A house provides heat, security and comfort for us human. In order to build homes that meet the safeness requirements and occupants' targets, geological knowledge is important as basics for the construction of these properties. A house is not build on a fluffy cloud, but on a good ground where we must first support slab or lay down concrete beams as the key foundation systems. It is also a common construction technique in wet and seaside areas where homes are put through to posts.
Before your choice to purchase a land or home is made, the type of ground where the house is likely to be built on must first be identified. It is important to truly have a stable ground because there may be many disadvantages if the bottom is unstable. If a house is built over loose dirt conditions, the home will slowly but surely sink. And when a house is made over a vintage dump site, it might be subjected to gases from the toxic waste below the top.
Units of properties that should be set up on hill slopes must consider various factors like the slope gradient, land and rock engineering properties, drainage system, ground water table, geological factor and rainfall intensity. Hill slopes and enhanced areas must be assessed holistically, considering those factors that are inter-dependent. Local government bodies should recommend house buyers by giving geological studies related to the proposed site before these buyers are to make decision on whether to buy properties residing near hill slopes.
In Malaysia, slopes have been categorized into four classes and four degrees of height. Category 1 is for slopes of significantly less than 15 degrees, Category 2 for slopes of between 15 and 25 degrees, Category 3 for slopes of 25 to 35 certifications and School 4 where slopes tend to be than 35 certifications. There exist guidelines that ban building activities on slopes greater than 35 certifications. Besides, slopes with granite and schist have a level of soil among and are inclined to landslides.
In advancement, man-made slope disasters can be minimised by concentrating on three technical phases, specifically planning, during construction and post-construction activities. Within the "planning phase", submitting designers must undertake an in depth exploration of the ground condition prior to attracting up the building plan so that appropriate anatomist measurements can be designed to guarantee the building can stand firmly on the ground. Under "during building phase", periodic inspection by the regulatory authorities should be integrated to ensure that the development is executed in line with the design requirements and safeness aspects. Lastly, during the "post-construction phase", monitoring instrumentation and periodic slope maintenance should be completed. Insurance firms proper slope maintenance, signs or symptoms of slope instability can be detected earlier and minimal slope repair can be carried out, thus minimising the risk of large-scale slope failing. The cost of major slope repair is a lot more expensive than undertaking maintenance works.
Nevertheless, slopes' balance can be managed by terracing and ploughing contour to prevent soil being washed downhill, planting tree belts to provide windbreaks and retention of straw and crop litter to safeguard the top from erosion. Usually, benching, making retaining walls, shotcreting and adding material nets are some other methods of retaining a slope.
In addition, regulators must be sure the strength and way of underground drinking water flow, kind of stones in the land and capability of retaining set ups to support the ground. Developers must have flexible pipe fittings installed to avoid water leaks while in mudflow areas, channels or deflection wall surfaces should be built to direct the flow of normal water around buildings.
Inclusively, some of the precipitation that comes onto the land infiltrates into the ground to become ground drinking water. Once in the ground, some of this water trips close to the land surface and emerges very quickly as release into streambeds. However, because of gravity, a lot of the rain water continues to sink deeper in to the ground. Drinking water can move both horizontally or vertically once it meets the water stand (below which the soil is saturated). Water moving downward can also meet more dense and water-resistant non-porous rock and soil, which in turn causes it to stream in a far more horizontal fashion. The direction and acceleration of groundwater movement depends upon the various characteristics of aquifers and confining tiers of subsurface rocks in the bottom. This event can cause geo-hazards because when water moves underground without having to be watched, landslide or sinking of garden soil may take place.
After discovering the geological factors related to the bottom where the house is to be built on, we next identify the geological aspects that contribute to the construction of the home itself. Wall surfaces of a house can be produced of so many different materials such as dirt and clay, rock and roll, real wood, bricks or concrete. The deciding factor is usually linked with the quality of the soil being utilized. Larger quantities of clay usually imply using the cob/adobe style, while low clay soil is usually associated with sod building. Dirt and especially clay is good thermal mass. Homes built with earth tend to be in a natural way cool in the summertime temperature and warm in winter. In Malaysia, residences are made of either clay or fine sand bricks. Clay bricks are a bit more expensive than sand bricks but clay bricks are more sensible to Malaysian properties as they are normally cool in the Malaysian warmth.
Rock structures are the longest durable building materials available, and are usually easily available. There's a simple rule to check out on creating a solid rock wall membrane; durable and strong stones can be used. Rock is an extremely dense material so that it gives a lot of protection and must be impervious to dampness. Some of the best rocks to be utilized are those manufactured from hard shale or schist because they have got natural smooth cleavage planes when divided. Its main draw-back as a materials is its weight and awkwardness. Its energy density is also considered a big draw-back, as rock and roll is hard to keep warm without using huge amounts of home heating resources.
A house is not complete without a roof covering. Nowadays, there are various kinds of roofing materials getting used to shelter a residence. On the other hand, developers must consider the slanting of roof structure and physical location of a house. The most frequent roofing material use in Malaysia is clay/concrete roof tiles for metropolitan house dwellers and material shingles for rural residences. Both concrete and clay tiles have longer lifespan, require zero-maintenance and are resilient to rot and pests. On the other hand, clay is very heavy and also fragile. For structures in equatorial locations with warm and humid climate like Malaysia, the roof has been said to be a major way to obtain heat gain. Based on the Mean Radiant Heat (MRT), the principle of earth-base materials provide natural cool also apply to roof whereby even though the most expensive, clay roof top tiles can keep a house cool in the Malaysia temperature as it is which can have the best thermal performance regarding MRT. The strongly suggested material for reflective insulator is double-sided aluminium foil which can be used to replace mass insulation materials anticipated to raised thermal performance. Cross types ceiling proved to have the best performance in minimizing thermal radiation in to the interior space, followed by plaster board and cement panel.
In order to complete the house, flooring materials are needed. The geological facet of the home must first be clarified. If the home is located in a moisture area, use flooring material that will not rot and can not absorb normal water, such as stone, marble and granite, or concrete slabs, whereas in a very cold area, material such as linoleum can be used. Some stone tiles such as polished granite, marble, and travertine are incredibly slippery when wet but they keep mold and mildew away. A number of the softer natural stone such as limestone tiles aren't well suited for very heavy traffic floor areas. As just lately as the 1970s, wall-to-wall carpeting was a standard selection for homeowners who had been purchasing new floor. Linoleum was popular in the kitchen, and bathrooms were often protected with inexpensive vinyl tiles. It also used to be that granite and marble surfaces or rougher, more rustic stone materials seen only in vacation cabins or backyard patios. Nowadays, surfaces of homes are assortments of all these categorized materials.
Lastly, up until the 1970s, asbestos has been typically the most popular material for ceiling tiles. It is only recently found that asbestos is unsafe if the materials is airborne; hence, contaminated roof tiles are dangerous if broken. Ceiling tiles are light in weight tiles fabricated from perlite, mineral wool, and fibres (from recycled newspaper) are used in the interior of buildings. They can be placed on a steel grid and they provide thermal but especially reasonable insulation. Here in Malaysia, it is proven that hybrid ceiling (mix of aluminium foil and rockwool) is able to produce the lowest MRT accompanied by plaster table and cement panel.
In a nutshell, the acquirement of extensive knowledge of the home foundation, materials to work with and expert's advice is important. These skills are geological knowledge needed in building a perfect house.
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