1: How is the climate of Malaysia?
2: How do the climatic factors of Malaysia effect the look of the traditional vernacular Malay house?
3: How performed the original vernacular Malay house being modernization?
4: What exactly are the climatic effects on the present day vernacular Malay house?
In this newspaper, is to review and examine the influences of Malaysia climatic factors on the design of the traditional vernacular Malay houses. Essentially it is area of the research on the climatic effects on the modern day building materials in the original vernacular Malay houses in Malaysia. The study is more centered on the adaption of the neighborhood climate on the traditional vernacular Malay properties and how the building was changed into modern vernacular Malay properties through the modernization process also the consequences of using modern construction materials in the modern vernacular Malay properties.
During the first 20th century, modernization and colonization cycles the British experienced brought multiracial immigrants into Malaya. Then, Malaysia defines as a multiracial country that included Malays, Chinese, Indian among others. Through the colonization period, multiracial group is keeping yourself separately. Almost all residing in countryside largely is Malays group and the Chinese language and Indian were staying in the city. The Malay racial group relies heavily on the environment. Villages can be set up even a single traditional Malay house and the excess houses came up later. Normally, the buildings that built carefully jointly were usually members of the family. The most significant characteristics of traditional vernacular Malay house will be the adaption natural climatic factors in Malaysia.
The traditional vernacular Malay house defines as a richest component of Malaysia cultural traditions. The buildings built with local materials and local techniques. Largely, the occupant will participated along the way of design and construct, it is to manifest the cosmetic skills of the Malays.
The site planning of the building founded largely on Islamic values and its environment. The design was split into two parts, leading and back yards. Obviously, prominent part would be the welcoming guest area which is decorated with different types of ornamental flowers and plants. Back yard is the area linked to kitchen and washroom and it is placed near water, as the kitchen needs intense water use. The marital position also mirrored the architectural design of the building due to Islamic values.
The house form acquired developed and changed over a long period to satisfy almost all of the social, occupants needs and circumstances changes. The traditional Malay properties are bamboo or timber houses increased on stilts (timber). The building typically is a post and lintel composition with timber or bamboo surfaces and a thatched gabled form rooftop. There are always large opportunities on the sides of the building to providing good ventilation. From a distance the traditional Malay house appears to integrate by natural means with the surroundings. The top gabled shape roofs, dominates the reduced walls and with different orientations and sizes created a fascinating visible form. Overall the Malay house is designed to cater the neighborhood climatic factors by various ventilation and local materials that are low thermal capacity materials. Besides the well adaption to the surroundings, the look of the original Malay residences are flexible is to serve the needs of end user and it evolved a building system called prefabricated. The building has developed a sophisticated addition system that allows the building can be easily prolonged with the needs of the occupants.
There were various traditional Malay house varieties can be found in Peninsular Malaysia. Normally, they categorized predicated on the styles of roof. The essential kinds of Malay house are called the bumbung panjang, bumbung lima, bumbung limas and bumbung perak. The most frequent design of the Malay house form was bumbung panjang that with a simple long gable roof top, supported by the main content. The bumbung panjang is the simplest one of the four roofing shapes which is an oldest determined in Malaysia. The bumbung panjang form became most reputation applied to the Malay house one of the poorer users and those built the buildings by themselves. Due to the bumbung panjang house form, it is simplicity and become an extremely efficient roof condition for the building. Mostly the materials used for the bumbung panjang is attap. Attap is a thatch protected and tied as well as nipah among others palm trees that can simply found in the local area. The easy funnel shape of bumbung panjang roof top is a very effective in ventilation properties. The roof structure can cools the home effectively is because of using the ventilation grilles at the ends of the gable called tebarlayar and the ventilation joint parts to provide better ventilation.
Besides the bumbung panjang, the bumbung lima, bumbung limas, and bumbung perak are all not origin traditions roof shapes, they have changed and developed through overseas influence. Furthermore, the bumbung lima Malay house always with a hipped roof structure, the bumbung perak Malay house form always with a gambrel roof covering and the bumbung limas house always with a pyramidal rooftop. Hence, they are really two type of houses believed that were inspired by Dutch and United kingdom architecture through the colonization. Last but not least the bumbung perak house form also called the bumbung potongan Belanda which really is a kind of Dutch roof which is a famous roof structure in East Seacoast.
Originally, spots in traditional Malay homes can be separated into front part and back again portion. Therefore, the center house (rumah ibu) or main area must be at the front and the kitchen (Dapur & Rumah Tengah) area will be on the trunk portions of the home. The selang is a sealed walkway covered by leaves and used to be always a linking device for the front and back portions. The selang is providing good ventilation and natural natural light entering the home. Besides the located area of the side access to the kitchen, it is also a space for womenfolk to socialize and chat. A lot of the traditional Malay residences entrance there will be a covered porch called the anjung that functions as a changeover place between your private and public spots. The anjung will only used to captivate the unfamiliar guests and it is a well liked space for the users to chat and relax. This floor was roughly 0. 5 to at least one 1 meter lower than the rumah ibu floor level. Beside the anjung was a dangling verandah (serambi gantung) where most of the friends will be interested here and it is a one step down from the main house around 15 centimeters. The opportunities in the serambi gantung provide good views to outside and allowing natural ventilation stepping into where usually occurred day to day activities. At the serambi gantung area can easily witnessed the embellishments like carving and grill of openings, balustrades and wall panels. Next to serambi gantung was the rumah ibu, which is the primary area and it is the major area and can defined as multi goal area for some activities were conducted here. The rumah ibu floor level was the best and sanitation area white the kitchen (dapur) was the lowest level and untidy section of the house.
The main characteristics of traditional Malay vernacular properties are it is well designed to accommodate the Malaysia weather. From the Malay residences we can see it is designed with a very good understanding for dynamics. In the original Malay societies, the villagers were immediately obtain the majority of the resources from the natural environment for theirs building materials, food and medications. To understand better on the influences of local climatic factors on the Malay properties, must first understand the neighborhood climate, thermal requirements comfort and the conditions of the surroundings that the building will build. Malaysia is positioned in central South-East Asia and has a tropical weather. Due to the latitude and longitude, it gives Malaysia a warm humid equatorial that affected by monsoonal weather. The monsoon local climate here comes twice annually, the first monsoon season comes during the summer months and the other comes during winter weather. The differences between your two monsoon season are summer season bring plenty of rainfalls and winter monsoon does not brings rainfall and is normally dry. The gross annual rainfall was averaging 80 inches wide to 100 inches. Furthermore, the local climate here gives hot summer time and high humidness throughout the year. The temperatures here keeps around 24 Celsius to 34 Celsius, which gives warm days and nights and fairy cool nights. The annual moisture level was averaging about 75% or above. The high wetness climate causes the very high drinking water vapour in the air. It can filter the solar radiation but it also speeded the rotting, and the progress of algae. The neighborhood wind only will come in from northeast and southwest both of these directions. Normally winds are in low varying speed, high varying speed wind is only going to occur when rainfall.
Hence, the neighborhood climatic factors here were high temperatures, humidity and solar radiation. Based on the local climatic factors the building built here should able to achieve the thermal comfort. Therefore, rainfall, floods and strong winds must be control to achieve thermal comfort in Malaysia Malay homes. For thermal comfort, warmth will produce from the individuals activities and fat burning capacity. The fat burning capacity will balance and maintain the body temp (37celcius). The heat will release through the metabolism process of change of good into energy. The heat damage through convection, conduction and rays can be negligible is due to the local heat are almost identical to the body heat range. Similarly, the perspiration is reduced and the body temperature is lowering as a result of high humidness. The saturated air envelope blocks the evaporation from our body which is easily form especially in humid environment. Within the building ventilation is important because air moving can removed the saturated air envelope to be able to accelerate evaporation. Similarity, a building without any ventilation, it'll raise the temperature and humidity to a distressing conditions.
The main resources of body temperature gaining are the local climatic factors conduction from the building fabric. Direct solar rays is the main resources of body heat gaining, thus the proper design of controlling the immediate solar radiation going into the building is the most important to accomplish thermal comfort. Besides that, the sort of materials used is one of the major sources because the high thermal capacity materials will ingested warmth and emitted to the interiors buildings. Therefore, heat gain from solar rays must be reduced and maximized the ventilation in order to attain the human thermal comfort inside your home.
Obviously, the traditional Malay vernacular house is well local climatic control building and it also influences by the local climatic factors. An area design of Malay house must have the following factors must brought up up on stilts (timber), large starting on area, use low thermal capacity building materials (wood, timber, rattan, bamboo), managing the direct sun radiation, a long thatched steep gable rooftop by attap, site planning and site structure. From the design of traditional Malay vernacular house, it is an extremely appropriate design to serve the tropical weather of Malaysia and it is more desirable to the Malaysia climate set alongside the modern brick house. The brought up up floor in traditional Malay house is making the most of the ventilation in the house as well as avoiding the monsoonal rainfall floods. The increased floor is rarely seen in most modern house and the grade of openness in the building is shown by the voids in its window, ventilation grills, the wide open raised up bottom and the wide open interiors. There are many features providing effective ventilation in Malay house. The purpose of elevated the ground on stilts is to capture high velocity of winds and the interiors with minimum partitions is to increase the combination ventilation appear in the building. Normally, full-length starting and fully versatile windows or louvers will surround the traditional Malay house. The carved sections at the top of the windows and solid wood grilles also an important ventilation device. Behind the ventilation, the craving on solid wood panels manipulated the glare entering the house looked after representing the Islamic scripts. You will discover two effective ventilation devices on a simple gable roof structure. They are the sail-like gable-end (tebar layar) of the roof covering and the ventilation bones called patah both are very effective ventilation to direct air to ventilate the roofing space. The residences in community are randomly organized and planting the tree sensibly throughout the house to permit natural move through the building and integrated harmoniously with aspect. The Malay house typically built far apart for future extension to fulfill the needs of occupant. In the original Malay house, there will be more voids than mass and it is a lightweight building using natural materials to accommodate the local environment. The natural materials define as low thermal capacity materials which is a very good in insulating. The long thatched rooftop with large overhands in traditional Malay house has reduced the solar rays looked after made to reduce direct sunlight. The low wall surfaces and large overhangs in Malay house, it make the shading easier and reduced the solar rays also the glare from he available skies. Besides providing good shading, the top overhangs also provides protection against travelling rain. The surfaces and overhangs have allowed the windows to most probably in several situation weather. Furthermore, the exterior environment of Malay house generally protected and shaded with trees or vegetation. This gives a cooler environment and lessened the reflective of glare for the home to set in. Traditionally, the majority of the Malay homes are oriented to handle East-West for spiritual reasons and reduces immediate exposure to heat from immediate solar rays.
Nowadays, almost all of the original vernacular Malay properties are being changing into modern Malay house throughout the modernization period. The Malay residences were modernized because of the stress from urban redevelopment and sociality changes. The new Malay properties has different spatial design also the used of development materials and approach. Based on the situation studies, the Malay houses in the kampong bharu were altered the roof, wall structure, pillar and window. The exterior environment in addition has changes is hardly to see high and tall trees only short trees and shrubs are planted there due to the limited space of the compound. The short and small trees also blocked almost all of the natural airflow passes through the house. Besides the changes of exterior environment, the interior of Malay houses was transformed into more wall surfaces to split the rooms and places. The cross ventilation and natural air movement were reduced due to the mass partitioning wall surfaces inside the house.
As I mentioned previously, the roof is the most significant feature because the Malay house were categorized predicated on their rooftop types. The Malay house in the kampong usually used bumbung panjang likened than the other 3 types of roof top. This is because the sort of roof is easier to develop and cheaper. From the website I have found some residences actually using different roofing for theirs main and extra roofs. The most famous mixture types of roofing in kampong are bumbung perak with bumbung panjang and bumbung panjang with bumbung panjang. The long gable steep roof covering is becoming gentler for the sloping certifications and regarding the tebar layar on the gable ends of the roof top were modified the design or shut with wall panels. Customarily, attap or real wood shingles were the primary materials of the roofing but generally now modern building materials were often used than the original materials. Besides the transformation of roof covering, the wall surfaces and the openings also modified anticipated to introduce of new structures through the colonization period. The original wall is manufactured by bamboo and the traditional plans of wallboard were totally altered. The shuttered home windows on the wall structure are one of the significant features showing the feature of Malay house. The faade of the Malay house can be separated into 3 parts, the carved wooden panels providing better venting mostly at the very top part above the screen, while the windowpane or variable louvers always built at the center and lower part parts. There are some Malay house wall surfaces still using the timber board but in the modern construction brick wall surfaces are replaced the traditional bamboo or timber board wall is because of the maintenance and long lasting problems. You can find 3 main types of home windows like the short windowpane (tingkap), the extra tall windows (jendela) and the punched home window. The aesthetic wooden balustrades behind the glass windows are being used for protection purposes. In origin of window design, the jendela and tiangkap windows have an integral feature to classify the house windows routine called Jenang pintu. Although, the windows in Malay house gets the traditional elements but the percentage of the window has revised to slimmer and became closer of the distance between the house windows. The european punched glass screen was implemented modern a glass louvers to increasing the venting while keeping the safety of the house.
The traditional stilts are no more used since pillars are a very important structural to support load from the house. In general, the brick and reinforced concrete pillar were often used, with the increasing of concrete pillar heights spots of underneath became better. In the modern vernacular Malay house only used concrete pillars and the underneath is usually walled to satisfy the needs of user. The change of real wood pillars to cement pillars is because of the concrete pillars is more suited to supporting the tons.
After brought in the modern development materials like zinc, cement, brick, glazing and aluminium louvers window into traditional Malay house has modified the traditional house varieties and side effects of the high thermal capacity materials. The high thermal capacity materials are not appropriate in local weather example like the zinc and asbestos roofs in Malay properties are produced more noise through the rains fall and provides an extremely hot interiors during the day. Besides the climatic effects the used of modern materials also causes the diminishing of traditional aesthetic skills and techniques of fabricating the complicated thatched attap roof. Other than used of zinc and asbestos materials, the bricks, cement and concrete are better materials use for creating wall space especially the damp area parts and more powerful structures for the home. Some of the Malay house has a shut down underneath to generate the house to double-storey house. Such change has changed the light and airy Malay house into solid looking building. The full-length real wood windows has been replace by the flexible glass louvers window with aluminum casings. The louvers windowpane has modified the traditional windows into smaller and sealed the bottom part of the window. It triggers the less efficiency of ventilation. The iron bar in louver home window is for safeness goal but it totally destroyed the grade of openness in traditional Malay house.
Throughout the studies, the original vernacular Malay house was design to serve the local climate and it is one of the richest the different parts of Malaysia cultural traditions. Aside from the adaption of local climatic factors the properties also mirrored the Islamic notion. The houses were developed and revised until it satisfies an individual. Based on the study they may be various house form in Malaysia, they only can be classified predicated on the roof types. Overall the original Malay house was designed to the neighborhood climate which is design such as random spatial layout, lifted up floor, full-length glass windows and high-insulated rooftop. The shading tress and vegetation throughout the house also really helps to cool down the temperature in the house. The orientation of house facing to east and west was influences by the religions reason and it can help reduced the immediate sun light rays.
In the modern vernacular Malay house was changed and modified to satisfy the needs of occupant but it still managed the traditional roof structure forms. The used of modern materials was immediately changed the home form and brought climatic effects in to the house. Second of all, introduce of modern materials the light-weight structure Malay house has changed into more sound looking building and it also causes the diminishing of traditional skills. Overall, the sustainably in modern vernacular Malay house was changed and also the traditional house forms were changed.
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