Gender, socially appealing responding and the fear of criminal offenses:
(1) I will be assessing the talents and limitations of using interpersonal surveys to investigate fear of crime. One form of sociable surveys is questionnaires. It offers a list of written questions. The talents of the are that the researcher is able to contact a sizable number of folks quickly and efficiently. Another power of questionnaires is that they explore certain specific areas more then other methods i. e. criminal offense. The questionnaire can be anonymous this means people can answer them privately. This escalates the chances of individuals answering questions frankly because they'll not be intimidated by the presence of an researcher. When questionnaires are used to investigate the fear if offense, it is found that men are more likely to actually become victims of offense. Although women are reported to have a higher level of fear then men are. A limitation of questionnaires is that they include closed down questions, which the researcher cannot take a look at intricate issues and go into depth. Issues maybe such as hegemonic definitions of masculinity when men are being questioned about their concern with crime, they have a tendency to hold back. Whereas, women are absolve to express and will often exaggerate. A different type of social survey is structured interviews. The advantages are that the researcher can explore comprehensive a particular subject matter and discover the how the respondent feels towards the topic. For example; offense victimisation and fears of criminal offenses. Because women have a higher level of fear then men they have a tendency to stay indoors rather then go out.
According to Cohen modern culture is the main topic of such durations of moral anxiety. In his book 'Folk devils and moral panics: the creation of mods and rockers'. A moral anxiety is a societal respond to values about the goodies from moral deviants. Cohen used this term as a form of collective behavior i. e. when a person or an organization of men and women are executing a deviant action which sometimes appears as a hazard to society. That is then portrayed by the media and contained in magazines. This moral stress can have an impact on how people view offense in modern culture and start to feel a dread towards it.
Looking at both types of sociable surveys that I have mentioned, I've found out that structured interviews tend to be more useful when it comes to investigating worries of crime then questionnaires. This is because structured interviews are a lot more powerful, they provide a reliable response and is more valid then questionnaires.
Patterns of offense:
(a) Two features of using official information to measure criminal offenses is that, one it offers an over-all picture of styles in criminal offenses. Politicians and the media often indicate increases or lowers in official figures as a way of measuring the government's success in tackling criminal offenses. Each party places their own interpretation of the actual statistics could indicate. However, official information will show a concern with crime rising. Research workers Pantazis and Gordon (1999) discovered the poor are likely to fear offense. They did a report on household surveys, found out people that have the cheapest were probably to fear criminal offenses and the ones with the best incomes were actually likely, to be victims of criminal offense. Another advantages is they are readily available. They are really accessible for the authorities and everyone and are cheap to accumulate information from.
(b) I'll evaluating the view that deviance can best be discussed by mention of an individual's cultural background. I am using materials from these areas 'education' and 'households and households'. Charles Murray (1990) a fresh Right sociologist argues that deviance are available in those who are from underclass backgrounds. In both United kingdom and American population which have a distinct culture and value system. However, Miller (1962) thought criminal offense and delinquency originated from the working category cultural values. He said that the low working course culture was what encouraged lawbreaking behaviour. According to him prices approved from each generation encourages working category men to break the law. Delinquency was then formed out of this culture. Due to working class deviant behavior, they did not achieve well in education therefore looked at different ways of gaining some type of success. The working category suffer from status frustration, meaning they think it is hard to gain success and so choose illegitimate ways. Where in cases like this, they turn to crime eventually. Family can also impact a person's capability to carefully turn to crime. The type of family that you will be given birth to into or live in can determine whether you turn to crime or not. Typically working class people from single-parent households, where they may be a lack of male role models, consider deviant behaviour such as gang violence. Also laws shattered in the family can result in family breakdown and so lead to anomie. However, Functionists Durkheim discussed that a little amount of crime is good and necessary in world. This is because crime has a function in modern culture, it allows for social change to occur. Criminal offense can move from useful to dysfunctional when right down to the amount of criminal offense is either too much or too low.
(c) I am examining the view that interactionist explanations of crime and deviance fail to consider the truth of offense as assessed in official reports. Firstly, I will be describing the interactionists description of offense and deviance. Interactionist theory became significant in the analysis of criminal offenses and deviance in the 1960's. They can be mostly worried about this is people put on occasions or people and so research the societal a reaction to deviant behavior. Unlike positivists, their theory assumes that criminals and deviants are somehow different from non-criminals and non-deviants. They don't check out causal factors in the background or social characteristics of people and groupings, but go through the process of cultural interaction where some activities, individuals and categories were labelled as deviant while others were not.
Interactionists are different to other sociological approaches; they are worried more about the inner factors. People are social celebrities, they be capable of do more than merely react to exterior social stresses. Unlike positivist's strategies, they don't see people as largely passive in the way their behaviour is a reply to social causes. Interactionists place on the approach the theory that people add meanings to behaviour. They want to determine why some categories and some behaviour are more likely than others to really have the meaning 'offense' or 'deviance' mounted on them.
Labelling is one of the most basic areas of individuals understanding. Howard Becker (1963) offered the best view on labelling theory. He thought that there is no such thing as a deviant action, it is behaviour that other people label others. Informal labelling happens at all times i. e. in college. But formal labelling can only be employed someone by the power. However, master labels i. e. being called a felony can take on a huge result, once applied it is difficult to live down. From some master labels, some individuals can be stigmatised and turned down from society. This can lead to offense and can take on a 'self-fulfilling prophecy' approach.
Edwin Lemmert recognized primary from supplementary deviance. Primary deviance interpretation deviant serves before they can be being labelled. I. e. teens who commit some functions that causes being called a delinquent. Extra deviance is made by the reaction to an work and general population labelling. It is far more important than principal deviance because, it's the effect on someone's self-image of the reaction of society. Lemmert do a report on stuttering between a group of Native People in the usa who didn't be capable of speak publicly. Somebody who stuttered a little would attract attention from others, which would then make the situation worse. An initial deviance which is lead to a second deviance from the reactions of individuals in modern culture.
To help assess this view I will be using Jock Young's study. Young did a report on hippies they were viewed negatively by the police for their unusual lifestyle that was viewed as deviant to them. These were involved in little legal activity and small use of marijuana. But after they were found hard by the authorities, marijuana started out to be much more important and was used frequently. This is caused from better deviance from the police which put pressure on the hippies to be more deviant then at they were at the start.
Another study from Stan Cohen on mods and rockers.
Official reports are a form of secondary data. They are really published by the Home Office and present home elevators the amounts of different types of crimes dedicated and the sociable backdrop of offenders. Recognized statistics are publishes annually. The benefits of official information are that they are already available to access as physical condition cheap. Positivists think it is of great use as it can help to explain patterns of criminal behavior. The official reports is a sizable sample, all noted crimes in the UK are included. Because these statistics are produced every year it now practices a long record, so sociologists think it is very useful to compare data over a period of time.
However, criticisms from formal information are mainly from Interactionists. They claim that these statistics are socially made. Although they are enthusiastic about finding out how this happens, they don't observe how the statistics is seen as real. Also crime figures are produced by those in public control including the police and include those who might or is probably not labelled as deviant. Cicourel criticises recognized statistics by stating that the working school youths who are imprisoned by the police were likely to be labelled as delinquents. It is because they installed the police's notion of a 'typical delinquent' while the middle class were able to negotiate. Working course youth are excessively represented in official statistics therefore could be the result of the process of negotiation happening through conversation through the police.
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