A Significance Of Treatment Criminology Essay

This report endeavors to explore the development of Treatment System in United Kingdom since its first appearance into Parliamentary Functions until nowadays. It'll be presented the annals of rehabilitation predicated on Prison reforms and its own significance and relation to society. The article aims to handle objectively great changes that were made relating to Parliamentary Functions, Reviews and Accounts of Ministry of Justice along with writings of professionals who aimed to examine its concept and analyse the effectiveness and impact of the Offenders Treatment Programmes. Furthermore, it will be provided the cogent of offering treatment to offenders in order to lessen recidivism, which will be accompanied by an evaluation and recommendations upon Rehabilitation System.

In the past, for quite some time it was assumed that the proper punish for an offender acquired strictly regarding the violent attitude against him and torturing of his body, deportation or even fatality charges. Nowadays, and after several jail reforms Justice comes across the term of Treatment. To begin with, Michel Foucault mentioned in 1975 that "Rehabilitation technique has more regarding self-discipline of the heart than the torturing of the body. " (Foucault and Sheridan, 1979) The word "rehabilitation" is thought as re-enabling and they have Latin roots as it comes from the term "rehabilitare". The assumption of all these is the fact that Justice System isn't only obliged to keep carefully the community safer by having the offenders in jail but also getting ready them, for several reasons, to re-join culture, by doing their mind, growing their skills and widening their knowledge.

1. 2 Significance of Rehabilitation

It is necessary to be described the importance of Rehabilitation from either details of view, that of Justice and modern culture and that of the prisoners. Down the road, it will be mentioned the significant thesis of rehabilitation to the reduction of re-offending. Rehabilitation's vital role is as it was mentioned above discipline of the mind. Through willpower, the offender will be able to be useful to society without being tempted to commit another crime. In addition to that, there are also heading to be described the programmes and techniques provided to the offenders, depending on type of their offence and their needs. These needs can be classified, as it has not always have regarding criminogenic factors as mental disorder or any sort of craving, but also survival into society things as where you can live or work or everlasting health issues. Following the previous statement, this dissertation will include an exploration upon behavioural programmes, depending on individuality of each offender.

1. 3 Aims of Dissertation

Through a report upon Rehabilitation's record from its root base since today, this dissertation aspires to give a extensive briefing about rehabilitation system in United Kingdom. The sensitive relationship between population and prisoners can cause several problems to their in-between balance, which is another issue that will be explained, by analysing the rehabilitation system's impacts to both of them. A review upon behavioural programmes will be talked about later on along with their significance to the offenders. They are also going to be evaluated advantages and disadvantages of the current system and its own development throughout years. In addition to that this dissertation seeks to explore the kind of the rehabilitation programme which has to be accompanied by any offender depending on type of his offense, the time of his penalty, any medicine or alcohol habit who may has, his time and gender, if he or she belongs to a minority group and lastly if he or she is suffering from any mental disorder.

1. 4 Overview of Content

As it was mentioned above, this dissertation tends to give a quick review of Rehabilitation System for prisoners in United Kingdom since its first appearance. A flashback to rehabilitation's first idea and its idea of discipline will be produced to become evaluated its importance to the Justice System. They are also going to be discussed historical characters that published their first thoughts upon Justice System, as it revolved around punishing and imprisonment. Their appearance was significant to public reforming and addition of Parliamentary Acts into Justice, in order to change the detention conditions of this time, along with the relation of treatment to reducing criminal offenses. In addition to that it will be discussed the framework of Rehabilitation in general and it's seeks, as it performs major role as well to the whole Justice System and several aspects of world. From the content of this dissertation they can not be excluded the Parliamentary Acts that involved rehabilitation and their regards to the present one. As it was explained above this dissertation includes a review of the assistance provided with respect to the needs of the prisoners, combined with the types and types of the current rehabilitation programmes, their impacts and their leads of development. A significant part of the information given is provided through literature review upon reports, statistics and Works of the Ministry of Justice, OFFICE AT HOME, House of Commons and the Government.

Chapter 2

History of Rehabilitation

2. History of Rehabilitation

This chapter is going to explore Rehabilitation's System Record and History since the first appearance. It'll be also evaluated the first Parliamentary Action which includes rehabilitation and the purposes of its principle. Finally it'll be talked about the 'Nothing Works' issue.

2. 1 Background

The state before the current idea of Rehabilitation, which has to do more with self-control of the mind, had various ways to deal with the offenders. Based on the sort of criminal offenses the prisoners were coming across tough punishment through which they may be tortured, deported or even face loss of life penalty. It appears as if during the 17th Century the thought of discipline started to establish. It has to be mentioned that the concept of rehabilitation back then was received to become given to the offender a potential for fitting back again to society. The reason was to be offered a safer modern culture as an offender could re-join it and be a useful person in it.

As it was mentioned previously it was only in 1764 when Cesare Beccaria (b. 1738) extended in his work the idea of Rehabilitation. When his publication "On Offences and Consequence" was posted it was subjected a new chapter to Justice System as it revolved around the theme of imprisonment. By enough time, his thoughts were mainly influenced by the new, by then, era of Enlightenment. Beccaria experienced several positions inside contemporary society, as he was a well-known philosopher, criminologist and jurist. It could be assumed that Cesare Beccaria was the first who gave in public the idea of rehabilitation with main purpose the willpower of mind and soul and expect as an outcome the lowering of re-offending, and offending is standard, as the ex-offender could have the ability to broaden his knowledge to others as well. To be more specific, the criminologist stated that "It is evident from the easy considerations already set out that the goal of punishment is not that of tormenting or afflicting any sentient creature, nor of undoing a offense already determined. The purpose, therefore, is nothing at all other than to avoid the offender from doing fresh injury to his fellows and to deter others from doing also. " (Beccaria, 2010)

In addition to that, a philosopher and cultural reformer of that time who composed about the value of punishment presenting to the offender in accordance to the sort of the crime devoted was Jeremy Bentham (b. 1748). Bentham, who is also one of the founders of the idea of utilitarianism, released in 1811 his work "The rationale of punishment" through which he expressed his thoughts after punishment. To be more specific, the philosopher mentioned that "A punishment may be analogous for an offence, it is necessary that the criminal offense should be attended with some impressive characteristic circumstances, with the capacity of being transferred after the consequence. These characteristic circumstances changes in different offences. " (Beccaria, 2010)

2. 2 Penitentiary Act

The philanthropist and prison reformer John Howard (b. 1726) posted in 1774 his reviews about the detention conditions of the offenders as he spend annually working as a sheriff and evidenced the problem himself. He also managed to visit other prisons as well to be able to be sure of his results, before the export of his accounts. His studies led the justice system to include two more Works which were interacting with the circumstances under that your offenders were performed, and suggested the thesis of the State to be able to provide prisons which could offer humane conditions of detention. Howard also brought up that that they had do be achieved changes as it revolved around the fees paid to the jailers, just as many occasions offenders were still held in prison even if indeed they experienced complete their penalty because these were not able to pay them.

It was only in 1779 when the passing of Parliamentary Acts had been made and it was presented with the authorization to get started the building of the first Talk about Prisons, which would offer healthier living conditions to the prisoners. The above can be assumed as the first proof an effort of a proper treatment system in United Kingdom. Even though several actions took place after the Function, the construction of any prison had not been be done until 1785, when the magistrate Sir George Onesiphorus Paul completed the first prison at Gloucester that was stated as an initial prison model in those days as it was getting close every part of the prisoners needs. It had been coming across the previous statements in regards to a better environment, as it was consisted by segregated skin cells, classification of prisoners depending on type of their offence and it was also provided medical support.

Although the Penitentiary Function of 1779 has made a significant point during the development of Justice System and Rehabilitation, as it brought significant changes to the machine as they realized it by then, it is thought that it acquired affected it in lots of ways. According to the Cambridge's Historical Journal, it was highly believed that the essential reason of the Acts go away was the lowering of deportation. Quite simply, prisons had to be held, in order to keep the offenders there, minus the state getting the need to deport them. That declaration could be valid, as after the engineering of the prisons in England, other countries used the same path, for the same reasons.

2. 3 Purposes of Rehabilitation

After the engagement of the Penitentiary Act, Justice System began to develop the idea of imprisonment as a way to rehabilitation. As it was mentioned above, imprisonment reduced deportation of offenders and that created several problems in those days to jailers, as the population of the jail began to increasing. However, the key concept of Treatment was the reducing of re-offending as it was presumed that by educating the offenders, they would re-join culture with different practices. The primary theme of Treatment was at that time that it would be created a safer community, as ex-offenders would not make the same faults, be beneficial to world and stop other folks as well from committing a criminal offenses. At this point it is more important to Justice to safeguard society alternatively than being easier to an offender to resettle in conditions of fitting effortlessly back again to community.

However, as the years passing by the Justice System and Treatment Services are keep growing to become modified to the needs of community. It's been already stated that the prison population began to increase. It appears as if that the same problem remained since today. At this point treatment for prisoners in United Kingdom plays essential role, along with several changes that were designed to the penalties of every offense, the system has to produce new ways of avoiding prison overcrowding. Overpopulated prisons can be bad for both systems, to offenders and guards as well.

In addition to the above mentioned, the support to offenders who have complete their charges towards community is important as in almost all of the cases the reason why they may be committing the same criminal offense again is strongly linked to the sociable exclusion they are really facing. It could be difficult for some offenders to re-join society, and at this point this is a subject of great relevance the rehabilitation services during imprisonment along with time after release.

Rehabilitation Services are looking to offer to the prisoners the appropriate support for each case individually. In addition to the Rehabilitation programmes which can be being used and they will be discussed later on, they are given to the offenders several other services in order to having the ability to re-join society. According to the article of "THE HOME of Commons" for the Parliament, offenders are coming across many topics during Rehabilitation. Treatment programmes are being included in to the context of Treatment services, as they are being area of the "Purposeful Activity" along with physical education and training, which aims to educate and teach prisoners. Among the reasons why this System also targets to reduce reconviction rates is really as mentioned above you can find in exist the condition of overcrowding. It has a result the continuous copy of the offenders to other prisons and that has a major affect to programs, as the prisoners cannot receive a stable rehabilitation program.

2. 4 "Nothing Works" - "What Works?" Debate

From the backdrop review of Treatment cannot be excluded the "Nothing Works" - "What works?" argument which started in 1974 towards a Robert Martinson's research. Despite the fact that this argument was made based upon the American Justice system it's impact afflicted United Kingdom as well in conditions of re-thinking its way on that specific subject. After an extended study Martinson stated that Treatment System does not help in lowering re-offending. Relating to Martinson, they been around few programmes that were great for the prisoners, however the overall result it was not the expected. The copy writer, who tried to give an explanation for the success in lowering recidivism mentioned, "Having moved into this very serious caveat, I am destined to say that these data, concerning over two hundred studies and hundreds of thousands of people as they actually, are the best available and give us hardly any reason to wish that people have in simple fact found a sure way of lowering recidivism through treatment. This isn't to say that people found no instances of success or incomplete success; it is only to say that these circumstances have been isolated, producing no clear pattern to indicate the efficacy of any particular method or treatment. " (Lipton et al. , 1975)

During the 1980s there is a significant flip of political views towards the proper so that the change of view towards the current -at the time- rehabilitation system was differentiated, there have been some opinions that the system of justice should change the penalty severity according to the offence that was induced by each offender which specific band of thoughts was made renown as the "Just Desert" terminology. The use of fines would be completed in a manner that as an example a murderer would receive the same damage as he previously triggered to the sufferer which would be loss of life. That initiated the consumption of boot camps and prison regimes to be able to reach a "short, distinct shock" result to the offenders. Martinson's views were dictating that the majority of the funding should be focused for the policing of areas by using CCTV, electric tagging and alarms and invest less in the rehabilitation of offenders. The results of Martinson were opposed by lots of academic staff with a good example of Ross & Gendreau in 1979. Finally, Martinson pointed another important variable to the negative results which was the poor research methodologies.

As every finding that is exhibited by a research, the findings of Martinson experienced lots of critics (Hollin, 1999). As the 1980s and 1990s were merged, lots of meta-analytic studies were posted and began to show what actually performed along the way of lowering re-offending. These statistical techniques were employed in order to review the results of a great number of main studies and allowed the introduction of overall tendencies in the gathered data. Such styles were analysed by A. Andrews and J. Bonta (Andrews and Bonta, 2010) who claimed that the conclusions of Martinson and his co-workers were inconclusive as these were rushed into promotion without comprehensive research. Because of this significant lay claim, Martinson and his acquaintances were considered unreliable. Initially, Andrews and Bonta stated that negative results the studies were accepted instantly and almost without question. Moreover, they supported the theory that what sort of research was completed was to mainly stress any helping researches to treatment by using pseudoscientific techniques such as "stressing the criterion problem", "discounting the primary theory" and "contaminating the treatment". This band of techniques were identified under the overall term "Treatment Devastation" (Gottfredson, 1979 ). Furthermore, Andrews and Banta stated that Martinson and his co-workers customized the measurements to their advantage and as a result they published conclusions that were unreliable. Matching to Andrews and Bonta, there were also errors in the conceptualization of the study all together which recommended that measurements were unreliable and is a possibility that it caused the absence of positive results.

To sum up, anything that was mentioned throughout this chapter is an assessment upon the development of rehabilitation before end of the 1990s. Martinson and his acquaintances shown the results of their research which given that the effects of rehabilitation are absent and dictated that the justice system should bring in a model of penalising that could treat the offenders with intensity that would differ depending on their offence. On the other hand, there were a number of opposed critics that accused them to be unreliable during the process of doing their research and modifying the variables with their advantage.

Chapter 3

Current Rehabilitation System

In the UK

3. Current rehabilitation system in the UK

In this chapter are going to be provided the changes and additions which were designed to the rehabilitation system since the beginning of the 2000s and the way they formed the system as we realize it nowadays.

3. 1 "Prison Rules"

The "Prison Guidelines" of 1999 essentially were a replacement of the rules of 1964 and conducted changes to the way of taking care of prisons such as the treatment of prisoners, the power and tasks of boards of site visitors and the do of prison officials. This section will mainly focus on the prison rules that have an effect on the prisoners rather than the site visitors or any other mentions. The new guidelines of 1999 are a set of changes to past rules to be able to bring them to modern benchmarks. The prison guideline 32 can be an addition to the guideline 29 of the 1964 rules which was manufactured in order to supply the distance learning potential to the prisoners as the 1964 rule was only mentioning in-prison learning programs. Also, under the rule 41 every inmate search shouldn't be placed under the eyesight of a person of the opposite search. In addition, the newly given rule 51, dictated that any irregularities during a visit like the providing of drugs and articles to the prisoners, should be punished and the term "at all offends against good order and discipline" has been revoked. Finally, the rule 55 commanded that additional consequence shall not be added to a caution and 14 days of cellular confinement is the maximum days of a complete award. Also, the Secretary of Point out has been given the energy to order a specific set of suggestions for the consequence of any prisoner. To conclude, matching to Iain Crow the rule 2 of the prison rules states that "At all times the treatment of prisoners shall be such concerning encourage their self-respect and a sense of personal responsibility" (Crow, 2001).

3. 2 Public Exclusion Unit Article of 2002

As it was mentioned above, the target of treatment is to lessen re-offending. Another record that performed an important role to the modification of the justice system was the "Social Exclusion Unit Report" which was introduced to be able to reduce the increasing rates of re-offending by ex-convicts and was commissioned by the federal government in order to investigate what steps should be used as to halt offending repetition. In addition, it dictated that efforts for the rehabilitation of prisoners should be doubled to be able to introduce them back again to culture effectively and it would be done by prison phrases not being made only to punish but also provide the convicts with the chance to reduce the potential for re-offending. Moreover, the Unit Article of 2002 explained that offenders are repeating offences because the jail sentences weren't as effective as they must be.

A number of reasons for the increment of reconviction rates during the 1990s included the erosion to the machine of support for short-term prisoners' post-release, the changes to the prisoners' profit rules and the steep growth in areas that are described by interpersonal exclusion such as inequality, child poverty and medicine use. The survey also introduced a series of key factors that influence the re-offending rates which will be the mental and physical welfare, the training and job of prisoners, the misuse of addictive substances (i. e. alcoholic beverages, drugs), the family sites and the life span skills and financial support of prisoners.

The Community Exclusion Unit Report of 2002 not only mentioned the factors that cause the climb in re-offending rates but also made a number of suggestions which will be the following

A long-term National Treatment Strategy should be presented in order to approach treatment and in the end reduce re-offending.

Imprisonment should be employed only where necessary. Advancements to diversion techniques need to be made in-court in order to identify if an offender is emotionally unwell and specific activities should then be completed such as mental health care. Additionally, there must be doubt over the overall value of short-term jail sentences as they could have negative effects recrudesce because of the lack of supervision after guardianship.

Housing and financial needs of newly released prisoners should be studied into account a nationwide level. Furthermore, to be able to further improve the option of healthcare, housing, occupation and education, a system for effective resettlement should be designed.

An increase in the variety of programmes that are available in the community is necessary, as it will help with lots of areas of the ex-prisoners such as mental health programmes, drug and alcohol treatment and education.

Each ex-prisoner should be cured in accordance to their circumstances and as a result if would give you a much improved impact to the rehabilitation of the ex-prisoners as each program will be centered on their needs. These programs will include a series of activities and support which will be devised with a case manager who will cover the whole word of the prisoner, during and after his or her imprisonment.

In summary, the Public Exclusion Unit Article of 2002 explained a great deal of problems in the treatment progress that was used until that time but also advised key goals that needed to be fulfilled to be able to improve the treatment system and significantly decrease the re-offending rates for ex-prisoners and is most beneficial described by "the simplest way of minimizing re-offending is to ensure that prisoners on their release be capable of enter work and a home to visit. In the rest of this article, we investigate the current degrees of provision of training, education and employment opportunities within jail, and of resettlement arrangements after release. " (Office, 2002)

3. 3 The Carter Report of 2003

In March 2003 the federal government approved the businessman Patrick Carter in order to make an extensive review of the legal justice system in England and Wales. The target was to determine an effective system that could not only focus on reducing criminal offenses but also keep up with the public confidence alongside being affordable.

The Carter Survey was released to public in December 2003 that concluded that the increased usage of imprisonment and probation in the past decade reflected the increased seriousness of the phrases for specific offences rather than an increase in the overall seriousness of offences that were taken to justice or the progress of the amount of offenders being captured and sentenced -both left over widely constant. Furthermore, the Carter Article mentioned that while imprisonment is vital in order to safeguard the public, by incapacitating dangerous and persistent offenders, the increased use of imprisonment and probation has only a restricted influence on offences and the data -which show that the severity of sentences is a significant factor for avoiding offences- are also significantly limited. Another problem in the process of convicting offenders was pointed out by the report which described the process too centered on offenders without previous sentences and failed to reach grips with highly consistent offenders. Additionally, the report mentioned that there have been a whole lot systemic failures in the utilization of interventions to be able to lessen re-offending because these were ineffectively targeted. These failures which were highlighted were the fact that short-term offenders aren't staying in the same place and as a result can't obtain effective interventions which would decrease the potential for re-offending, the grade of the interventions an offender is acquiring varies greatly depending the jail establishment who's held and since the court docket often is not able to address the needs of the offender has been designated with interventions that are not suited for his / her needs.

The Carter Report alongside the problems -which stated that existed in the criminal justice system- it launched lots of new methods that needs to be followed to be able to offer properly with offenders with the center points being

A Country wide Offender Management Service (NOMS) should be proven that would combine the functions of today's Prison and Probation Services and it will have two main key goals with the first being the punishment of offenders and the reduced amount of re-offending. It should be headed by the lone Chief Executive and based on research on what works in reducing re-offending and taking no account of if the offender is sentenced with imprisonment or community service, it should be in charge of the successful management of the offender's phrase.

A range of targeted and effective sentences should be created which will be enforced in powerful way. With regards to the risk assessment of each offender, community punishments should become more strong and three levels of severity should be made available (Community Abuse, Intensive Supervision and Monitoring and Community Treatment). Lastly, community sentences for low-risk cases should be substituted with fines.

Based on sentencing rules, which are informed by proof what works in lowering re-offending and makes effective use of the prevailing capacity, the judiciary should take up a fresh role in controlling probation demand and prisons and as a result ensure a much better consistency of abuse practice.

As the studies of the Carter Statement were very significant, the Government drew greatly on its advice that were centered on the improvement of the unlawful justice system and this correctional services. Because of this the Government started the execution of the core proposals from the Carter Report into the Lawbreaker Justice Act of 2003.

Chapter 4

Offending Behaviour Programs (OBPs)

4. Offending Behaviour Programmes (OBPs)

A major part of Rehabilitation treatment is the establishing of Offending Behaviour Programmes which were designed in order to take care of or improve the cognitive skills of the offenders and expect as an outcome the cutting down of re-offending. These programmes were designed and offered to prisoners by the Jail Service during the early on 90's. This section will include several types of these programmes, because they are being categorized in line with the kind of the offence, the health of the offender along with his internal condition, his get older or any addictions.

4. 1 Psychological and Behaviour Issues

Grendon's model is one of the very most knows rehabilitation programmes in UK, as it was first established 40 years back at the HMP of Grendon in Buckinghamshire. This program aims to provide a treatment to offenders who have problems with psychopathy. At this point it should be described that the offenders volunteer to take part and they cannot be over 40. Once the offenders are receiving involved with Grendon's system, are being divided into five groups, which can be also known as 'therapeutic neighborhoods'. Grendon's model continues to be offers treatment to the offenders regardless of the lack of money.

Another behaviour programme that aspires to provide treatment to offenders with emotional issues is Democratic TC, which includes several similarities to that of Grendon's. This program was created to support offenders who suffer from either personality disorder or emotional needs. In order to address any internal and psychological agitation, Democratic TCs offer round-the-clock 'living-learning interventions' for offenders whose main criminogenic contingency factors should be targeted. As well as the previous, it has to be stated that in a number of models, which are based on cognitive skills, some mentors of the interventions are offenders who have already completed the program efficiently. Such is 'Kainos' Treatment program, which is also known as 'Concern to change'. 'Kainos' is also a complete time based model and aims to reduce criminogenic factors behind offenders who have been judged as medium to high risked.

Behavioural programmes are also focusing on to lessen re-offending through educating the criminals to control themselves by enhancing their self-management skills. Such model is 'Priestley One to One (Priestley OTO)', which also is designed to provide the offenders with the skill self-critic. In cases like this they could be sensible and understand the already committed crime and agree to its repercussions. It has to be mentioned that program is bounded only in community. On top of that, a well known model is TSP, which stands for Thinking Skills Program and works after train the offenders to attain their goals without committing offences. In other words, it is dependant on self-management and personal training. Same target also has RESPOND, which is suitable for prisoners who cannot work in groupings, and offers the treatment individually.

4. 2 Medication and Alcohol Misuse

Eighty per cent of men and women that are being imprisoned have significant conditions that are related to either drug or alcohol. In a number of prisons, drug tests were completed during reception and eight out of ten prisoners were found having class A drugs in their system. Medicine misusers are committing a major proportion of the acquisitive offences as, in medicine tests that were completed during reception, a good per cent of the offenders that were prosecuted for offences such as burglary and shoplifting possessed heroin, cocaine or other opiates in their system. The actual problem is that most of these people haven't received any help about their drug problem. The information stated that there surely is a need for programmes that will help prisoners, not only during their imprisonment but also after their release, to detoxify and also to manage using their medication misusage.

There are several programmes that assistance with the prisoners to cope with their medicine addictions throughout their imprisonment. The primary programme that was developed in order to help the prisoners is the Counseling, Diagnosis, Recommendation, Advice and Throughcare (CARAT) Services. The CARAT programme is actually a low-intensity, non-clinical medicine addiction involvement service. To be able to help prisoners who have a modest to severe medication dependency, the Intensive Treatment Programmes were designed but they are not as widely used as only 60 out of the 139 prisons of the prisons real estate included such programs.

Another programme that originated for use in areas with high criminal offenses rates was the Offender Justice Interventions Program (CJIP) and was conducted by Medicine Action Teams. The purpose of the programme is to redirect the offenders from criminal offense and towards treatment by the coordination of drug treatment and unlawful justice agencies. The interventions that exist through the CJIP include Enhanced Arrest Referral for medication misusing offenders into treatment and are conducted by medicine workers in guardianship suites for trials of cocaine and other opiates that are screening the relation between treatment conditions and "trigger" offences.

Due to the surge of alcohol-related criminal offenses the Government developed lots of programmes that could treat offender who misuse alcohol or are dependent on it. A programme that was made is the Offender DRUG ABUSE Program (OSAP) which addresses liquor or drugs misuse with the usage of cognitive methods that want to change the frame of mind of offenders in order to prevent the relapse and consequently reduce re-offending. A similar program that was launched is the Concentrate Substance Misuse Programme which associated the habit of offenders to chemicals with their offending habit. Another program that was developed is the reduced Intensity Alcohol Programme (LIAP) that was developed in order to provide the so-much-needed motivation which alcohol-misusing offenders need in order to stay free from alcohol and prevent relapse.

The quantity of programmes is increased with the addition of the Liquor Related Violence Program (ARV) which can be an alcohol programme that is targeted on the reduced amount of offending of the liquor related violent dynamics. It is made for harmful drinkers that are under imprisonment for alcohol related offences. The aim of the programme is to take on the thoughts of offenders about the relationship of violence and taking in.

An addition to the number of available programs is the Rehabilitation of Addicted Prisoners Trust (RAPT) programme which also contains the Liquor Dependency Treatment Programme (ADTP). These programmes derive from Drug & Alcoholic beverages interventions which aim to point out the increased loss of control that occurs to an individual that is addicted to chemicals and the resulted offences that are induced by that reduction. It encourages the commitment to change by increasing the support of any power of a higher order and it practices the 12 step NA fellowship programme.

One more addition is the Control of Assault and Anger in Impulsive Drinkers (COVAID) program which really is a series of programmes that are biased towards the reduced amount of anger and assault in drinkers. The modifications of the COVAID program can be offered on the one-to-one basis or as a groupwork. It can be carried out in both secure and community settings and the purpose of these programmes is to reduce re-offending of young men with a repetitive history of assault while under liquor intoxication.

Finally, another program is the Prison Relationship Twelve Step Program (PPTSP) which is an alcohol and drug high intensity programme that uses interventions and is targeted on the increased loss of control during intoxication of a person due to substances use. The purpose of this programme is the promotion of commitment to improve with the support of an power of an increased order. The program also makes use of pro-social models that are associated with Alcoholic Anonymous, Fellowships of Narcotics and Cocaine Anonymous.

4. 3 Sex-Related Offending

In order to lessen the gender and assault related offences, the Government has introduced lots of programs that are focused on not only the reduced amount of these crimes but also the decrease the offences being carried out again by the offenders. A programme that is related to intimacy offending is the Intimacy Offender Treatment Programs (SOTP) which is offered to sex offenders relating to the needs and the chance level of each offender. Addititionally there is the Extended SOTP which is biased towards the high risk men who've completed successfully the targets of the Center programme treatments and the primary areas that it covers are the relapse prevention, emotional regulation, the popularity and modification of patterns of dysfunctional thinking and the emotional regulation of sex offenders.

Another programme that is employed in the rehabilitation of sex offenders is the Adapted Love-making Offender Treatment Program - Community Version (ASOTP-CV) which is comparable to SOTP but is specifically modified for use on offenders which have learning or cultural issues. It really is essentially developed to modify offence-justifying thinking, increase sexual knowledge, develop potential to recognize feelings, develop reduction of relapse skills and the id and knowledge of victim injury.

An additional programme which is assisting sex offenders to comprehend the reasons behind their offences is the Making love Offenders Treatment Programme (SOTP Primary). The primary facet of this program is to own offenders ability to practice new behavioural skills and practice new thinking alongside developing significant life goals. The programme also aims towards the development of sufferer harm awareness.

The intimacy offences that are carried out by offenders using Internet as their means of getting to the people that they want to harm have been increasing swiftly and as a result the Government released the Internet Making love Offender Treatment Program (I-SOTP) which is targeted on the exploration and confrontation of feelings, thoughts and beliefs of each internet love-making offender. The primary aspect of this program is to lessen the possibility of re-offending alongside the understanding of the injury that the offenders are doing to the victims and other people around them.

One more program that is targeted on intimacy offending is the Community Gender Offenders Group Program (C-SOGP) and it helps the love-making offenders to understand the harm they are leading to to the victims and others around them and also helps the making love offenders along the way of staying away from offending by producing behavioural skills, practicing new thinking and growing meaningful life goals. There are some variations of the C-SOGP that are recognized based on the spot they are applied. These programmes include the Northumbria Sex Offenders Group Programme (NSOGP) and the Thames Valley Intimacy Offenders Group Programme (TVSOGP).

4. 4 Violence-Related Offending

As the violent-related offenders are increasing in number, the Government presented a series of programmes that could help offenders to manage their anger or other issues that are causing the use of violence. One of these programmes is the Aggression Alternative Training (Artwork) that makes use of obstacles that are directed towards the acceptance of the responsibility of their actions and their repercussions. It also encourages the understanding of the damage that the offenders are causing to their victims. As a result public offences, criminal harm and incidences of assault are reduced as the public safeguard is increased.

Another program that is employed in order to lessen violent-related offences is the Personal Changing Programme (SCP) that is focused on the reduction of violent outbreaks in offenders of risky and repetitive violent offences. This is achieved by focusing on the anti-social thinking and the violent-supported beliefs of the offenders.

An addition to the series of programmes is the Controlling Anger and Understanding how to Deal with it (CALM) programme that is utilized on offenders that are lead to the utilization of violence scheduled to intense feelings. Understanding the factors that are causing their anger, which brings about violent outbreaks, is of major importance since it will lead to the managing with their emotions.

One more programme that is put on violent offenders is the Chromis programme which is developed to be able to address the issues of offenders that face problems in the acceptance of treatment for their psychopathic aspect and the disrupts so it causes.

Last however, not least, the Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme is targeted towards men that contain repeatedly committed violent behavior while being within an intimate relationship. During the course of the program, offenders are being offered alternative techniques that will help them reduce their violent outbreaks and will supply them with the skills that are needed in order to build up a non-abusive and healthy romance.

4. 5 Programs for Girl and Young Prisoners

It was March of 2004 when the Government dealt with all the criticism which it had received due to the failure to fulfill the needs of the female inhabitants that was imprisoned. The new programme was called the Women's Offending Reduction Programme which was essentially a multi-agency course of action for the delivery of an joined coordination in order to handle the needs of female offenders. The primary plan of action is biased towards working out, communication and the offer of instruction to the imprisoned women. The only real purpose of the programme is: "to lessen women's offending and the amount of women in guardianship, by providing a better-tailored and appropriate response to the particular factors that have a direct effect on why women offend. The motive is never to give women offenders' preferential treatment but to achieve equality of treatment and access to provision. " (OFFICE AT HOME, 2004)

A programme that was made under the Women's Offending Lowering Programme is The Women's Program which is actually focused on the acquisitive crimes that girls offenders have dedicated and are on the verge of conviction for not violent-related offences. The programme specifies on the value of the knowing that women offenders have upon problems in their lives and how they react to them. As a result women can develop means of dealing with their problems effectively.

An additional program that was presented is the options, Actions, Interactions and Emotions (Treatment) which is targeted to feminine offenders whose crimes are related to the difficulties that they face with the legislation of their thoughts and helps the offenders to recognize their thoughts and develop specific skills that will assist them to control their emotions. Furthermore, the programme is also centered on the introduction of self-identity of an positive nature that will allow those to live the life span they wish to live after their release.

Alongside the programmes that were designed for women, the federal government introduced programmes that were specifically developed for young prisoners in order to help them prevent relapse to criminal activities after their release and on to the leftovers of their adult lives. Young prisoners are the prisoners of age 15 to 21 years and are classified into juveniles whose years is between 15 and 17 years and young adults who are of 18 to 21 years of age. Almost all young prisoners have been things to a great number of abuses of both physical and mental characteristics such as parental overlook, material misuse, physical and mental health issues and poor attendance to educational programs. A program that originated with young prisoners in mind is the Detention and Training Order (DTO) program. It's the essential program that is utilized in juvenile prisons and the common amount of time that a prisoner must attend is the DTO is 41/2 weeks but depending on the criminal offenses that was determined by each prisoner a continuation to adult prisons for the remainder of the sentence is carried out. In addition, the Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programmes (ISSPs) were presented for highly prolonged young offenders whose era is below 18 years. Finally, the Juvenile Estate Thinking Skills (JETS) programme is dependant on the TSP model explained prior but is changed in order to be used on groups of juvenile prisoners of age between 14 and 17 years and is aimed towards the knowledge of the behaviour behind offending.

4. 6 Programs for Short-Term Prisoners

The majority of crimes in the UK are dedicated by short-term prisoners which can be thought as prisoners whose word is less than 12 months. Even though the re-offending percentage of these offenders is high, the Government has still to build up programmes that will assist offenders to avoid the relapse into legal activity after their release. The primary justification that the Government is promoting is that short-term offenders don't spend the required timeframe in prison which is necessary in order for the existing rehabilitation programmes -which can be found to prisoners with phrases much longer than 12 months- to have any effects to them. When having less resettlement services -which support them after their release- and having less attention paid to them during their imprisonment are added, the result is a vicious group where the offenders are duplicating offences and are ending back to jail during a short time after their release. This circle was pointed out in the Halliday Article of 2001 (Halliday Article, 2001). The problems of the rehabilitation system about re-offending short-term prisoners were also outlined in the Friendly Exclusion Unit Report which stated that the "majority of prisoners, specifically those providing short-term sentences, receive little useful support, before release or soon after" (Social Exclusion Unit Record, 2002).

A successful model for rehabilitation of short-term prisoners is the Kent and Medway Short-term Prisoner Job which is a voluntary model which started out its procedure in 2002 and isn't only targeted to the break in the action of the re-offending group but also support the prisoners after release by providing enclosure and -in some situations- planning job interviews.

4. 7 Resettlement Programmes

Resettlement to society is an essential factor in the process of rehabilitation and the reduction of re-offending rates. The importance of the lifestyle of such programmes was stated by the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) in 2002 which mentioned that "the three key factors to reducing re-offending are work, accommodation and family support" (Committee Of Consumer Accounts, 2002). It also explained that the forty % of the prisoners were homeless after their release and the same percentage put on prisoners that lost connection with relatives and buddies during the course of their sentence. Furthermore, the house Office remarked that when an offender is being used after his release the chance of re-offending is significantly reduced (OFFICE AT HOME, 1996).

A successful program that is employed in order to help prisoners in their work to re-join contemporary society effectively, is the Focus on Resettlement (FOR) programme which forearms the prisoners with the essential confidence and inspiration which they will require in order to kick-start their lives after their release. This program is only available when in guardianship which is developed for prisoners with phrases as high as 4 years.

As background has proven many times, communal services and community support organizations are not energetic enough towards release of an prisoner. Most of the ex-prisoners have trouble when looking to get usage of benefits and real estate because of their past while in addition they face lots of road blocks when trying to engage in drug or learning programmes.

To summarize, the federal government has introduced a great variety of programmes that help prisoners to reduce and stop the relapse into unlawful activity after their release. There a lot of successful programs but there are still a lot to be desired from the federal government especially in neuro-scientific short-term prisoners and their high risk of re-offending.

Chapter 5

Evaluation of Rehabilitation System

5. Evaluation of Rehabilitation System

This chapter will discuss the analysis of the Rehabilitation Programs and their impact and effectiveness to prisoners and their behavior after resettlement. They are going to be included the controversies of the machine provided from Jail Services combined with the advantages and disadvantages of Program Delivery to the offenders, their responsivity and the near future which is expected.

5. 1 Controversies after OBP's

It is extremely hard for any innovation in something which is reforming to not come across any sort of criticism, and that is a significant part as without it it would not be possible to develop each subject. Especially in a style such as Treatment and prison reforming, any appropriate commendatory articles could become more than useful in helping the treatment methods improve and have an effective impact to the prisoners. Even a debate between professionals can be characterized as beneficial if they are both looking to make reforms in terms of improving the existing system. On the other hand, relating to E. J. Palmer, they can be several cases through which can be made invalid quarrels by professionals upon a fresh reform via a political 'game-playing' or an instant of 'personal innuendo'. As it was mentioned previously it is vital for implications in Treatment System to exist a wholesome critique of the programmes in order to be been successful the best in terms of prison reforming.

The analysis of rehabilitation programs and system can be hard as they need to be characterized according with their impact to the offenders, what these programs have to give you to them and lastly to observe their performance on the key point of the programmes which is the reducing of re-offending. To be able to examine them it has to be done a profound research to their first moment of interacting with the prisoners, as it is vital to be chosen an appropriate and accredited programme that can completely fit the existing affirmation of the offender. It should be mentioned although significant role which is played by the analysis of the offender by the Police Services to be able to receive a treatment appropriate to his needs, as personality is the reason of the lifetime of all certified behavioural programmes.

Friendship et al. made a substantial statement in 2003, which tried out to suggest a four-element procedure to be utilized in the evaluation process to be able to calculate the potency of the accredited programs. According to A friendly relationship it's important the environment of the business which happen the programme, as it related to its delivery and can have several affections to the offenders. Moreover, before the programme procedure it's important to be assessed the basic principle and the exactness of this model with respect to the conditions of the prisoner. A friendly relationship also described the inexpensive cost of the treatment as the approved programmes are still area of the Jail Services which is one of the public sector and it is binding to be completed the programme successfully. Finally, it is very important to be an observation of the short and long-term results of the model implemented as it is purely linked to it standard effectiveness to the offender.

They have been written many reports of the success of the Rehabilitation programmes and their success in terms of their conclusion. They also can be found reports, that happen to be mentioning the non-completion of these programmes. There can be an problem of offenders who aren't succeed in concluding the model which is an certified disadvantage of the System. They might be several reasons of the dropping of the consultations, as they can are unsuccessful it or they cannot easily fit into these groups to be able to attain their goals. Since it was mentioned recently it is vital to be matched the appropriate model to the offender with respect to individuality. It has been reported that it's expected in a low rate that some of the participants won't terminate the treatment, and in most cases that occurs to offenders who've a background in falling out any group consultations as they may have left school or any kind of employment. It must be mentioned though that these offenders are being evaluated before their entail in a correctional treatment and their rates in committing a offense again are higher than from others.

Gendreau emerged up in 1999 with nine organizational factors which are capable of providing a successful conclusion of the programmes. Gendreau explained that is essential for services development to depend on night out and taking new initiatives. Moreover it is important these initiatives have to be developed into the appropriate correctional models. In some cases it could be useful for the system to have a fairly easy response towards prisoners who facing problems. It really is significant though these problems should be solved in body of a particular amount of time in order to perform the programme accurately. The resolution of these issues should be under a non-aggressive situation.

Continuing the characteristics of the correct correctional treatment, it is necessary to be provided a protected climate to the personnel without being combined any emotional fights. It is important for the programmes to keep carefully the staff changing in order to be prevented any personal interpretations. For an effective teaching, products should learn and be up to date in an annual basis. Lastly it is recommended that the services should be related to organizations which providing educational, doing and medical support for instruction. (Gendreau et al. , 1999b)

5. 2 Responsivity of OBP's

As it once was mentioned the delivery of the correctional treatment has advantages along with cons. In several case the offender cannot be categorized in an befitting him programme because his needs may vary from the assistance provided and he cannot run into the the one that fits him. Also, it has to be mentioned that a failure associated with an offender to complete a programme it hasn't always regarding lack in finding the treatment which responds to his criminogenic factors, but instead in having issues of responsivity.

In most correctional treatments the procedure is dependant on groupwork programmes. Every offender it can differs from the other credited to learning skills problems and that may be the reason why of completion's inability. A prisoner may face literacy issues and that can affect his participation in a program. In addition to that, vital role in a group work plays the behaviour of every participant, that can be problematic, in terms of causing challenges and influence the smooth operating of the period. This can reduce the potential of each offender separately to get involved. On another point of view it has to be stated the important role that takes on working out which is received by the staff who's providing the programs. The personnel should be accredited with the correct knowledge to be able to co operate with the offenders, and also manage them along with the ability to indicate any issues of the participant, from problematic behaviour to any appearance of medical matters or mental disease.

The determination of the prisoners to get the procedure is also a matter of discourse as they have great effect on his behavior inside the programme. It's important to be included to the evaluation of the offender the address of his readiness upon changing and follow the behavioural program to become educated, improve his skill or any other changes can make depending on his needs and the certified model. To be more specific, Ward et al, known in his work "The individual is determined (i. e. , would like to, gets the will to), is able to respond to properly (i. e. , perceives he or she can), confirms it relevant and important (i. e. , can participate), and has the capacities (i. e. , is able to) to efficiently enter the treatment program. "(Stith et al. , 2004b) The copy writer also talked about the 'inner readiness conditions', which derive from each offender's individual characteristics depending in their will to change. Though, it should be explained that overcrowding in prisons will not help in in any manner the expected final result of the programs, as there's a huge amount of individuals and prisoners can affect each other using their own behavior.

Another important concern that needs to be stated is the concern of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programmes towards the majority of the offenders, including minorities that are facing discrimination problems. Despite the separation between your treatment models founded after the needs of the prisoners matching to their criminal offense, it is significant that all of them can have the ability to get involved, without facing exclusion because of their age, gender, ethnic group or religious beliefs. Wormith and Olver made a affirmation that concludes this is of responsivity. "In summary this perspective, the means by which responsivity may have an impact on outcome is when you are delicate to offender characteristics so the design and delivery of services will engage the client, increase treatment conclusion, augment the acquisition of rehabilitative materials, and reduce recidivism" (Wormith and Olver, 2002)

5. 3 Future in Rehabilitation System

It can be said that they are being made several endeavors from the medial side of Justice and Jail Services in terms of developing rehabilitation system. Especially the last ten years several changes were designed to the machine in a frame of the 'team effort'. One major step was the reviewing of the sentencing, as it was essential for prisons to reduce the amount of offenders, by changing the phrases for small offences to working time in community or by paying fines. This offers to prisons the benefit of working more with the offenders. It must be mentioned though that overcrowding still remains a significant problem.

It is important that the Justice System along with political results are keep wanting to provide a much better treatment and resettlement programme and expect consequently the cutting down of recidivism and re-offending. It appears as if the design of NOMS by Patrick Carter, opened up a new time in terms of Treatment Services. The target continues to be the same; the re-joining of ex-offenders to contemporary society with the chance to find a work and a home and follow a more lawful life. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT is trying to offer to the prisoners the ability of a second chance, however in order to be the programme successful it is still needed the development and the money.

It is essential to be made a whole research for each and every offender in conditions of his qualifications, kind of offence or any addictions that may have in order to be provided with the correct training and treatment to him. It is vital for the machine to come across and accord with the number of types of these needs that vary, especially for offenders who've limited access to the programmes because of discrimination. These offenders they mainly belong to cultural minorities or another oppositions.

There are several changes which may have to be produced during the next years in order to be achieved an improved rehabilitation system with more up to date programmes that will supply the best results to offenders, first of all through prison and subsequently through community. Community programmes are also significant to the simple re-joining of contemporary society, as it is expected to be needed also the assistance of Services following the offender's release to society. Major importance also offers every resettlement programme to become ensured the protection of the population towards the duty of the ex-offender.

Home Office's statement is telling the current Prison and Probation System some binding changes they have to be made. To begin with, it is cogent for the treatment programmes to provide the prisons with work-like establishments inside the prisons. Subsequently, they need to be put into the machine amplifications to the offender treatments designed for short-term prisoners. It is vital as it was mentioned previously, to be strengthened the whole treatment model for prisoners who are facing issues with alcohol and medicine misuse or any other addictions. Another adjustment must be added in conditions of medical examination of offenders. This is significant for their treatment as possible found any mental disorder or other medical issues who may be important to consider. Last but not least, as it mentioned recently, is the notice of additional concerns for offenders via minority groups.

Chapter 6

Conclusion

6. Conclusion

To summarize, this report aimed to discuss the importance of Treatment System for prisoners in United Kingdom. Its aim for was to explore one of the main aspects of Justice and Jail System. Predicated on literature review, researches and reports it has been made a provision of rehabilitation's backdrop history and it's been mentioned that even though its occurrence in Parliament counts more than 2 hundred years, continues to be producing and reforming in line with the political and sociable system. During this report they have been mentioned several prison reforms influenced from each era and social composition of its time. In this particular report there have been noted major works that have been found in reforming, from the start of its theory during 17th Century until nowadays.

In addition to that it has recently be described that although the several prison reforms which have been done, the prospective of Rehabilitation was but still is the lowering of recidivism and re-offending. The point of this Service though, is to provide to the prisoner an opportunity to re-join society and become beneficial to it by working and live a lawful life. However, this Service also is designed by its correctional treatments the provision of the safer society. In a great community ex-criminals would not only gain a standard life back, but also they would propagate their treatment in terms of teaching other people as well before they might commit the criminal offense. Despite that fact, it could be said that relating to other information rehabilitation has great impact to the majority of the prisoners who complete their treatment and rates of re-offending have been reduced but you may still find many sectors which may have to be increased.

The analysis of the Offenders Behavioural Programmes, which were mentioned previously, it was research that Justice System is making a huge effort upon Treatment and Resettlement of the Prisoners. Since it has recently been stated one basic principles of the design of the correctional models is that every offender has different needs. At this time it should be noted that even though there are several programmes which can handle treating almost all of the offender's conditions depending on them, there is still work it needs to be developed for something who will offer similar opportunities to them.

As in every cogent question as Treatment, it is likely to acquire many critiques for many aspects of it, either by appointing accurate characteristics and helping to the development of the theme or by misjudging it. This article attempted to offer an objective view of Treatment System by talking about its benefits and drawbacks as well, along with recommendations given either from general public and Justice sectors or research workers and professionals. Regarding society and provision of a safer community 'Jail Guidelines' (1999) conclude in two lines the usefulness of treatment "The purpose of working out and treatment of convicted prisoners shall be to encourage and assist them to lead a good and useful life" (Loucks, 1999)

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