Crime Is Socially Designed Criminology Essay

Nowadays hard to assume lifestyle without news informing us experiences about shocking tragedies happening surrounding the world. However almost everyone is considering actions that could harm somebody. In media even existing a victim hierarchy (more sensational victim continues on top) of fascination interest of audience. People are 'strategy' beings. It is in our patterns to guage ourselves and people around us. Rules are governing just about everywhere; it sets right and incorrect behaviour of society customers.

Norm and rules should be conformed and existence of social control is aimed to ensure it. During communal control process behaviour of people and groupings is controlled by formal and informal agents. In procedure for socialization operates internal cultural control, here people take up and find out norms from parents, peers, advertising, and etc. This type of control is targeted to individual's conscience; on the other hand more attention of sociologists gets external public control ruled by formal providers as law enforcement, courts, and etc. ; and negative sanctions (punishing the various types of deviance). (Goode, 1994)

It is very important to understand difference between deviance and crime because first leading to second. "Sociologists refer to behaviour that is undoubtedly wrongdoing, that generates negative reaction in individuals who witness or notice about it, deviant behaviour, both deviant behavior and features or conditions that create an identical condemnatory, rejecting reaction in others are called public deviance or just deviance". (Goode, 1994, p. 1)

Crime is a kind of deviant behavior. Deviance can be explained as a violation against norms and worth of an wider society. For instance one person allows as a norm to be always a part of sub-culture- Goths. They support their ideas and practices, but another considers different because of his life experience or other impact factor (e. g. tastes) that operating and dressing as Goths is inappropriate and it becomes deviant. In cases like this it is legal (actually to be a Goth) however, many of deviant behaviour can result in criminal activity (e. g. smoking in public areas place). Overall, offense is more about breaking formal norms, but deviance-informal.

Crime is socially designed, this is an undeniable fact. Interactionist university of sociology says us that the sociable order include a variety of social organizations where each performing in a way he understands the truth. (Muncie and McLaughlin, 1997) They react on certain behaviours and point out people to be different from their morality or ethnical norms. These 'different' are labelled as deviants or even criminals. "Social categories create deviance by making the guidelines whose infractions constitute deviance and through the use of those rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders". (Becker, c1991; p. 9) However, offense changes across cultures and times, for example to adopt homosexuality. In not long time previously, 1895, Oscar Wilde was sentenced to two years' hard labour; (Online) homosexuality counted as a mental disorder and was subject of brutal punishment. Nowadays, in many countries 'criminal offenses' label for homosexuality is removed. Another exemplory case of changes is violence in family against women and children. It had been a little interest from law enforcement and laws about this problem not really a long time in the past. This activities was counted as a 'right of men' to 'make self-discipline' harming more vulnerable customers of family. Due to feminist and women's right activists promotions to support victims, made a great work, and now violence in households is a serious crime. These types of relationships another time prove that criminal offenses is socially produced. It appears too ideal from the angle of simple fact, but actually it's important to understand another point that who make rules to control culture?

According turmoil theory, regulations is established by powerful and privileged and benefits exactly to them so making powerless - criminals. (Fish-pond, 1999) Regarding Becker, unprivileged and powerless people, no subject of degree of injury and harm they done, will tend to be imprisoned, judged; powerful people create illusions, that those who find themselves in the bottom of sociable hierarchy (assessed in case there is income level, competition, education degree)- are definitely more 'dangerous' in contemporary society. This powerful elite creates environment where regular people become dependent of state and its own social control real estate agents who guard against 'lawlessness', but also often victimizing normal people one or yet another way. (Becker, c1991) Media is one of the major tool to 'help' people 'understand' what they have to be more frightened of. "There is certainly more to crime and criminals than the state reveals. But most people cannot view it" (Becker, c1991, p. 15)

In conclusion, makes sense to summarize main areas of all above. Firstly, discussing deviance is important to underline that this can vary depending to ethnic categories; individuals labelled as deviant only if others identify them doing this which powerful and powerless are involved in social power. It really is interesting that regarding functional theory of crime, especially Durkheim, deviance perform four functions essential to contemporary society: deviance demonstrates cultural beliefs and norms; the way people respond to deviant behaviour clarifies culture moral boundaries; society becomes more united; and the previous but not minimal of importance, deviance support social change. In most cases, understanding of deviant behavior and crime can lead to better contemporary society. (Macionis and Plummer, 1997)

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