Social Disorganization means the disruption or breakdown of the framework of social relations and values resulting in the increased loss of social controls over person and group tendencies, the development of interpersonal isolation and discord, and a sense of estrangement or alienation from the mainstream of one's culture; the problem or express of anomie (dictionary). Sociable Disorganization Theory is a theory that is less than one hundred yrs. old. The founders of the theory are Shaw and McKay. Friendly disorganization theory was developed in the first 1900's in Chicago, Illinois, founded upon the fact that the founders of the theory had been researching juvenile court records for more than one 10 years (Pratt, Gau, and Franklin 43). The idea suggested that there were high rates of criminal offenses using neighborhoods; particularly somewhat poor neighborhoods. Once Shaw and Kay learned these results, they thought that offense was no more based on the individual alone, but way more the composition of a nearby and what a nearby consisted of socially; neighbor's level of interaction with one another, along with their ability to modify the youth with their community (Pratt, Gau, and Franklin 44).
There are several factors that will help determine public disorganization within the community. A few of these factors include: low socioeconomic status, high rates of home mobility, increased variety within the community and single-parent households (Pratt et al. 44, Barton et al. 247, and Kingston et al. 54). However, one of the main factors frequently used to determine sociable disorganization is domestic mobility. Residential freedom is the frequent
change of home, either in the same city or town, or between towns, states or neighborhoods (dictionary). Residential range of motion has the ability to socially disorganize any community. Neighbors' packaging up and moving more frequently than not, puts a strain on the ability for people to bond with each other and form a a friendly relationship with other residents who also have a home in their community. Another factor that is often used to ascertain cultural disorganization is the socioeconomic status of a specific community. Poor neighborhoods with low income usually contain single-parent residencies. Single-parent homes with small children residing in them, have trouble controlling the youth of their households, aside from the youth of these communities. Lack of self-control to the junior and improper communal skills with their peers causes them to try certain activities that are not only bad for the city but harmful to themselves as well. According to the authors of the article 'A Test of Sociable Disorganization Theory in High-Risk Urban Neighborhoods', "Structurally disadvantaged neighborhoods that lack the resources to effectively keep an eye on children (such as: summer camps, music lessons, sports training, home computers, and special tutoring) and provide few sanctions for incorrect behavior are likely to have a higher range of delinquent peer teams available to youthPoorly monitored youth will socialize with deviant peers and to take part in misconduct" (Kingston et al. 58-59).
As stated before, interpersonal disorganization occurs mainly in poor neighborhoods with high residential mobility & lack of socializing between the neighbors throughout the city. These factors allow the crime in these communities to grow exponentially. Cultural exclusion and isolation in one another has a negative effect on the city since it creates a gateway for criminal offense to occur. With nobody from the city willing to step up and organize categories like 'The Neighborhood Watch' or etc. , it generates opportunities for criminal offenses to occur at any given time throughout the community. With no control over the youngsters living in the city, crime tends
to rise. With lack of control over the young ones, gangs have a high risk of developing. When gangs develop, there are a number of negative things that may appear. A number of the negative activities that can stem from gangs are burglaries, vandalism, drug-dealing, and violence, merely to name a few (Mares, 41). The amount of gangs began to rapidly increase in America during the 20th century. Without warning, gangs began showing up and expanding in suburban, rural and metropolitan areas (Mares, 41). This could have been avoided somehow if there have been more unity
within the neighborhoods and if friends and neighbors had been more willing to socialize with one another while agreeing to look out for any dubious behavior using their community. However, it is safe to say that gang violence and homicides has the capacity to demolish neighborhoods and put fear into people while creating isolation throughout the community (Mares, 42). So, if people within a community fear so much the area that they are living in, it creates it harder for them to call the authorities and record a offense; and if indeed they do survey a crime, the chances of them cooperating with the authorities and upgrading as a general public see is not high, because they could feel threatened by the local gang users of the community, as well as scared because of their lives. When this occurs, offense increases within the city because local gang customers feel like they're invincible and as though they can escape with any offense they commit, no matter how large or small the criminal offenses may be (Mares 43).
Social Disorganization started off as a theory fit for metropolitan, rural and suburban neighborhoods. However, throughout the years, public disorganization has progressed from slum neighborhoods to college or university campuses. With the Virginia Technology and North Illinois School shootings, campus criminal offense seems pretty visible in these areas (Barton et al. 245). Based on the authors of this article 'Sociable disorganization theory and the university campus', four-year college or university colleges reported "44 murders, 2, 491 forcible rapes, 1, 386 robberies, 2, 130 aggravated assaults, 25, 978 burglaries, and 3, 410 automobile thefts" back in 2007 in the United States
(Barton et al. 245). Personal mobility can be an apparent factor of communal disorganization on college campuses because most schools do not require their student to live on campus. Students surviving in nearby towns tend to commute back and forth to university everyday. There is also the situation where students get to pick a new room through the room reservation process towards the end of every educational school season. The percentage of students remaining in the same dorm room every year is not very high. Many of these factors regarding home mobility on school campuses
make it very hard for neighboring students in the dormitories to form a lasting bond with each other, since students usually get a fresh neighbor at the start of every educational school year after they move back again onto campus.
Then you have the university students who opt to pledge for a Greek firm on campus. These organizations take up nearly all a student's time. Those students who go on campus but are dedicated to a Greek firm are seldom in their dorm rooms, thus, so that it is that much easier for offences, such as burglaries, to occur on the college or university campus, specifically in the dormitories. Regardless of the positive things that Greek organizations do for the city, crime is very much capable of going on at their happenings, particularly their parties.
Certain offences such as under-age taking in, illegal medicine use and vandalism are, quite definitely so, with the capacity of going on at a Greek organization's university get together (Barton et al. 248). However, regarding to creators of the article 'Public disorganization theory and the college campus', "Stronger community organizations provide more opportunities for positive communal connections, improve formal cultural control by increasing the probabilities that friends and neighbors will observe area activity and intervene when they see potential problems, and in so doing decrease the potential for crime developing" (Barton et al. 248).
The dynamics of a community determine if you will see social disorganization. Certainly openness and communication within the city enhances the
chances of gaining more control over the junior residing in close by homes of the neighbors, including the homes of their own (if they have any). Approaching together and unifying to form protection groupings such as 'The Community Watch', will give people within the city a feeling of safety and protection. So, if someone from 'The Community Watch' witnesses a offense taking place with their community, they could feel well informed and safe about getting in touch with the authorities to report it, since they will contain the support of the 'The Area Watch' within the city to fall again on.
Aside from unity and proper communication between the residents of your community, the quality of the institutions' within the community have a solid ability to decrease social disorganization. Colleges in just a community that are not overcrowded or lacking basic needs such as teaching products and up-to-date content material literature, makes the students who are participating in that particular establishment more guaranteed to gain a quality education (Kingston et al. 58). This will give them more of an interest in pursuing a higher education, such as college, which will provide them with motivation to target more on school by getting good levels and becoming more associated with extracurricular activities, instead of getting into trouble out in the roads with their community.
According to the written text publication Key Ideas in Criminology and Offender Justice, the writers conclude at the end of section four that "levels of communal disorganization may affect casual control and legal opportunity system, which, subsequently, directly influence community crime rates" (Pratt et al. 50).
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