Does young ones work assist in preventing Anti Social Behaviour

The purpose of this research is to investigate and explore whether youngsters work assists with stopping Anti-Social Behaviour (ASB) amidst young people. It is a worthwhile activity to research this specific area as there is little posted research on the contribution of children work in protecting against ASB.

The research was conducted using teenagers and youth personnel from the youngsters centre which i was doing my positioning in Warwickshire. The info collected was a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative, nevertheless the focus of the data collection was on qualitative data. The primary findings from the analysis revealed that most young people and youth personnel felt that going to the youth golf club helps to keep young people out of trouble. It had been confirmed that young ones golf clubs play an important role in informing teenagers about criminal offense and justice issues, which young people will probably approach youth personnel for help and advice.

The services regarded important by young people were highlighted, and differences have been accepted between your services deemed most significant to provide by young people and youth personnel. Issues regarding the role of children workers were lifted, with differing views from both young people and youth staff. It's been illustrated that teenagers have a very good attitude towards both junior work and junior workers, which is vital if youth personnel are to build and maintain good associations with young people. It really is hoped that this research provides a valuable insight into the possible role of young ones work in avoiding ASB to the people who work in neuro-scientific children work and crime prevention.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the next people for making this dissertation possible

The Warwickshire Region Youth Service, specifically, the Operations Director for Positive about Young People, for allowing me to execute this research in their young ones clubs as well as for answering all my ongoing questions and questions.

Ms Sonia Thompson, my supervisor, for her constant help and support.

And all of my children and friends for their ongoing support.

Chapter One

Introduction

The reason for this review is to explore the potential role of young ones work in preventing

Anti-social behaviour(ASB). The topic of ASB and junior criminal offenses is one found in election

campaigns by all politics gatherings. Since New Labour emerged to power in 1997 there have been numerous citations of Tony Blair's slogan 'difficult on crime, tough on the sources of offense', especially in regards to to the 'trend' of children crime.

The purpose of this research therefore is to increase the question on ASB reduction and to research a potential avenue that could help prevent it, that is, Youngsters Work. Relatively little posted research has been conducted in the UK specifically on young ones work and ASB or offense prevention, in particular when set alongside the US where Sherman et al (1997) has conducted interesting research. It is the purpose of this piece of research to lessen this distance in knowledge. It really is hoped that research will inform both those who work in the youth work world and crime prevention strategists on the whole of the possibilities that youngsters work retains.

1. 2 Aims and Objectives

The subject of the project is 'Investigate and Explore the role of Young ones Work in stopping Anti-Social Behavior'. The wide target was to explore whether young ones work plays a role in preventing teenagers commit Anti-Social Behavior (ASB) or in severe situations 'Criminal offense. '

The goals of the study were:

To search, review and critically examine the available literature on young ones work and youth crime avoidance.

To determine the role and dynamics of the young ones clubs and children workers in relation to crime prevention

To demonstrate and compare the perceptions of youth work from those who enroll in youth clubs and the ones who react in the role of youth worker.

To set up whether young ones work can be an effective means in protecting against youth crime

1. 3 Explanation of conditions used

There are debates about the complete meaning of the key terms found in this research, therefore these debates will be quickly outlined and the utilization of terminology justified.

There are three main conditions that are used within this record that must be defined. They are: 'anti-social behavior', 'junior offense', 'youth work' and 'young people'. These conditions each have their own meanings that are debated by academics, experts, politicians and even the media. The largest debates regarding terminology centre on the conditions 'youth criminal offenses' and 'young people' therefore these will be talked about first.

There are two initial problems that appear when wanting to define 'youngsters crime'. Firstly the condition in defining precisely what 'criminal offense' is, and second the challenge in defining exactly what 'youngsters' is. Muncie expresses the common explanation of crime usually takes the form similar compared to that of 'an work prohibited by unlawful law' (2004:39). Michael and Adler (1933) take this further stating that 'in other words, no act can be considered a crime, irrespective of how immoral or harming it might be, unless it's been made such by legislation' (cited by Muncie, 2004:39). On first evaluation, this meaning may seem wonderfully viable, however in respect of young people it is argued that such a legal uncontroversial explanation is unable to capture the entire extent of troublesome behaviour. It really is for these reasons that criminologists have used terms such as 'delinquency' and 'antisocial behaviour' to make reference to junior misconduct which is not deemed criminal by regulations, but is in any other case troublesome.

The use of such terms are being used to label and criticise young ones behaviour such as hanging around on the pavements or being loud as 'anti-social' when this would definitely not be the situation had an adult been behaving in the same manner. These terms therefore give a manner in which to discriminate against young individuals, often not too much offensive, behaviour.

With regard to anti-social behaviour, even a classification of what portions to the has contrasting perspectives. For example, Rutter, Giller and Hagell define anti-social behaviour as legal behaviour whereas the Home Office do not (1998:1). This may indicate that the positioning and context in which the term is used can be of relevance. It is submitted that as time passes and in several societies our constructions of what constitutes criminality evidently change. Support because of this are available from Becker who argues that offense is a rsulting consequence social interaction which crime only occurs once it's been criminalized through general population perception and social effect. Sumner (1990) facilitates Becker's view and argues that ''offense' and 'deviance' are things of moral and political judgement as they are ideological ideas that justify inequality' (cited in Muncie, 2004:40).

Defining 'youth' is also a problematic task. If wanting to define junior by reference to age group, there are no exact moments that mark when childhood ends and adulthood commences (Muncie, 2004:41). This important change is becoming known as the 'change' between child years and adulthood. Spence argues that 'transition' suggests a quest from one condition to another, relating both personal and public aspects, and it is therefore dependent upon the theory that both stages are specific conditions and fundamentally different (2004: 48). One possible method of pinpoint the incident of this changeover is to use age unlawful responsibility, which is currently 10 years old in Great britain and Wales.

Ultimately, the idea of youth is one which suggests similarity amongst folks of similar years whilst performing as the basis for creating sociable rules and corporations that reinforce these clear similarities (Spence, 2005, p. 47). However, despite these definitional problems it is important to define youth in relation to crime. In England and Wales, a person who commits a legal offence who's between the age groups of 10 and 17 years will be cured as a 'juvenile offender', whereas a person who commits a legal offence and is between the ages of 18 and 21 years will be tried out as a 'young offender' (Davies, Croall and Tyrer (2004. p. 57).

Having considered these debates under consideration, the use of the terms throughout this article have been used to imply the next: the term 'youth criminal offense' refers to crime committed by those individuals under the age of 18 years, and the word 'crime' signifies 'an function prohibited by criminal rules' (Muncie, 2004, p. 39). The term 'young people' has been used to mean those individuals older than 10 years and below age 18 years, as this also displays the age of legal responsibility in Britain and Wales.

With respect to junior work, it is difficult to give a 'wording book' reason of just what junior work is and research has illustrated that youth personnel themselves find it difficult to put their role into a sentence that provides justice to both the work of the children worker and this of the young person (Ingram and Harris, 2005, p. 11-12). The nearest one will see to a formal meaning of what youth work entails are available in the affirmation of prices and principles from the National Youth Firm (NYA), which expresses that the type and purpose of children work is

'to facilitate and support young people's expansion through dependence to interdependence, by encouraging their personal and interpersonal development and enabling them to have a voice, impact and place in their areas and society. ' (NYA, 2005:17).

It is through this definition that the researcher uses the word 'youngsters work' to mean working with teenagers to help them achieve a sense of personal fulfilment, as well as work that can help and advice young people in their daily life selections and activities. The term 'youth worker' therefore is used to spell it out those who carry out this role.

1. 4 Organisation of the report

The survey is split into four chapters as follows

Chapter Two reviews the look and methodology implemented to conduct the study and justification for the look and methods used.

Chapter Three presents the findings of the research and analyse these appropriately.

Chapter Four is the ultimate chapter and can discuss the key findings from the research. It will draw on these results and the literature review in order to dispute that junior work gets the potential to make a significant contribution to ASB prevention and advice for policy creators, practice and further research.

The appendices contain copies of most relevant documents described throughout the study.

CHAPTER 2

Design and Methodology

Research Design and methods

The overall design of the research designed both quantitative and qualitative methods. The researcher aimed to acquire these types of data using questionnaires and concentration groups.

One group of questionnaires was distributed to six junior workers who works at the junior club. Semi-structured questions formed the interview questions found in focus groupings with young people. As the research was a study the utilization of questionnaires was considered befitting the assortment of both quantitative and qualitative data.

Throughout the literature review, it is clear that there surely is lots of research/theories and methods that are based on facts within the topic of ASB. An example is that the Home Office established that young people with a stressed home life are in higher threat of being involved in ASB and offense than those people who have not. Utilizing a quantitative design would be limited to offer alternate explanations and describe different personal circumstances, for example, why young people who have result from troubled family life try ASB.

My research question requires me to ask teenagers and youth staff whether young ones work assists with avoiding ASB. A qualitative design would therefore benefit me as it could allow me to ask young people directly by using semi-structured interviews. This would therefore include their individual understanding and experiences, alternatively than being given a choice of options to choose from.

It has been explained that qualitative and quantitative research each shows some other epistemological stance, which eventually widens the space between the two (Bryman, 1992).

In terms of epistemological platform, quantitative research is strongly from the positivist method of studying society, therefore observing the globe in an objective manner, whereas qualitative research requires a more subjective methodology. These theories make clear why quantitative data is often seen as 'hard data' and qualitative data as 'real and profound' (O'Reilly, 1996:7).

It is therefore submitted that it is not a disadvantage to combine quantitative and qualitative data, but that it is an advantage as the utilisation of the two methods permits an in-depth research, which will allow a 'more complete account[s] of communal reality' (Bryman, 1992:126).

Questionnaires

According to Robson, (2002:230), questionnaires are seen as 'a mostly quantitative research method'. The questionnaires found in this research asked questions about teenagers and ASB from the staff perspective, and included both tick boxes and also opportunities to clarify further. This offered the researcher qualitative data from the questionnaires. The questionnaire also included personal data including age, gender, ethnicity, impairment and sexuality. Individuals were however not asked for his or her name or any details which would have enabled them to be diagnosed.

Below is a stand designed from Munn and Drever(1990) and Sarantakos(2005) which shows the huge benefits and disadvantages of questionnaires.

Fig 1.

Benefits

Drawbacks

Efficient use of time

Greater guarantee of anonymity for participants

Standardised questions and format for data collection

Production for quick results

Less chance of researcher bias

Easier for data analysis

Allow for a greater coverage of participants

Information will describe somewhat than explain

Information can be superficial

No room for probing, prompting or clarification

No chance to provide determination for the participant to use part

Identity and conditions are not known

Do not allow for additional information

The main benefit for using questionnaires in this research was the ability to gain information in a comparatively straight forward. This is also helpful for the data evaluation level as questions were all standardised and could easily be organised to produce results for evaluation.

Focus groups

The other method used to accumulate data in this research was concentration groups. Morgan(1998:1) says that, 'concentration teams are group interviews. A moderator books the interview while a small group talks about the topics that the interviewer raises'. Morgan continued to speak about the progress of focus teams as a qualitative research method and how discussions that occurs 'make a rich knowledge of participants' encounters and values'(1998:11).

The reason for a concentrate group in this research was to give a deep perception and gain a greater understanding of the opinions which exist towards the study question being explored. Sarantakos (2005) talks about how target groups can be used as an instrument to explain trends and variances through the views of respondents. Below is a table that shows the professionals and drawbacks of using concentration groups and also have been taken from Morgan(1997) and (1998), Bloor et al (2001), Sarantakos (2005).

Fig 2

Benefits

Drawbacks

Ability to get understanding o complicated issues through group discussions

Ability to comprehend uncertainties and ambiguity that can underlie group assessments

Allow for easier evaluations of views and the similarities and dissimilarities that exist

Recording data can be problematic

Being in a group may cover people's real opinions

The process can be dominated by some members

There can be problems keeping conversations on track

Findings may not be represented

The reason these two methods were found in the research was to enhance the data collected and to enable the researcher to gain a deeper understanding of feelings and opinions that surround the topic. This use of multiple methods is becoming common in cultural studies which, as explained by Boer et al (2001:12), contribute to the 'parallel mushrooming determination of academic experts to triangulation'. Triangulation is a process where different methods are employed by analysts to ensure that the techniques themselves do not distort data but instead produce similar conclusions.

Implementation and changes to Design

Due to determined teenagers not turning up for the focus group, the researcher was required to randomly select young people who have been present at that time who fitted the requirements. This meant needing to postpone enough time and some designed activities as the young people had to get consent first to take part from parents/carers and bring to the researcher signed forms.

This intended that the researcher got to do one target group instead of two that had been planned in the research proposal. Though it could have been good to get two emphasis group so as to look for similarities and distinctions in young people's views, having one group did not make much difference as the researcher sensed the teenagers who participated were a good representatives of young people who attend youth clubs. Having one concentration group, in the researchers opinion was more than enough as the researcher had to consider time needed for analysis.

2. 5 Sample Selection and Information on Participants

In total there were 14 members in the study: eight young people, and six youngsters workers. It had been experienced that although this was a comparatively small sample, it would allow for a greater amount of qualitative data to be accumulated and analysed. The researcher felt that the sample of young people was, quite representative of those attending the young ones golf clubs. The sampling method used was convenience or unintentional sampling which 'requires choosing the nearest and most convenience persons to act as respondents'. Robson(2002:265).

The main restrictions to this type of sampling is that there surely is no way in order to if the conclusions are associates of the population or not. Robson(2002:265). However, the researcher tried out to make certain that many categories were displayed in the analysis including every generation and gender. One key group that had not been included was teenagers from cultural minorities group. This was due to the fact that at the time no one who equipped the standards was present and the region is dominantly white.

The individuals (both youth workers and young people) were all white English. The age selection of the young people was between 13 and 16 yrs. old, with 37. 5% being feminine and 62. 5% male. The youth worker individuals were 66. 7% female and 33. 3% male. The desk below(Fig 3) shows a detailed break down of all individuals.

Young people

Age(years)

Male

Female

Total

13

1

1

2

14

1

1

2

15

2

1

3

16

1

-

1

Fig 4

Youth Workers

Age range

Female

Male

Total

18-25

2

-

2

25-30

1

1

2

30+

1

1

2

2. 6 Young People's Concentration Group

The researcher assemble semi-structured questions beforehand and sent these to the Youth Worker in control for approval. A location and time was allocated where the group wouldn't normally be disturbed. By planning beforehand, the researcher was able to avoid interruptions and ensure people cannot overhear the conversations. Facilitating a emphasis group allowed the researcher to be creative in the types of questions that she could ask. Interactive and visual exercises were included which allowed young people to keep focused, interested and involved in this issue.

2. 7 Youth staff questionnaire

There were several questions that could be set alongside the questions directed at young people, in order to reach the aim of determining and evaluating the perceptions of junior work from junior workers and young people. Due to the mixture of open and shut questions it was possible to remove both quantitative and qualitative data from the youngsters personnel. However, because the sample size was relatively small the emphasis was to gather qualitative data that was abundant with both information and experience.

At the youngsters golf club the questionnaires were handed to the worker-in-charge who guaranteed that the researcher was handed the completed questionnaires back. All six questionnaires were completed and returned. Confidentiality was ensured and maintained throughout as the questionnaires were passed out with an envelope for use after conclusion of the questionnaire.

2. 8 Ethical Issues

It is vital when concluding research that the value of moral issues is seen. (Walliman 2006:151). The honest issues identified because of this research are available in the study proposal (Appedix). No more moral issues were discovered. Consent forms varieties were all signed and retuned to the researcher. The researcher further emphasised on confidentiality issues within the group. Through the entire research, all the types of procedures identified to market moral practice were placed into place. A location that was free from sound, interruptions or risks that others could overhear was used and this was important in keeping confidentiality.

2. 9 Data Analysis

In showing and discussing the research findings a mixture of summation and descriptive figures were used. Generalizations from these information were placed to the very least due to the research design and methods used. As the research sample was relatively small and manageable, the researcher thought comfortable to complete the statistical computations herself.

In addition, as the research test was relatively small it was not thought appropriate to work with every other statistical checks in the data analysis

CHAPTER 3

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

3. 1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the results of the study and provide a basic interpretation of the findings. Quantifiable data will be provided in a graphical format.

Qualitative data will be illustrated by quotes and written observations.

The findings of the analysis have been provided through the use of data examination by using 'a grounded theory strategy'. A grounded theory is 'dedicated to producing ideas. It emphasises the importance of empirical fieldwork and the necessity to link any explanations very tightly from what happens in the real world'. (Denscombe, 2007:89) The researcher analysed the info after recording all of the information provided from the target group onto one sheet. This designed putting all the members' answers to each question alongside one another, therefore research on possible styles and categories was doable. A good example is provided in Fig 5 below

Key

P1=Participant 1

Q1- What do you realize by the word Anti-Social Behaviour?

P1- ermm, I think its crime determined by young ones like young people

P2- ohm ermm I have no idea (pause) young people messing around on the streets engaging in trouble

P3- aint it just teenagers doing nothing at all on the avenues or place shops

P4- Like graffiti, dangling on the roadways, smoking, taking in, things that young people do

P5- It's like each one of these men with 'hoodies' dangling about engaging in trouble by misbehaving, operating stupid

P6- Petty offense like suspending about on the avenues, making noises, vandalising property

I used this technique to look at specific elements of the interviews which were important to be able to meet my research goals. My data examination was predicated on looking for similarities or variations in the answers given and categorising relevant themes. Denscombe (2007:98) states that,

'the first stage of analysis will involve the coding and categorizing of the info. This implies the researcher commences to assign items of 'raw data' to particular categories. Careful scrutiny of the info allows the researcher to see that one bits of the info have something in common'.

3. 2 Concentration Group-Young people

The objective of having a concentrate group with teenagers was ultimately to discover their views on both the youth membership they attended, the youth personnel that proved helpful there, and whether having a youth golf club helped keep the young people out of trouble, therefore dealing with the issue of reducing and preventing youth crime. In order to do this it was considered important to find how usually the teenagers actually attended the clubs.

Youth club attendance and free time activities

Figure 6 below illustrates that nearly two thirds of the young people, (5, which is 62. 5%) went to whenever the golf clubs were open up.

It is argued that this is an important finding for the foundation of the research as if young people were not going to the clubs then your potential of children work in reducing Anti-social behaviour and criminal offense would be dramatically reduced from the outset.

As the youngsters golf clubs are regularly went to by teenagers it was felt that because the youth club analyzed in this research weren't open seven days a week, it was important to discover what teenagers were doing in their free time when they were not at the golf club. As was discussed in Chapter Two, according to analyze, interpersonal skills are an important part of the transition into adulthood (Spence, 2005). However, the effect of socialisation and peer group pressure can have differing effects on individuals. It really is obvious to see from physique 7 below, socialising with friends is a huge part of the young people's lives.

It is interesting to observe that only a small proportion (2), which is a quarter of young people thought that they 'got into trouble' in their free time. This figure could be a result of a number of different factors such as different views as to what is classed as 'getting into trouble', for example is it only 'trouble' if you have destroyed the law or when you are being 'antisocial'? Subjective factors such as these would have influenced the answers distributed by the participants which must be considered when analysing the findings

Keeping out of trouble

The young people were asked to rate the amount of their arrangement to the declaration 'arriving to the youth club retains me out of trouble' (question 3). It is published that the results (see physique 8 below) are encouraging on several levels. First of all, no-one disagreed with the assertion therefore it is possible to dispute that the youngsters clubs may help reduce youth crime, at least for the period in which the young people went to the team. Support because of this argument can be found in the actual fact that 62. 5% of young people rated their scope of arrangement at 4 or above on the range.

To make a primary comparison, the children employees were asked the same question (question

6). The email address details are also illustrated in number 3 above. It must be appreciated when interpreting these findings that the test size of both groups were different, as the young people sample (n=8) was bigger than the youth staff member sample (n=6). The conclusions from the children workers indicate a solid extent of arrangement that youth golf clubs do help keep teenagers out of trouble, illustrated by the fact nearly all responses (4: 66. 7%) were proclaimed 4 or above on the size.

# Comparative means to indicate the amount of contract to the declaration that 'youth clubs keep young people out of trouble'

The role of the youth staff member:

Question 1-Young ones Employees/ Question 10-Young people

It was important to discover what the young people and the youth workers identified to be the role of the youth worker to be able to see if there have been any major variances. If they were there, these would have to be resolved in order to supply the service that young people want and need. The teenagers in the stated that 'someone to provide help/advice' as the primary role of your youth employee. 'Help/advice/information' is one perception of the role that is distributed by both young people and youth individuals.

There was a notable difference in that teenagers noticed that to 'provide activities' was an factor of the role, as opposed to youth workers. These details was difficult to quantify the info into categories in that the answers given by the youth workers were very serious, whereas the young people's answers were more centered towards fun and activities instead of being centered on serious matters such as guidance

The NYA helps bring about that the key purpose of youngsters work is 'the personal and communal development of young people and their sociable addition' (NYA, 2006:6). . Compared to Merton's study (2004), which found the role of your youth worker to be a sociable educator and mentor, it is possible to argue these elements are also noticeable in the conclusions out of this research as supporting, advising and guiding teenagers can match both of the tasks Merton found.

Referring to the literature review, I had fashioned based mostly my research on the risk factors discovered by the house office that raise the chances of teenagers be engaged in ASB. Within these risk factors, peer pressure was founded as one of the risk factors associated with ASB. My results supported this as 7 out of 8 young people mentioned duplicating their friends, seeking to 'fit' in and peer pressure as grounds for participating in ASB.

Chapter Four

Discussion, Conclusions and Implications

4. 1 The main findings

The study discovered that there was a higher level of arrangement amongst teenagers and youth personnel that going to the junior club keeps young people out of trouble. Hence, it is argued that youth work has already been adding to ASB prevention, at least through the period in which the youth golf clubs are wide open.

Regarding what the individuals thought were the most crucial services to provide, Q4-YW and Q9-YP, the analysis found a difference of judgment not only between youth workers and young people, but also amongst youth workers themselves. Young people felt a spot to socialise, access to information and advice, and a safe location to be were the most crucial services, whereas overall young ones workers thought enthusiastic staff and the building of human relationships were paramount. If young ones work were to hold a considerable ASB or criminal offense prevention role, distinctions such as these would need to be straightened out in order to ensure the main services are plainly defined in terms of the particular teenagers want and need from the golf clubs.

With regard to the beneficial function of youngsters work, it was discovered that youth work does indeed indeed play an important role in informing young people about ASB, criminal offense and justice issues.

This provides the foundation on which to claim that youth work has an vitally important role in providing teenagers with information on important issues.

The study found that young people were more likely to approach a youngsters staff member for support and advice. This is very encouraging in conditions of youngsters work keeping and maintaining a successful role in ASB protection, as it would be paramount that teenagers feel both confident and comfortable in getting close to youth staff for help. It was also illustrated that generally young people employ a good attitude towards youth individuals, which supports the debate that youth employees have the potential to cross the barriers with young people where others fail, especially in conditions of promoting pro-social behavior and social inclusion. This finding also reinforces the debate for specific ASB and criminal offense protection training.

The conclusions also illustrated that there is a notable difference of opinion regarding the role of a youth worker between young people and youth workers, and again between youth employees themselves. The discord amongst youth workers regarding the viewpoints of these role can be evidenced in the actual fact that there surely is strong contract that participating in a youth golf club keeps young people out of trouble, but little arrangement that dealing with young people vulnerable to offending is a substantial area of the youth worker role.

It is published that it is difficult to justify these two contradictory ideas and problems may happen in the future if youth personnel maintain these contradictory views. The teenagers felt the primary role of any youth staff member was someone to provide insight, whereas youth employees thought it was the non-public and public development of young people, with no mention of social inclusion. Within their explanations, young people tended to give attention to companionship and fun, whereas junior staff were very serious.

Having identified the main findings from the study it's important to connect these to the wider themes or templates that have emerged.

4. 3 Youth membership opening hours and inherent problems

The research results raised the problem of how long the youngsters clubs are open. Currently, the

Clubs used in the study open on Mon 6-8pm and Thursdays 7-9pm. The conclusions illustrated a higher level of agreement that the youth clubs keep the young people 'out of trouble', only because it provides the young people with a safe spot to go and opportunities to be involved.

The advice therefore would be to open the clubs more often and then for longer intervals, as this could have a positive influence on ASB requests. However, this is not a simple task as there are problems inherent in doing this, for example staffing and money.

The problem of insufficient funding for local children services was raised in Merton's study

(2004). If the youth clubs in this particular study opened more regularly as well as for longer periods of time then more financing would need to be made available. Although this review does not directly concern the funding of the junior service, this problem is important to recognize to be able to perceive the actual difficulties involved with youth work preserving a successful ASB avoidance role.

Funding is also connected to the training opportunities for junior workers, as if youth workers have to be trained specifically in crime prevention this might require more financing being allocated to training. Funding and staffing maintenance are issues that increased opening hours would need to overcome, however with an increase of funding it is argued that will be a manageable and beneficial change.

4. 4 The role of the children worker

Edmunds (2001:32) areas that is is definitely a concern among youth employees that engaging in crime prevention work threatens to undermine some of the central tenants of junior work, such as confidentiality. Jeffs and Banks (1999) argue that the majority of the difficult choices faced by junior employees are about weighing up the necessity to protect or control young people as against respecting their to self-determination. Maybe it's argued that some of the dilemmas that come up relate to the fact that youth workers have to take into account not only the needs and pursuits of the young people but also the rules of the service they work for, in addition to any legal requirements they may hold.

How youth workers make these selections will depend on many factors; however it is submitted that a person of the most crucial factor is that they perceive their role in relation to young people, for example are they generally educators, controllers, advocates or occupations? Again, a more clarified role, perhaps gained through increased training and consciousness, could answer this question.

4. 5 Conclusion

The ultimate question therefore is whether children work can favorably contribute to ASB reduction. After reviewing the prevailing literature, doing this research and speaking about its findings, it is submitted that youngsters work already contributes to ASB and crime protection. However, it is argued that given the right money and training, youngsters work could play a much more significant and successful role in ASB elimination than it presently holds.

When considering the possibilities of children work, this research looks at the wider picture, instead of one off prevention programmes and assignments for teenagers.

In order to reach your goals, youth work would have to ensure which it empowers somewhat than adjustments or manipulates young people as it is important showing that not only are some young people part of the problem, but they can participate the perfect solution is. Although youth employees may be familiar with this difference at the moment, a considerable ASB and criminal offenses avoidance role could blur the limitations and therefore alter the performance of children workers, thus it would be important to ensure this is clear.

It is therefore concluded that looking into the future interests of teenagers and their areas, youth work should take every possibility to engage in all ASB avoidance strategies in order to influence youth crime insurance policy and practice in light of the perception and perspectives that young ones work holds. It could add its particular competence and help secure young people's words and effect in the governance of the young ones justice system. It would be a mistake to ignore the potential that youth work holds in helping to prevent and reduce

ASB amongst teenagers in our areas. Regardless of the keenness of the junior service and its own youth workers, in the end the decision as to the role young ones work will play in avoiding ASB will lay down with the government, policy manufacturers and crime prevention strategists as they contain the key to allocating the ever before important financing and resources that will drive and underpin any protection strategy. It could only be hoped that every effort was created to explore every possible avenue and the role of junior work is not dismissed, as this could be a fundamental problem.

This research set out to conduct an original little bit of research on the role of children work in

preventing ASB amongst young people. It really is submitted that this research has achieved its purpose by looking at whether youngsters work could play an active role in protecting against young people commit ASB which in turn leads to criminal offenses and teenagers entering the youth justice system. They have found some similarities with Merton's (2004) research on the impact of junior work in Great britain, especially with regard to the role a children worker contains, and also research conducted in america by Sherman et al (1997) who suggests that the main element to crime prevention lays within the community. Up to now, the researcher is unaware of any new research published concerning the role of junior work in ASB elimination in Great britain.

4. 6 Recommendations

The research conducted because of this report has shown to be both useful and interesting.

However, in hindsight there are elements to the study that the researcher would do differently. Firstly, the assortment of main data would be completed sooner, as sometimes it was challenging to maintain the specified time span. Earlier assortment of most important data would also allow time to execute semi-structured interviews with children employees, which would be more likely to produce some further perception. Interviews would perhaps be achieved in addition to questionnaires in order any questions due to the completion of the questionnaires could be discussed thoroughly with the youngsters worker. Secondly, it might be very interesting to extend the study to other young ones clubs. This might also improve the sample size of the analysis and it could therefore be possible to generalise from the conclusions. Finally, it might be interesting to add some form of observation within the study to see how young people and youth workers interact.

With respect to any further research that might follow from these conclusions, it might be interesting to research how youth staff are trained in all the establishments that offer children work training. This might be a useful project if young ones work were to carry a substantial criminal offenses reduction role within the city in the foreseeable future, as training has been highlighted as a potential problem area with such a job.

Although the conclusions of the research won't have any direct effect on coverage or practice, it could still give a foundation which to make further knowledge and knowledge of the probable of junior work in offense prevention, or at least offer an interesting insight for many who work in the domains of youngsters work and criminal offense prevention.

My ideas for coverage would be

Focus insurance policies on fighting with each other boredom in teenagers as it obviously has been shown to be the main contributor for ASB

Ensure that junior work challenges teenagers and helps their learning and development

Ensuring youth employees, regardless of them being part time, regular or volunteers are trained to promote consistency

Suggestions for practice would be

Extend hours for young ones clubs

Making sure all children employees are trained regardless of status

Introduce different stimulating tasks that will divert teenagers;s attention from ASB activities

Be a lot more involved and involve young people and communities in implementing and amending interpersonal policies

As the researcher writes this article, its election time in England and various political get-togethers are fighting each other to be the best with policies on ASB and crime. As stated in the release, Labour's slogan since 1997 is 'challenging on crime, difficult on the causes of criminal offense'. Today, 2010 election advertising campaign, they are guaranteeing fast and effective action to cope with antisocial behaviour by giving Family Intervention Projects and growing the US-style avenue teams designed to use junior pastors and vetted ex-offenders to attain out to disaffected teenagers; To ensure there are more things for teens to do, they state, they will double the option of organised children activities on Friday and Saturday times. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/12_04_10_labour_manifesto. pdf

The Conservatives state that they will fight back against criminal offenses and anti-social behaviour that blights communities. They will take the appropriate steps to reduce the causes of criminal offenses, like poverty and brokenfamilies. http://media. conservatives. s3. amazonaws. com/manifesto/cpmanifesto2010_lowres. pdf

The Liberal Democrats areas that they will focus on what works to minimize crime. They will support more positive activities for young people to stop them getting involved with a life of offense. http://network. libdems. org. uk/manifesto2010/libdem_manifesto_2010. pdf

All the above manifestos from politics parties recognise a few of the recommendations I have mentioned above therefore confirming the fact that youngsters work assists with preventing teenagers involvement in ASB activities.

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