Humanitarian assistance


Humanitarian assistance, whether provided in disaster, rehabilitative or development scenarios, is invariably provided in unstable surroundings. The region of operation may be unpredictable for various reasons including: it is just a pre, current or post turmoil zone; it is within a pre, current or post, natural devastation zone; and a persistent insufficient development, particularly infrastructural and in basic service delivery, causes the heightened vulnerability of personnel in the field. Therefore humanitarian organizations are continuously controlling the provision of assistance to beneficiaries, alongside the duty of health care they owe their workers to secure their safety. It is also important to notice, that no humanitarian firm, regardless of scale or profile, functions inside the edges of a state without their express consent and invitation, and that in truth this is vital to securing an procedure (UN GA Res. 46/182, 1991: Part I Para 3). In effect, the government, or those get-togethers with effective control over a location, and humanitarian agencies, are in a co-dependent romantic relationship. Although, theoretically, humanitarian aid is meant to be shipped in a politically neutral manner, this is very difficult to attain in practice. This might result in the individuals delivering assistance becoming the mark of a terrorist attack, which includes been categorised by some as a substantial threat to the task of the UN, INGOs and NGOs (Weiss, 2006:Webpage). Other writers argue that help employees are highly vulnerable to becoming victims of violence rather than enough has been done to ensure their security and safety (Brabant, 1999:7-10). Responsibility for the safety and security of humanitarian workers is shared between many: host administration, employing agency, third functions with effective control over areas such as opposition or militant teams, private security companies, and the individuals themselves. But also for the purposes of this study it is the relationship between your talk about and humanitarian firms, analyzed from a SRM perspective, and how this contributes to securing the protection of humanitarian employees from the threat of terrorism, that is of particular interest. As one of the most essential institutes from the humanitarian sector, the UN acknowledges the difficult, sensitive and risky position their personnel are located in when executing their responsibilities. In remarks made to CNN in September 2000, when coming into the UN Headquarters in NY, the ex - UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated: What is unacceptable and really appalling is these young men and women who go to these areas to help -- to aid -- then become goals. They are not at battle with anyone. They gone because they wished to help, they went because they have got compassion, they went because they understand the human being condition and wish to accomplish whatever they can to help. It really is unforgivable these human beings would then become focuses on of either rebels or authorities forces which are at war with each other.


Following the establishment of the US (UN) in 1945 and in newer years, there's been a prolific growth in the amount of humanitarian agencies working to assist states in the event of a crisis; be it brought on by a natural devastation, man-made turmoil, or a lack of internal development preventing the state of hawaii from being able to address the situation alone. These firms operate at various levels: internationally, nationally and community-based; and ever more undertake more varied activities than could ever before have been expected during the formative many years of the United Nations (Charlesworth & Chinkin, 2000:89). Although there may be protagonists who criticise the UN as a behemoth struggling to properly execute its basic functions, there are continual endeavors designed to better address the shortcomings of the organisation, and redress the imbalances triggered through unprecedented progress in the sector. Inside a letter addressed to all or any UN Mind of Agencies, to Senior Officers within MFAs, to all or any UN DOs, and then copied to all or any CSAs and SAs with country-level responsibilities, Sir David Veness, then USG, of the UNDSS, wrote about protecting the basic safety of UN workers: The need for enhanced support from Member Areas has been a consistent suggestion in recent conversations both with member says and in older in-house consultations. While many states will already be getting together with a few of the suggested actions, a focused debate. . . should provide an possibility to identify the spaces and weaknesses and offer impetus to handle them. (2008) This statement essentially inspired the development of the research problem for this dissertation, since in theory both humanitarian agencies at large, and the number state within that they operate, recognize their responsibility to give a safe operating environment for their personnel, however, there are some alarming variances in their abilities to deliver this service in practice for a variety of sophisticated and interdependent reasons. Research shows that the observable upsurge in the number of operators in the humanitarian sector has coincided with a recognized deteriorating security environment which is effectively limiting 'humanitarian space' (Wagner, 2008:Webpage). The word essentially identifies "the ability of humanitarian organizations to work independently and impartially without fear of attack in pursuit of the humanitarian essential" (Sida, 2005:5). It's been widely seen by expert commentators that the simultaneous terrorist disorders on america, of September 11, 2001, displayed a "shift in the international security environment" (Muraviev, 2004:112). Whilst there has been a "flood of literature on international terrorism" (Shearman & Sussex, 2004:1), there is far less materials dedicated to taking into consideration the impact of terrorism on humanitarian employees, and even fewer paperwork isolating specific romantic relationships to research their contribution to securing humanitarians working in the field. This reveals an important chance to further develop the prevailing understanding of the significance of assistance and cooperation in the mitigation of terrorist episodes against specific targets, such as humanitarian employees and assets.


Whilst the term 'terrorism' is becoming entrenched in our words, there remains today no UN convention description that has been broadly agreed upon by a majority of states. Because it is not particularly beneficial to drift between multiple types it will be necessary to settle on a definition for the purposes of this research newspaper. In popularity of the necessity to promote a typical understanding of the word for armed service purposes, the North Atlantic Treaty Company (NATO) adopted the next description: "The unlawful use or threatened use of power or violence against individuals or property in an attempt to coerce or intimidate governments or societies to attain political, spiritual or ideological objectives" (NATO, AAP-6(2008):2-T-5). The word will be employed in this context throughout the paper. For the purposes of this study it'll be necessary to consider the nature of the terrorist threat against humanitarian workers. Commentators have argued that there is 'apparent dread' that humanitarian treatment can be utilised as a political 'Trojan Horse': infringing after express sovereignty and self-reliance, influencing policy, potentially diluting previously entrenched dogma, and spreading liberal democratic ideals; so that there surely is a recognized need to bolster the security of the nation-state, whilst together recognising the vital to invite foreign humanitarian organisations to assist in times of crises (Loehr & Wong, 1995:491-506) Effective SRM strategies are therefore essential to guard the security of aid workers however such actions should be sufficiently 'flexible and versatile' to terrorist hazards, which are increasingly transnational in nature (Hawley, 2005:1). Whilst agencies are often begrudgingly invited to assist the state, the effectiveness of the relationship between your two is critical to their are they are limited by the terms of the contracts made out of the host status and they impact greatly after the conditions where the agencies have the ability to operate (Charlesworth & Chinkin, 2000:89). To evaluate the partnership between companies and web host states as a contributor to the security and safety of humanitarian workers, both the romance in theory and used will be analyzed. The research undertaken has included thought of most important and extra source documents in addition to surveying and interviewing key workers from both the agency and authorities sectors. From your identifiable gaps, some recommendations have been designed to donate to amplifying the data and account of SRM in the humanitarian sector, and to further improve the relationships between states and firms in reputation of the critical role this takes on in the safety of humanitarian staff in the field, especially against the risk of terrorism. This dissertation will show that whilst significant advancements have been designed to secure the safety of humanitarian workers in assistance with expresses, the measures used may have contracted the humanitarian space in which programs operate, and where any decision is taken to increase programmatic access or stay in insecure environments, the decision-making process must represent that staff basic safety is paramount and will not be sacrificed towards other imperatives, to avoid future losses

Literature Review

In order to execute a thorough examination of the nature of condition and agency connections in securing humanitarian personnel against the threat of terrorism, it is necessary to contemplate the SRM premises which international humanitarian organisations operate from, realising crucially they are then designed to the country and regional context. To this end, principal source materials have been considered which include letters, pr announcements and media articles, memoranda of understanding and operational agreements, conventions and treaties, interviews with key humanitarian personnel and survey data added by both authorities officials and humanitarian SMs. Legal situations reinforcing the idea of 'duty of care and attention' owed by employers to secure the safeness of their personnel, are also touched on briefly. Key supplementary source materials formulating the SRM techniques of humanitarian firms are referenced you need to include the UN Field Security Handbook, UNDSS MOSS and MORSS, and RedR-IHE best practices, in addition to reports performed in the wake of key disorders including the UN Ahtisaari and Brahimi Studies. With the exploration of current best practice steps and policies, and observable gaps in execution, areas for improvement become identifiable, critical to formulating suggestions (Gould, 2004 Web site). Research at this point, either obtained though interview and studies or published by organisations, has shown that the increased hazard to humanitarian workers operating in the field is both identified by the Text and proven through statistical compilation; nonetheless it does indeed also fluctuate through peaks and troughs, especially depending on the data being isolated. Whilst history and present studies discovering the terrorist threat against humanitarian personnel and the steps taken to manage the chance, are examined, the material referring specifically to humanitarians is limited in comparison to the great amount of books dedicated to the main topic of terrorism in general. For instance whilst creators such as Kelly & Maghan (2005) contribute to the general knowledge of the type of terrorism, more specific studies associated with certain aspects of humanitarian personnel as the goals of terrorist problems are mostly limited by journal articles, governmental, think reservoir or other insurance policy development institute accounts. Governmental reports investigating humanitarian businesses in insecure surroundings, such as those tabled by the British DFID, whilst useful, are written from a point of view of justifying the spending of general population monies to boost governance in insecure says. Think Tanks like the ODI and their Humanitarian Policy Group have produced useful studies focusing on the developments in assault against 'aid workers', nevertheless the material covers many of the challenges without concentrating specifically on relational aspects such as those existing between coordinator areas and humanitarian businesses. In another record, shared by the Feinstein International Centre, the overall 'Express of the Humanitarian Enterprise' is assessed, and whilst the security of humanitarian employees is considered, the relational aspect explored is that existing, or creating tensions between, expatriate humanitarian Text message as "outsiders" and the local communities benefiting from assistance (Donini et al, 2008:3). Therefore there is apparently little material dedicated specifically to considering the role of the partnership between host and organization as a mitigating component protecting humanitarian employees in hostile environments. The necessity for shared understanding between variety states and humanitarian businesses to promote improved upon security-related tactics, and enhanced opportunities for collaboration, is recognised by Roach et al (2005:8) who condition "Good practice is difficult to co-ordinate and promote nationally and internationally if it lacks the descriptive terms which also permits adaptation to local contexts". In part this is achieved through the introduction of operational agreements, MoUs and by documenting interactions between host expresses and agencies to modify the manner by which agencies secure their staff and how claims intend to co-operate to do this end (De Montclos, 2001:1). However, De Montclos' analysis of the humanitarian functions in Africa also observes deviations from objective, where the point out is identified as a contributor to insecurity, escalating dangers of terror through divisive regulations, which may provide to provoke opposing categories into utilising 'deadly' push, highlighting the value of access to authorities counterparts and open lines of communication. Understanding the nature of the chance is critical to SRM studies (Decker, 2001:1) which is why it is vital to study the types of terrorist attacks perpetrated against humanitarian workers, focusing especially in a post '9/11' context for the purposes of the research paper. Recent instances and their implications improve the understanding of the type of the chance to be mitigated and exactly how state and agency human relationships can both contribute to, and detract from, personnel safety; such as in the case of the deceptive misuse of the Red Mix emblem for the purposes of the 'Ingrid Betancourt' save to free FARC hostages in early July 2008, providing rise to further concerns of retaliatory disorders against humanitarian staff and possessions, and reiterating the need to protect the use of humanitarian 'symbols'. Therefore the research approach because of this paper builds such as a group of SRM stepping rocks, not unlike Gills multiple foci for risk management decision-making (1998:15), from considering how the SRM processes are used to minimise the potential risks to humanitarian personnel, via an study of different models utilised, to considering their efficiency through current evaluations of lately conducted reviews, such as by the UN pursuing disorders in Iraq and Algeria (Durch et al, 2003: 21). Whilst, the abovementioned give attention to the precise nature of the terrorist risk against humanitarian personnel is the beginning point, general SRM and CRM models are highly adaptable and useful theoretical benchmarks, which assist through the examination of point out and agency associations, especially in assessing how they contribute to SRM. This adaptability can be credited to the normal thread in security management, which recognises all manner of risk as inherently unpredictable, as evidenced by Nalla and Newman's classification of CRM: "anticipation, acceptance and appraisal of any risk and the initiation of some action to eliminate the chance or decrease the potential reduction from it to an acceptable level" (1990:92). Other theoretical perspectives useful to the analysis include Gill's security 'management techniques' (1998:14-15) which can be evidently detectible in the general UN practice of emphasising security as the duty of every employee, from the recruitment stage onwards, as a frontline device to deter and mitigate risk (US, 2006:4-2). Therefore, by utilising a SRM perspective in examining status and agency connections as an integral contributing factor in securing the safety of humanitarian staff from the threat of terrorism, this research will provide important insights in to the conditions required to keep staff protection central in decision-making processes during the do of humanitarian operations

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