 14 principles

In the book "The Toyota Way", Linker (2004) discussed fourteen ideas of the TPS, those concepts will be summarised with the references of Learning Deal 3

Principle 1: Basic your management decisions on a long-term idea, even at the expense of short-term financial goals

Principle 2: Create ongoing process flow to bring problems to the surface

Principle 3: Use the "Draw" system to avoid overproduction

Principle 4: Level out the workload (Heijunka)

Principle 5: Create a culture of stopping to repair problems, to get quality right the first time

Principle 6: Standardize responsibilities are the groundwork for ongoing improvement and staff empowerment

Principle 7: Use visual control so no problems are hidden

Principle 8: Only use reliable, thoroughly tested technology that provides your people and processes

Principle 9: Grow market leaders who carefully understand the task, live the philosophy, and teach it to others.

Principle 10: Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company's philosophy

Principle 11: Esteem your extended network of companions and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve

Principle 12: Go to see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu)

Principle 13: Make decisions gradually by consensus, completely consider all options; implement decisions rapidly

Principle 14: Become a learning business through relentless reflection (Hansei) and continuous improvement (Kaizen)

3. 3. Lean creation in construction

Bjornfot (2006) explained that lean rules can be employed to construction based on five principle of Lean Convinced that was suggested by Womack and Jones (1996), these are: Value, Value Stream, Circulation, Pull and Efficiency. Differences between construction and creation process were pointed out by Cooper (2005) in which he emphasised the lack of co-ordination and communication between people in construction industry. In addition, it is not easy to forecast main areas of a construction task that happen to be time, cost, quality and revenue.

Pheng and Fang (2005) mentioned the term of "lean development" as a component of building best practice, moreover, lean engineering is a combo of existing ideas. The primary significant features where construction industry will vary to other industry can be detailed as the huge size of task, the stillness of composition and great difficulty.

In order to simplify the slim theory put on construction project, the author decided to use the style of "Toyota House" to analysis the business problem and indicate improvement for the business. The number below shows the style of Toyota House that was illustrated by Liker (2004)

Figure 2: TPS House Diagram (Liker, 2004)

To be discussed the application of the improvement process, Liker (2004) presumed that lean guidelines will be built as a residence model. You will discover three critical set ups: Foundation and two Pillars plus they all reinforced to the rooftop which is the ongoing improvement of the procedure. If some of three structures is missing or delicate resulting as the improvement cannot be executed. Therefore, in order to improve the construction process, most of framework in the Toyota House is highly recommended carefully.

3. 3. 1. Foundation

There are four aspects have to check out in the foundation

Toyota School of thought (Theory 1)

Visual Management (Basic principle 7)

Stable and Standardized functions (Process 6)

Levelled Creation (Heijunka, Concept 4).

3. 3. 2. Pillars

There are two pillars in the Toyota House model that are: Just-In-Time (Rule 2, 3), Jidoka (Theory 5, 8).

"Just-in-Time" corresponding to Toyota is the manufacturing of particular what they would like to make at a precise point of the time with the precise quantities. Hence, using JIT can help the company eliminate wastes, and unforeseen requirements to be able to improve creation process. Liker (2004) suggested some rules to consider in JIT

Continuous circulation: this ensure the process will finish with no throw away of time and material as well.

Takt time: the key part of 1 piece flow. Takt is the speed in which a product undergoes process to be able to reach the client (Liker, 2004)

Pull system: as described as a basic principle of Lean development.

Quick changeover: the power of process to have quick change when required.

Integrated logistics: companions of the company should apply JIT wherever process that they involve in the job.

Jidoka: Following Toyota the term Jidoka is described as "automation with a real human touch". Womack and Jones (1996) made more clear reason of "Jidoka" as the ability of system to stop the task automatically when something amiss happens; otherwise all of products have to be verified with high quality. With the goal of making use of Jidoka, those aspects below have to be considered

Automatic halts: when any area of the process cannot satisfy the requirement.

Andon: is a caution indication, it occurs when there is a mistake along the way.

Person - Machine parting: Pursuing Toyota, this feature let visitors to warn any irregular condition of process plus they can stop the operation of machinery in order to reduce the unneeded waste.

Error proofing: is essential to avoid machines automatically.

In-Station quality control: it means the quality control need to be ensured in just a stage before it goes to another phases; hence reduce faulty product and misuse (Liker, 2004)

Solve real cause (5-why's): The use of 5-why's method is likely to be used in this aspect. The problem will be investigate intensely with the purpose of solving problem (Linker, 2004).

3. 3. 3. Centre

The constituent of this part includes People & Teamwork (Basic principle 9, 10, 11, 13), Waste material reduction (Theory 12, 13, 14), Continuous improvement (Rule 14)

People and Teamwork:

Selection: It's important to select a person can fulfil the task. Inappropriate person can direct result faulty, delay plus more waste products to process.

Common goals: It really is obvious that in an organisation, all customers will need to have same goals in order to build up the organisation. Liker (2004) indicated that common goal is speared within the company throughout by the source chain.

Ringi decision making: this aspect means that all people involved to a process should take part in a choice of the improvement. Hence, all possible decisions will be looked at.

Cross-trained Folks: capability to have the ability to perform different responsibilities to boost quality and efficiency. (Liker, 2004)

Waste lowering:

Genchi Genbutsu: see principle 12 partly 3. 2

5-why's: is a method by requesting "Why" in five times and discover the original of an problem.

Eyes for waste: it means the business should take time to see and control throw away.

Problem solving: to find the condition at root level. Connected with 5-why's solution to have the full total elimination of waste products.

Chapter 4: Improvement of current processes

4. 1. Trim measurement.

Using the style of Toyota House shown in the last chapter, lean measurement of each concern happened along the way of the company will be examine in this part. Inside the table below, the signal "x" indicates that people can apply the aspect in with the goal of improving a specific issue of an activity.

4. 2. General improvement of the company.

Based on the Lean Measurement table partly 4. 1, the author reveals three aspects that very very important to the company on the whole in which the indications of "x" are huge, they can be

People and Teamwork

Long-term philosophy

Eyes for Waste

When the business improve any level of a project, they firstly should consider most of three aspects below. They will be the principles for the development of the whole process, plus they should take part in every part of process.

4. 2. 1. People and team work

It is visible that people in the heart and soul of any organisation, even in the high-technology period, the position of men and women is unchangeable to be able to produce and operate almost any machine. Liker and Meier (2007) explained that in choosing a proper people with high skills and experience is the key to achieve a successful process. In order to improve a process, the company must develop their staffs first, that is a way Toyota following. Even in those days, the company might not exactly have a sufficient staffs for many position. However, the business should have a long-term eye-sight to train exceptional staffs for his or her important position of the business. Thus, they can improve their company. Liker and Meier (2007) recommended the first theory for a innovator is the one that has capacity and desire to learn something from other (imply that he's not too self-opinionated). Furthermore, Naoum (2001) suggested some more capabilities that happen to be

Long-term eyesight which associates to the benefit of the company.

capacity to make decision

Confident in his capability and his staffs as well.

Liker (2004) convinced that the development of specific and the improvement of teamwork in the company should go collectively and also have balance between them. Corresponding to Hardingham (1995), improved team-work can lower cost and develop the potency of development process. Additional, Thompson (2000) persuaded the cooperation of the company will be increased when they are successful in teamwork. To be able to achieve effective teamwork, he stated some elements

The team should discuss a standard goal and has enough capacity to attain the goal.

Sufficiency of drive to overcome the quest with high quality of performance.

Flexible to harmonise their activities and communication.

4. 2. 2. Long-term philosophy

Liker (2004) suggested the long-term philosophy is the building blocks of the other concept, so that the short term decisions have to be associated to the long-term eye-sight of the business. As provided in the business brief, now the company really focus on the term of cost in the task, hence the total amount among three factors of your project (time, cost and quality) is not warranty. Following Liker (2004, p114) and Imai (1991, p49), Toyota had serious thinking about making something which give more value to customers with good quality at appropriate price. Hence, they did not put the price as the very best of their company. Based out of this study, the author indicates that the business should change the long-term philosophy as just how Toyota is executing i. e. Value for customer and quality of task not only the cheapest price.

Imai (1991) explained that the improvement cannot be finished when there is not any standard. Hence, the establishment standard is necessary for any company or project in order to make improvements. Additionally, he also concluded the Kaizen (continuous improvement) is called as "never-ending attempts for improvement", it could be understood that when a typical achieved, the better standard will be took place and then this end up being the next goal of the procedure. The physique below will show the PDCA pattern or in other words is a Continuation of the Deming Wheel, which reveals the circuit of ongoing improvement.

Figure : PDCA Cycle (Imai, 1991)

4. 2. 3. Eyes for waste

This aspect was presented in the part 3. 3. 3

The main theory of Lean Development is eliminating misuse in process. Thus, it is clear that each people within the organisation should care about waste issue. The company requires ensuring all of their employees and lovers must observe any waste material in the whole process and do the best to reduce wastes as much as possible.

4. 3. Evaluation of improvement in Pre-construction and development phase

4. 3. 1. Pre-construction Process

As mentioned in part 2. 3, problems existing in this level of task include that happen to be inadequate information from the company in sensitive action and the attention of cost of the company. Hence, the quality of the sub-contractors and suppliers are not very good and sometime they cannot afford the quality and time of the task.

In order to improve the tender documents, the company must have criteria for their tender, so that when they reach those standards the record will have good quality. Hence, sub-contractors and suppliers have to make their documents carefully before submitting. Because of this, the grade of the procedure will improve. Furthermore, using Ringi decision with the participation of all departments engaged to project will help the company establish a quality sensitive document

In the solution for "choosing minimum tender", initially, the company should apply the method of "Solve root cause problems" to get the origin reasons. Using "5 why's" strategy is a good answer for this situation. Reasons may relate to the long-term eye-sight of the business in which the cost is focused.

4. 3. 2. Construction Process

The problems in is stage were explained in part 2. 4, to be able to resolve problems and make improvement, the author will divided structure into many issues and analyse development of each of them. You will discover five issues along the way

a. Type for planning process

One of the issues in this process is the lack of suggestions from in engaged parties, as explained in the pre-construction stage, using "stable and standardised process" and "Ringi decision" techniques can be solution because of this issue. All of the sub-contractors and suppliers should work enthusiastically until they have the standards set up by the business, moreover they need to require to any decision related with their contributions.

b. Upgrading plan schedule

One of trouble is the implementation of a project is very early on so the company do not have plenty of time for the preparation of development works. Furthermore, weak cooperation between involved functions results to an unsuitable plan plan (including sectional master plan and weekly get better at plan).

The first strategy can used to enhance the situation is "stable and standardised" strategy. It means that when the updating the Master timetable, the business need to achieve their standard which is the building blocks for just about any further improvement. The second method is the application of "Pull system", the sectional and each week plan should bottom on genuine conditions on development site, the engineering department, particularly the site department. Being explained this point, the construction office is the main one who control all the works on site, they will have whole knowledge of what is occurring on site, so they can make a proper plan for the project. Furthermore, all the included gatherings such as suppliers, sub-contractors and other departments should have involvement to produce a plan that suited to them. Another issue that is important in this technique is the grade of plan. In order to achieve this target, the use of creating "continuous flow", "levelling creation" and "in-station quality control" is highly recommended.

c. Lack of quality of material

Bad quality of material will impact to the quality of the project, resulting to the reputation of the business in the long-term. Hence, increasing the grade of material is essential for the business. To do this, the company needs to select the materials suppliers carefully; they shouldn't choose the one with minimum price but bad quality. The suppliers and the business require having "common goals" which will be the concentration on value for customer and the grade of service. In addition they need to "control quality" of materials using for projects. This means that material suppliers needs to ensure quality of materials that they provided to the task have to be reliable to the client's specifications and requirements. Hence, in addition they reduce waste cause of the faulty materials and time for updating bad quality materials.

Another solution to improve quality of materials is manager of the business as well as project should "go and see for themselves" to research the basis reasons, they might not starting on the research of the structure department to enough time subjectivity with their report. Based on the investigation, the business will have intend to apply "5 why's" strategy to "solve root cause problems" in order to find a good solution. Lastly, every employee in the company is likely to give contribution to get the problems and advice alternatives.

d. An excessive amount of inventory

As mentioned, due to quality of plan plan, unused inventory in construction site is huge. The application of "integrated logistics" (Just-in-time approach) is one the answers because of this problem. So, at any stage of process, the exact amount of material at a specific time should be permitted to diminish waste as much as possible. The correct "selection" of delivery method would be an element needed to be considered by the suppliers. Additionally, using "visual management" is a good tool for the company in order to control progress of these work flow. Consequently, the company will know when they want more materials or when they have to reduce the materials supply, the inventories will be cut down appropriately. "Pull system" can be used in this case, so that the material will be provided when the site requires, hence reduce misuse.

e. Uneven distribution of material

A bad quality schedule influences to the syndication of material; sometimes there are increased materials on site in the meantime sometime lack of materials. The first solution is the use of JIT rule including "Continuous flow", "Full system" and "Integrated logistics". Being explained the answer, it's important to make a "continuous flow" to make the process operates smoothly and regularly, distribution of materials is not interrupted and the unevenness of material can be resolved. With the goal of controlling the quantity of material, "full system" and "Integrated logistics" appear to be the best answer because they'll help to create a correct deliver to some of sub-process of the task. Furthermore, the "Ringi decision" associated with "problem solving" approach will donate to an accurate estimation of material on site.

4. 3. 3. Other Issues

a. Staff motivation

It is mentioned that, the morale of staffs employed in the business is quite low. According to, Liker and Meier (2007) people is the center of all organisation, when staffs have high morale, their works will be more effective and even more value will be performed to the company. Hence, raise the inspiration of staffs is vital in order to build up the company as the process of any task. The author strongly recommends the business always protects the interest of their employees. To have the ability to achieve this goal, "Pull system" is a good solution to increase the capacity of staffs since it will force the employees to complete their tasks. On the other hand, "Stable and standardised process" and "Common goals" could be seeks for those staffs to reach. Because of this, their motivation will increase.

b. Team-work and collaboration

The major reason for the low degree of team-work and collaboration in having less communication among get-togethers i. e: the business, sub-contractors and suppliers. The team-work aspect has been analysed in the part 4. 2. 1. In this particular part, the improvement of cooperation will be clarified. Among the techniques to solve this matter is using "visual management" to regulate the information circulation within the procedure. Wherever having less communication occurs in process, source reason can be found by the "root solve cause problems", afterward "problem solving" will indicated suited improvement for the condition. Generally, the dilemma can be responded to when involved celebrations have "common goals", so that they will need good communication with other celebrations in order to ensure interest and reap the benefits of project.

c. Plenty of physical throw away on site.

This problem is resulting from many defects on site, it may cause from bad planning schedule, lack of cooperation etc. Hence, to be able to eliminate the physical throw away on site, improvements of other aspects are essential. Here, the author indicated in the Measurement table some ways to reduce physical throw away on site: "Visual management" to regulate the procedure effectively; the Toyota process #4 4 (Heijunka) is very applied to this situation. The goal of Heijunka is the eliminating of each waste happened during the process. The improvement of quality control also contributes to the decline of waste. For example, when good materials are being used in the job or the sub-processes performed with high quality, the chance of harm or failure in any small element are remarkable decrease; hence, misuse reduce.

Chapter 5: Execution of the improvement

5. 1. Implementing of lean

According to Liker (2004), to be able to improve an activity, the application of kaizen workshop is one of the very most beneficial tools for development in virtually any service organisation. You can find five critical aspects of the work shop which are: teamwork, personal rules, high spirits, good group and idea for improvement (Wikipedia). Liker (2004) also mentioned three phases of your kaizen workshop which can be

Preparation

Workshop

Post-workshop - sustaining and improving

Preparation for the workshop:

In this level, five features below should be achieved

Scope of the jobs: It is obviously to determine the started point of the process as well as the end-product of the process.

Set objectives: seeks and objectives of the procedure should be assessed in order to reduce waste, cut down cost and increase quality.

Create preliminary current state map: That is the most important step of the level. Most of information of process must be collected, afterward tasks in the process are transported out

Collect all relevant documents

Post a preliminary current state map: each and every task of the process should be listed

Kaizen workshop:

Figure 1: Kaizen workshop (Liker, 2004)

Five steps of kaizen workshop is illustrated above pursuing Liker (2004)

Who is the client: this process aims to determine the needs and target of client and how to aid and add value to customer.

Analyse present state: the companies and client necessary to consider the existing talk about map. Three factors below have to be labeled carefully in this task: value added; non-value added and non-value added but require.

Develop future point out vision: Liker (2004) stated all ideas for the introduction of process are collected from involved get-togethers afterward the future express map of the procedure can be drawn associated to low fat principles.

Implementation: This task is the execution of the future state vision to make it become truth.

Evaluate: The procedure metrics is established and continuous improvement is well prepared.

Post workshop - sustaining and continuous improvement

Review all the metrics of process and make sure the improvement is carried out. Additional, constant improvement is executed (Liker, 2004).

5. 2. Execution of improvement in the company

In this area of the assignment, the writer will try to use the improvement based on all data analysed above.

5. 2. 1. Execution off-site

The very first thing is highly recommended in the execution is the Ringi decision. This means that all the involved sections within the company i. e: Procurement department, site department, task manager and so forth should contribute to this content of sensitive documents. To do that, the quality of sensitive will be increased and more information will be added. Furthermore, the company require emphasising that the purchase price is important but it isn't the main They need to invest enough time to review the goals and objectives of the task, hence they can distribute quality file to submit. They need to recognise the lowest price with bad quality will extremely affect to their reputation and their future changes in other task. All of the partners must give attention to quality with their product and value put into customer.

Once, the quality of tender is increase, the product quality contractors and suppliers will need part in the execution of the job. The planning timetable created from them will have more detail and even more accurate. It's the time of the business to issue the overall Master arrange for their partners to be able to examine and make some alterations. Again, Ringi decision is essential, so that all of the participants of the task will have change to contribute to the sectional and weekly plan to organize their works. Hence, a process with an increase of communication, cooperation can be created, it also help the work on site run efficiently.

When an activity on site is completed, the business and their associates needs to sit together to be able to judge their programs, more ideas of growing a better plan for the next activity are supported.

5. 2. 2. Implementation on-site

As evaluation above, ensuring communication and collaboration on site are critical to control the work flow within project to be able to boost quality and eliminate misuse for job. Using "Visual Management" strategy is great way for the company to do this aim with the entire view of what are happening on site and what need to be develop.

Another technique that always requires carefully is "eyes on waste materials". The company should educate their staffs as well as the lovers to be aware waste products on site. The more waste reduce, the more benefit achieved. In addition, quality control is also critical in virtually any project. Finish the task in high quality is responsibility of not only the company but also all the engaged parties. Some of the sub-contractors may have their reason of reaching their use suprisingly low cost and broadband. However, the company should persuade them that the ultimate way to achieve value and gain for their companies is completing a very good quality work with acceptable cost in allowance time. Just-in-time is also required on site with the purpose of diminishing waste whenever you can.

5. 3. Measuring performance improvement

5. 3. 1. Measuring quality

The quality is the most significant problem of the improvement. It can be measured from the reviews of the client with the works done. "Andon sign" is also a strategy to assess the quality as the low amount of "Andon" implies fewer mistakes in the process results from increased quality.

The very low number of aesthetic errors taking place in the job is also an evidence of the quality improvement.

5. 3. 2. Measuring time

When the time between two duties along the way is reduced equate to similar project before, this means that delays are reduced and the velocity of construction increase; hence, the improvement with time is established in the process. Moreover, it's rather a consequence of continuous flow within the procedure.

5. 3. 3. Measuring working environment.

Working environment is very important to motivate the power of staffs. When the quantity of complains about work pressure go down, when the staffs have more concentrations with their works.

The measurement of working environment can be assessed by the visible screen. As inventories and wastes on site are deducted and there is no more chaos on site is resulting from an improved environment.

Chapter 6: Conclusion

6. 1. Conclusion

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