Failure TO ATTAIN Positively Valued Goals Criminology Essay

Criminology is a multidisciplinary field of analysis, comprising ideas from the disciplines of sociology, psychology, law, politics, history and economics to explain crime. In an ever-changing society, ideas that help out with explaining criminal behavior often emerged and subsequently fade. Theories are essential in a way that they help us in understanding the way in which where the justice system functions. It shows how things are and what they shouldn't be. Additionally, it may assist in detailing crime that occurs on a large, general size or on the smaller, individual-based range. Explanations for criminal behavior is a focal point in addressing the question as to how crime can be prevented as it is occurring at an instant pace worldwide. On this paper, we will be considering and researching a few of these theories and how it can be used for offense reduction purposes if we are able to comprehend these ideas easily.

Essentially, there are 13 types of criminology theory. However, only 3 are considered mainstream and for the intended purpose of this paper, we are focussing on these 3. They are really: Tension, Learning and Control Theory.

Strain theory is the one which has been brushed away however anticipated to recent advancements in criminology, it has been given more attention. A fresh theory was brought to light by Robert Agnew which was called the General Pressure theory.

According to the overall pressure theory there are 2 major types of strain. The failure to achieve positively respected goals and the display of negative stimuli.

Failure to accomplish positively valued goals

Agnew observed that members of population seek to achieve various goals in their life span. Wealth becomes a significant cause of tension when people who have too little it try to obtain through illegitimate and unlawful means. Studies have proven that the desire to acquire wealth was not straight proportional to criminal offenses however it does indeed support the fact that juvenile delinquents do yearn for large amounts of money.

Strongly related to the desire for prosperity is the desire for status and esteem. Generally, people do desire to be treated with admiration by others, which at the least involves being cured in a just and fair manner. However, some theorists have observed that the actual fact that many juvenile delinquents desire to achieve the label to be "manly". It has been found to be significantly highly relevant to crime.

However, not everyone views "manliness" in the same light. Most views however emphasise characteristics like independence, dominance, toughness and competitiveness. Many guys especially those who are immature, lower-class and belong to minority categories face difficulties in satisfying their have to be perceived as one. Hence, they could turn to offense to achieve and match this stereotype. In this regard, they may adopt a tough perspective, react to being mistreated in the littlest manner with assault and even assault sometimes.

Loss of positive stimuli/Display of negative stimuli

Strain may also arise when something valuable or precious is taken away from someone or when there is a negative stimuli within their lives. These negative treatments may cause an individual to be annoyed or angry and can lead to them committing offense to vent such thoughts. Studies have discovered that the more negative events present in ones' life, increases the chances of crime taking place. Specially, it's been associated with child abuse and lack of attention, physical and mental abuse by their parents and so on.

Having said that, any risk of strain theory is a comparatively new theory that has a broad scope in relation to crime and there isn't much data as of yet to refute or support this theory as yet.

Learning Theory

Some theories in criminology assume that criminality is a function and an result of individual socialisation, how people have been influenced by their past experiences or relationships with members of the family, peer groups, educators and other real estate agents of socialisation. It is based on principles such as modelling and observational learning. People, especially children at a young and impressionable age, learn from their environment and seek popularity by learning through important models and eventually follow in their footsteps not being able to deduce from wrong at such an age. Differentiation Connection is a theory developed by Edward Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, people learn the ideas, attitudes, method and purpose for unlawful behaviour. This theory specifically concentrates about how people learn to become criminals but will not address the key question of why they become criminals in the first place.

Despite its generally favourable reception, the theory of differentiation relationship hasn't lacked its critics like many other theories. A common criticism, as found in Vold's Theoretical Criminology, promises that the theory fails to take into account the actual fact that not everyone who comes into contact with criminality, begins to check out that same journey. This theory also claims that when the total amount of law-breaking and law-abiding is disrupted, a person will walk down the criminal path.

The relevance of the learning theory has been important in the training policies in the United States. It includes used as a basis for mentoring programs to prevent future criminal behavior, which will be discussed later in depth.

Control Theory

In a nutshell, control theory puts forth the idea that people with weakened bonds between individuals and the world, has an increased chance of deviating and going astray. Therefore suggesting that folks with strong bonds between their family and good friends and positive affects in their life are significantly less more likely to deviate and enjoy criminal behavior.

According to Travis Hirschi, norms can be found to prevent deviant behaviour, leading to conformity and communities. Hirschi argued that a person comes after norms because they have a relationship with population. These interpersonal bonds have 4 elements: opportunity, attachment, belief and involvement. When any one of the bonds are damaged or weakened, there's a higher chance a person will action in defiance and holiday resort to offense.

While control theory offers an enough and concise justification of non-serious forms of vibrant delinquency, it does not explain adult legal behavior and serious cases of youth offense. As explained above, children who are properly bonded with their parents would be less involved in crime than those who have weaker parental bonds. Evidently, this theory serves on the assumption that the family can be an unsurprisingly law-abiding custom. The theory's biggest weakness is the fact it places too much emphasis on the bonds with regards to a person and modern culture, without taking into consideration other notions like autonomy and recklessness.

Crime Prevention

In considering ways concerning how crime can be reduced, we will also be turning our target to certain ideas that have a tendency to exacerbate this problem at hand instead of stopping it from happening. However, it will be beneficial to first discuss its definition.

Crime prevention is a term often used and abused by many searching for a cause no-one can trust. Given that the term "crime" comprises of a awfully wide variety of activities, whether it be smoking cannabis or murdering someone, it is inaccurate to speak of crime in a general manner. Crime, like the symptom of an illness, should be observed as an indication of how and where contemporary society is not functioning in the way that it will. There is large quantity to be gained from societies with a higher rate of criminal offenses in how and what to avoid and also in societies with lower incidences of crime, about how a contemporary society should the truth is be.

The major section in methods to crime avoidance is between your social solutions and the situational approaches. The former is concerned with the social issues that offense reflects and makes an attempt to deal with them. The second option is much more worried about success in minimizing a specific crime independent of sociable and structural issues. The difference between communal and situational offense prevention is similar to Bright's variation between crime avoidance and criminality avoidance.

5. 1 Situational Criminal offense Prevention (SCP)

SCP represents a highly realistic and request of both theory of criminal offending and empirical analyses of criminal offenses patterns. The main advantage is the fact that it targets the implications and assumptions of those broader theoretical positions in a way that is useful for crime elimination.

Two major theoretical areas underpin situational reduction: Schedule Activity Evaluation being the target indicators of criminal offenses incidence and the analysis of offender decision making. This will likely be considered within the next section of the newspaper.

Routine Activity Theory

The Schedule Activity Theory (RAT) offers a simple and insightful detail as to the reasons crimes appear and what causes them. The main idea is that without proper mechanisms in place, delinquents will quarry after attractive and fragile targets. For any crime to occur, a encouraged offender must be present at the same location as the attractive target. Regarding property crimes, the prospective will be the object present. For personal offences, the target would be a person. In the event that an attractive target is not present at the same location as the stimulated offender, we can clearly deduce that the criminal offenses will not take place. Having said that, there's also controllers in whose existence, a crime will not occur. When the controllers are absent or lack electricity, crime will likely take place.

In discussing this theory comprehensive, we will switch our attention to people who play an important role in the lives of potential offenders. In working with juveniles, these folks might be members of the family, close relatives, peer, teachers and so forth. In the case of adult offenders, these folks may include partners, closefriends, relations and sometimes their own children. These people are referred to 'handlers' when coping with this theory. Offences will need place when handlers are fragile, corrupt or absent.

Next, we consider the target or the victims. Essentially guardians do their upmost best to deter goals from burglary and harm and potential victims from dropping prey for an offender. Formal guardians would are the police force, guards and so on. Informal guardians will include neighbours, friends and passerby who so are actually in the same place as the offender. Plainly, an offender is less likely to punch in the occurrence of the guardian than one in the absence of a guardian.

Lastly, we consider the area or location where the crime will need place. Place managers who generally own and deal with a specific location, is responsible for deterring crimes and keeping a close eye on any criminal activity happening for the reason that specified location.

In considering this theory, the tool used to perform the criminal offenses is also very essential. Examples of these tools can include spray color cans, guns, knives, cars and so forth. Offenders who do not possess such tools will not as likely have the ability to intimidate place managers or handlers and even enter into unauthorised locations. In addition, it recommends means of overcoming such incidences by stepping up on preventive methods. For example, guardians may have a pepper spray can or something that might frighten the offender and gain attention from the general public, have a security shield or an authoritative number present in such areas etc. In addition, gates, fences, barriers, barb wires can be installed to prevent offenders from breaking in. With such precautionary measures in place and the utilization of certain tools, the probability of keeping offenders away will definitely be increased and subsequently, will lead to a decrease in crime.

Another method that influences the tedious activities to deter from criminal behavior is the moral beliefs and socialization of the offender. If one has been socialized to maintain such beliefs, even in the occurrence of unlawful opportunities, offenders would step from crime rather than enjoy such activities. This reinforces the effectiveness of public bonds that RAT aims to promote also to serve as a hurdle to counteract the enticement of legal activities.

However, RAT only considers legal behaviour and victimisation in a very broad and general sense. It instructs us who's much more likely to be victimised but will not tackle the problem of who the offender is. Hence, it could be slightly misleading if it is applied in the small sense.

Labelling Theory

Labelling theory considers why people committing certain works become defined as deviant whereas other theories do not. In addition, it deals with the effects on individuals who are labelled in a certain manner.

Deviant behaviour is usually behaviour that goes against typical, that cause general population condemnation and one which is usually confronted with disapproval. When someone has been labelled a criminal, the label attached may become the 'expert status' which is seen as the main characteristics of the average person. He or she will be viewed as a 'hooligan' or a thief or a murderer rather than mother, dad or friend. These label holds with it descriptions and prejudices and will cause others interpreting the behaviour of the labelled person in a certain way, mainly negative. For instance, someone who has had a clean record will undoubtedly be treated in another way than someone who has a brief history of stealing or murdering. Therefore would lead to people having little faith in them and not taking them critically. For some, once a deviant labelled has been associated with them, it can result in them getting involved with more unlawful induced activities and subsequently, provide no assist with crime protection. This often happens when people start behaving in the manner they can be stereotyped. Hence, it is vital that to be able certain types of criminal offenses to be prevented, we should try to keep from embracing labelling theory as it will only worsen the problem and promote more offense.

Social Offense Prevention

Social prevention focuses on values and willpower systems that effect whether or not people commit crimes. The term can apply to almost any program that will try to have an effect on the socialisation of individuals or groups viewed as having potential to offend. This is divided in four areas and will be subsequently mentioned briefly. They may be

Community Development

Diversion Programs

Media and other education campaigns

Development avoidance: Early intervention and programs that solve risk and defensive factors.

Community Development

Crime sometimes appears as something of "community disorganisation". Close family, friendship and job ties and networks, which can discourage and sanction antisocial behavior, are argued to be much weaker in high criminal offenses localities. Where neighbourhood ties and sites are relatively fragile, very good fewer people will sanction delinquent behavior. As such, conditioning informal networks can make younger people in particular, less likely to offend. Building local employment opportunities can also assist as it focuses on creating opportunities within neighborhoods. Relevant jobs will need to have potential for upward mobility.

Diversion Programs

The Felony Justice Diversion Program is targeted at preventing the accessibility of first time or low risk defendants into the criminal justice system.

Mentoring programs, as briefly reviewed earlier, typically is designed to lessen offending/reoffending, reduce drug abuse and other risk-taking behaviours, increase young individuals' contribution in education and career and improves self-esteem, social life skills and personal connections.

Mentoring involves a more experienced person dealing with a role of advising a less experienced person, as they'll come to value the more capable person and follow in their footsteps or heed their advice. Such jobs can be utilized at critical junctions or transition details in children's and young people's lives such as referring a person to a mentoring programme after their first contact with the legal justice system.

There is little evidence of the long-term influences of mentoring programmes. However, the increased recognition of mentoring programs as a feasible approach to working with youth has led to a recent growth in the amount of quality of research into its efficiency. Some of these estimation statement positive outcomes for projects dealing with at-risk children and/or young offenders.

Media and other education campaigns

Mass media-based and other education has long been used to change ideals that lead to or help out with justifying problematic behavior. General public health experience suggests such campaigns can bring about significant shifts such as a decrease in smoking, binge drinking etc. In crime avoidance, they are used to improve behaviour and mindsets about violence. More specifically targeted programs can even be developed. Examples include campaigns in key schools to lessen bullying and in the workplace to reduce harassment.

Development Prevention

Studies show that factors early in life may contribute to the onset of delinquency. Termed "risk factors", they can associate both to the average person and to the cultural environment. Researchers such as Hawkins (1999) and Farrington (2000) claim also to possess identified "protective" factors that buffer contact with associated risk and inhibit offending. Defensive factors include things such as school environment, social skills and competence, family tranquility, a prosocial peer group and community engagement.


In final result, it is visible as per that once we can understand the ideas of criminal offense and consider in depth as to the reasons it happens, we may then turn to the several ways to prevent crime. A strategy that simply focuses on stopping crimes could be accused of treating the symptoms and not the primary problem. Hence, it is very vital that to treat the fundamental problem, we first have to consider the ideas behind it as reviewed in the early section of the paper.

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