Drug Abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia | Research Proposal

BACKGROUND STUDY

Drug abuse is a reason behind concern to all or any nations throughout the world either in developing countries and undeveloped countries and in both cases the most damaged are the youth, . Because of the rapid upsurge in drug related crime and drug abusers in Parts of asia, the establishment of effective countermeasures for demand and supply reduction are a pressing issue. And if they are all overlooked to be dependent on dangerous narcotics, it can result in all social ills like road accidents, high crime rates, unplanned pregnancies, school dropouts and so many more which may cause fracturing the moral fibre of the united states and eventually the nation will be without prominent future leaders. The abuse of drugs has an adverse impact, not only on the average person abuser, but also on the economy and society of the country all together.

According to Scorzelli JF, (2009) regardless of the heavy punishment of death imposed by the Malaysian government for whoever is caught in drug possession, within the last five years, the Malaysian drug abuse problem has escalated. It has led to the upsurge in social ills like HIV/AIDS which is contracted by the use of IV-Heroin. He continued to convey that 93. 7% of folks caught in drug possession are male aged between 20-29 years. This clearly demonstrates our youth are in dire need of thorough drug and peer education.

The National Anti-Drug Agency has been on the right track to reduce the drug problem in Malaysia by 2015. When interviewed by the brand new Straits Times (2010, February) the director-general Datuk Abdul Bakir Zin has remarked that they have got helped out around the united states to bring addicts to their rehabilitation centre. He has said that the centre spends around RM 300 million which is their total annual budget which is nearly allocated to prevention, treatment, rehabilitation of addicts and enforcement operations. Addicts are kept for just two years and they are released however, many of them get back to their negative traits.

STATEMENT FROM THE PROBLEM

Drug abuse has led to an alarming increase of social ills in the society like HIV/AIDS contraction, road accidents and many more which have resulted in the collapse of the moral fibre of the country. The medical and psychological effects are very obvious. Addicts cannot work as normal members of society. They neglect or abuse their own families, and finally require expensive treatment or hospitalization. Huge police resources are had a need to fight smuggling and dealing. Criminal gangs and mafia underworlds develop with the amount of money from drugs. However the main target should be the user. Families and counsellors need to talk to children and folks at risk. The fact that the youth is the most damaged especially in Malaysia poses a great concern because the youth are "the near future leaders of tomorrow".

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The specific study of the analysis is to find ways and methods to educate the folks of Malaysia especially the youth about the dangers posed by the abuse of drugs. This initiative itself can lead to positive results such as reduced number of drug abusers therefore leading to a low numbers of social ills such as HIV contractions and crime. There should be a diversion programme for drug abusers that can be institutional or community based.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

To justify this study, the researcher will investigate the next matters
  • How many cases of illicit drugs were registered from 2006 to 2011 in Malaysia
  • How individuals are damaged psychologically, physically and economically by the abuse of drugs
  • Does the government play a role in reducing the condition of drug abuse?

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Generally the study of substance abuse phenomenon that is widely occurring in Malaysia will be an endeavour to advertise a much healthy lifestyle that is a drug -free society. Drug-free society means a lot to a country of about 28, 310, 000 people. This means less crime such as road accidents, thefts and murders, less HIV & AIDS positive, less people in the narcotics rehabilitations centre and more manpower to be able to bring Malaysia towards becoming a fully developed country. By understanding the main source of the problems, we can all move together to cure as well concerning prevent further advance of the spreading illness in our community.

The Malaysian psychiatric association (July 6 2006) has cited that whenever women that are pregnant abuse drugs there may be foetal abnormalities in particular when the pregnancy is early. These deformities may cause the mother to dump the infant, a crime which happens to be increasing in Malaysia. If the drug was used late in the pregnancy may become reliant on opiates, and could later show withdrawal symptoms after delivery.

The United Nations Aids (2010) on the report have pointed out that an estimated 170, 000 injecting drug users (IDUs). In those users the majority of them share the needles therefore there exists increased spread of the diseases such as HIV/AIDS because likely they do not sterilise such needles.

Moreover, this study will reveal almost all of things behind these drug abuse cases, therefore will significantly raise the awareness of the community about the cases of substance abuse in this country simultaneously contribute in reducing such cases in community.

SCOPE WITH THE REPORT

We undertook the task of reviewing all studies describing the impact of substance abuse at Kuala Lumpur. The population appealing includes injection drug users, and non-injection drug users of heroin, cocaine and marijuana, because these sets of people have been discovered as using a biological threat of exposure to addictive drug use, including deadly exposure (via injection drug use) to blood-borne via sharing of straws or pipes used to administer drugs (non-injection drug use). Data from questionnaires are analyzed separately, as they different substantially form interview data, and because their drug-related risk factors are very different and not elaborated further.

Another goal is to look at the influence of study methodology on study findings, particularly because the descriptive data may be strongly influenced by sampling methods, and because study design may affect associations between various characteristics and drug use. Since the brand data collection was completed using information collected from various associations, usage of each data was frustrating. We also don't have any compiled data of approved unregistered drug users making the duty very complicated. Such database may be hard to obtain as most drug users choose in which to stay the dark as they know there's a capital punishment for such a crime.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Drugs - A medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or elsewhere introduced in to the body

Abuse - To use something to bad effect or for a negative purpose

Addict - Somebody who is addicted to a particular substance

Rehabilitation - Restore to former privileges

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2. 0 Introduction

In the literature review we compare studies by other folks and we note how different these are from ours. We've read journals, books and articles in Science Direct. In this chapter we're able to expand our knowledge how other writers view the issue at hand. We have displayed various ways of the data we found, either by citing using the APA format, images and tables.

2. 1 Literature Review

By the year 1983, the challenge of drugs was declared a national emergency by the Malaysian government. Everyone convicted of trafficking and those caught with the drugs with respect to the amount of drugs that they had in their possession were sentenced to death, those were some of the ways the government was trying to resolve the condition but if someone was convicted of limited to possession of drugs he/she was devote a rehabilitation centre for 24 months. Once realised from the centre, the average person has twelve months of probation were he or she has two urine tests a month.

Drug, extracted from Cambridge Dictionaries Online, falls into two categories that are medicine and unlawful substance. Within the medicine category, the word drug means any natural or artificially made chemical which is utilized as a medicine while in the category of illegitimate substance, drug means any natural or artificially made chemical which is taken for pleasure, to boost someone's performance of a task, or just because a person cannot stop deploying it. The latter meanings actually portraying the primary fascination with this study which is the action of substance abuse, which by the same source, abuse methods to use or treat someone or something wrongly or badly, especially in a way that is to your own advantage.

This unhealthy phenomenon is actually a worldwide crisis and may bring along a great impact in one's life, consequently a community, and then will affect the growth of a country. Some said that this crisis is the same age as humankind. It really is inside our nature that people like to consume things that bring us pleasure and being in the state of euphoria. However, we should first consider the side effects of the intake of such substances. There is enormous number of researches that had been carried out in order to suppress or banish this crisis all around the globe. There are ups and downs for the trends of the substance abuse cases but it had never been ceased completely.

Kuala Lumpur as a busy place, most of the inhabitants need drugs to cope with the fast life. These drugs can be addictive substances such as heroine, alcohol, and ecstasy pills. The research by the Malaysian Psychiatric Association (2006), showed that the mind is afflicted by the consumed drugs. The left area of the brain is affected is named the reward pathway. Continued use of drugs short-circuits the reward pathway which how dependency starts. The mind will then need more and more large quantities of the substance taken over time. The brain chemistry is altered at this time, therefore behavioural patterns starts here.

Drugs like cocaine can result in long lasting damage, death and even addition. From this article adapted from "RECOVERY NOW" website on cocaine effects, it is mentioned that we now have two different categories of cocaine effect. These effects are reported to be long termed and short termed. It doesn't matter how many times a person uses cocaine even once! he\she experiences short-term cocaine effects which include increased blood pressure, mental alertness, increased heart rate, decreased appetite and increased body's temperature. The long-term effects appear after increased periods useful. Long lasting effects include irritability, mood disturbances and restlessness.

Marijuana is also one of the very most commonly abused drug and in line with the American Council For Drug Education they describe it as a mild hallucinogen with some alcohol's depressant which results in bronchitis, emphysema and bronchial asthma. In addition they continue to stress that marijuana leads to reduced amount of learning ability which is one of the reasons why most students who smoke marijuana conclude performing badly at school as it limits the capability to absorb information as it is highly addictive.

In an craving state a person partcipates in a compulsive behaviour, even when faced with challenging life situations. Looking at the fast life in Kuala Lumpur a lot of challenges are faced by the youth there, these include unemployment, lack of a loved one or poverty. These situations can make you excessively use drugs to suppress such hurt felt within.

The National Anti-Drug Agency (New Straits 12 February 2010) has used over RM 300 million annually to avoid, treat, and rehabilitate addicts. They want to achieve the target for a drug-free Malaysia in 2015 and drug-free Malaysian schools in 2012. The director of the agency Datuk Abdul Bakir Zin has mentioned that there surely is an alarming rate of drug abusers on the increase. The agency successfully rehabilitated 11 395 addicts in 2009 2009 but only 51% of the addicts are clean now. That shows that the drug addicts don't have enough out of rehabilitation education.

B. Vicknasigngam, M. Mazlan, K. S Schotchfield, M. C Chawaski(2009), stated that heroin and injection drug are the major public health risk cases recorded in Malaysia. Furthermore they continue to state from other findings, between your year 1998 and 2006 individuals near to 300 000 individuals were registered as persistent drug abusers in Malaysia. In between the years 1998-2006 heroin was the primary primary drug abused around 62. 6% of these were registered. And this caused a main concern for the Malaysian government as it lead to upsurge in social ills like road accidents as well as the rise in HIV contraction as the drug abusers shared the same needle hence the spread of the virus was induced.

Despite the Malaysian strict law on use of against the law drugs people still continue steadily to use the unlawful drugs and also have even attended an extent of making it into an enterprise to finance their lifestyle. Regulations clearly states that anybody within possession of at least 15 grams of heroin, 200 grams of cannabis is presumed. The National Drug Agency, Malaysia in 2006 around 22, 811 drugs users was recorded and 12, 430 of whom were repeat offenders. In addition they stress that the total quantity of drug users recorded for the time of 1998-2006 is 300, 241 people which constitutes to at least one 1. 1% of the Malaysian's population.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3. 1 Introduction

The introduction highlights the info collection methods that have been used to assemble information which enabled us to reach our conclusion. One of the vital aspects we looked into was the validity and reliability of the data collection methods that people decided to use.

In our research we found that the ideal data collection methods that people can use are the questionnaire and interview for analysis

Questionnaires are extremely cost effective when compared to face-to-face interviews. This is especially true for studies involving large sample sizes and large geographic areas. Written questionnaires become even less expensive as the number of research questions increases. Questionnaires are easy to analyze. Data entry and tabulation for almost all surveys can be easily finished with many computer software packages. Everybody has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive plus they reduce bias. The researcher's own opinions won't influence the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner. There are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent. When a respondent receives a questionnaire in the mail, he is absolve to complete the questionnaire on his own time-table. Unlike other research methods, the respondent is not interrupted by the research instrument.

Some of why questionnaires are widely used as data collection method in reports and projects in the actual fact that the responses are gathered in a standardised way so questions will be more objective, certainly more so than interviews, generally it is relatively quick to accumulate information using questionnaires and information can be collected from a huge portion of an organization.

For our research a questionnaire, written both in English and Malay comprising A3 size pages was sent to different agencies/organizations that have been requested to answer it. The primary contents of the questionnaire included;

  • Prevention of drug abuse
  • Outline organizations handling drug abuse problem
  • Institutional treatment programmes for drug abusers
  • Outline drug control laws

Interviews are also one of the most convenient ways of data collection for reports projects and investigations as they provide first hand information from the correspondent. The interview is also flexible in the since that follow-up questions can be asked, also clarity of the question can be made if the respondent will not understand. Though it has overwhelming advantages one of its major problems maybe that the correspondent may feel just like shy to give out information and in that case the interviewer can solve the problem by assuring the correspondent that whatever he/she has been interviewed for will be considered confidential no matter what. For our research, interviews were conducted with the relevant agencies/organizations. Firstly we set an appointment with them and informing them of our objectives.

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