Keywords: biological criminal offenses, psychology offense, sociology crime
In this I will be looking at different theories which entail criminology, once I've completed that I am going to research one sociological and one internal theory. At the same time I am going to look at the normal factors that might influence criminal offenses. I am also heading to be looking at what criminology is and lots of different facets of criminal offense.
What is criminology?
What is crime?
My meaning of offense would be that it's something that someone has done wrong, which is breaking regulations. So should be punished for this.
Another description for offense would be crime is the breach of your rule or laws that some governing authority or power may ultimately recommend a punishment.
http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Crime
Right or incorrect?
- An take action that is punishable for legal reasons.
- Something that someone has done which is outlawed.
- Behaviour which is contrary to the regulations of world.
I think that a right reason behind breaking regulations if there is one would be if someone was so poor and they didn't have hardly any money to get any food plus they stole some food to keep them from starving to loss of life. That isn't as bad as some crimes and they are only committing the offense to allow them to stay alive. An incorrect reason behind committing a criminal offense would be if someone murdered someone else. That is a wrong offense because there won't be a good enough reason for killing someone.
Time and place
Laws are earned everyday and different places and also world. Some examples of different times and place regulations have come in are, in 1908 incest was not regarded as a criminal offence in the united kingdom. Everyone knew that it was incorrect and that you shouldn't take action but it wasn't until 1908 a law was brought in to avoid people who do commit the criminal offense. Another exemplory case of this was which it wasn't against the law to rape within in relationship and that only improved in 1991, when it became illegal.
An exemplory case of places as it pertains to laws is the fact some laws are different in some country than others. An example of this might be, in holland they are legitimately allowed to have sex at the age of 12, however in England they are just legally allowed to have sexual intercourse when they are 16.
- Drinking age might have risen to era of 21.
- Driving years might go up so are there will be fewer accidents involving young drivers.
- Children allowed in pubs.
- Having a drinking alcohol whilst eating a meal with parents.
- Smoking cannabis might be made legal for everybody not merely people who need them for the medical reasons.
- They may have special licenses which means that people are permitted to smoke in pubs which have the license.
Explanation of why do people commit criminal offense?
There are multiple reasons why people commit crime nonetheless they have been identified it into three categories. The three categories that they have been placed into are biological or hereditary, sociological and emotional.
Biological or hereditary: this is theory that people who have devoted have inherited it from other parents. So they are basically given birth to as a criminal.
Sociological: this theory is that folks will commit criminal offense on depending on who they socialise with. They could do it because they are being pressured by folks they socialise with.
Psychological: this is theory s that folks will commit crimes all depending on what their personality is similar to. If there have a good personality they can be less likely to commit offense.
Biological Theories for Crime
Underlying which is also called distal. A thing that result someone their whole life and it is being held deep down may cause those to commit crime. This may be how they were brought up when they were younger.
Immediate this is also called proximal. Is where in fact the surrounding of your person are the people they'll be hanging around with, might effect if someone commits crime or not.
- Cultural factors (learned social behaviour). This could be their family or even where they result from. It could relate their religion and what they are advised they should and should not do.
- Power of peer group. This may be friends because they could feel pressured to commit crime because all of their mates are. They could want to fit in a group also to be in that group they could want to do something showing they are good enough.
- Media- the press make a difference people in a whole lot of different ways. It could make people happy, miserable or even upset. They have affect on people to do things may not normally do.
Statistic is something where they will gather data and make averages and probabilities from the results. Among the many statistics is the fact that men are twice much more likely to commit a criminal offense than women are. Another statistic is that 16 & 24 have the best rate for criminal offenses in both sexes.
- BIOLOGY - character v nurture
Nature and nurture should come into to varieties as it pertains to crime. They have two different views on why people commit crime. Both different views are that folks are born a criminal or they are made a criminal after they are created.
This is a theory where they think that people are delivered the way they are simply and they don't become just how they are now. So when crime is involved they have the theory that they will be delivered as a criminal, plus they don't develop it over time. It will drop to the genetic inheritance, if their parents are criminals they'll become a legal as well as a result of genetic inheritance. They'll say that genetic persistence is inherited which includes the trend to commit criminal offenses. Not many people still believe in this theory it came into being in the early phases of the previous century, when biologists like Darwin where about.
They did studies with twins, which can be identical. Which means that they will be the same in everyway including the same genes. They researched both of the kids to see if one of these or both of them become a criminal. They also searched if one does commit a criminal offense the other an example may be more likely to commit a offense. That is known as concordance. This is more likely to occur with Identical twins than simply twins because similar twins have the same genes but twins only reveal half.
A review which supports this theory with evidence is Goldman and Cottesman (1995). They have evidence to support this theory because they exhibited that if one similar twin does one thing the other the first is much more likely to do it as well. However they also discovered that they are simply in the as environment so they are raised the same. Maybe if indeed they were apart it might be different.
- This is a theory where they don't really believe that it is anything regarding hereditary inheritance. They feel that everyone is delivered normal and this lived experiences impact if we will commit criminal offenses in are life or not. Certain area's that might impact why people will commit crime are:
- Low family income- they might have any money so they have may need to resort to offense because they will want to buy things that everyone else have, like the latest toys and games and because they cant manage to cover them they might take the instead.
- Poor child-rearing techniques- if their parents don't bring their child up right they might really know what is wrong and they might think that stealing is acceptable.
- Large families- which could multiple reasons like if indeed they had a sizable family they might not have enough money to give them, or they could commit a criminal offense because they don't really get much attention so they do it to get attention, etc.
- Low educational achievement- that is basically because they will have no certification, so they will not be able to get a job so they don't have any money to cover anything which might make them vacation resort to crime.
- My own view
My own take on the biology would be that I agree with the nurture theory because I don't believe that folks are born the way they can be. I disagree with the type theory because in a few individuals the parents haven't committed a crime plus they have a kid and this commits crime. It implies that it is nothing to do with being given birth to in a certain way. I believe that people commit crime because of men and women who are around them that can influence them. I think it is all down to influences.
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME
- Labelling Theory
- Chicago School
This is a theory which was developed from Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). Emile Durkheim theory was all established his own theory that folks desire to be in a position to live and work, they have to have a strong sense of social order. Which means that there has to regulations, and there's always the right or incorrect answer. He thought they needed rules because people will follow them, he thought that if there wasn't any guidelines or anything everything would break down.
- Crime is widespread and normal
Durkheim has come to the final outcome that criminal offenses is normal since it happens everywhere atlanta divorce attorneys country, around the world. He thinks that it is normal because it has always happened and will probably always happen.
- Crime is relative:
This is where the rate of crime is changing on a regular basis. It'll change because crime depends on certain factors. Factors that this is determined by are things like time, culture, population, and etc. culture might influence the quantity of criminal offenses because some cultures tend to be more into crime than other ethnicities.
- Crime is efficient and necessary
This is where there's a major change in population. This will have an impact on people in several ways everything depending on what changes. An example of this is despair, they'll lower their places and expectations but when there is a increase people will behave completely different and they'll set their places higher. This can affect functionalism since it will affect just how people live and work. It will either make it better for the coffee lover or worse.
- My own view
When it comes to functionalism theory I think that a few of the areas of the theory are right however, many aren't. I agree with the fact that we need rules and regulations to live are lives and that if there wasn't any, everything would breakdown. I also trust bringing in regulations to stop folks from committing offences. I think that if someone has dedicated a offense that they must be punished for it. In order that I trust basically every one of the aspects of the idea.
Merton's pressure theory
This is another theory that Durkheim developed. This theory is all to do with where they needed the anomie theory further and developed it. This theory is all regarding anomie and how it encourages visitors to do better. It motivates for people to strive for wealth. The only thing that it won't be the same from person to person. It all is determined by the person. Not everyone will make an effort to achieve a similar thing. Durkheim came up with this theory in 1938. This theory reduces into five sections. He discusses 5 various ways where people are able to adjust to the change when the strive comes.
- Conformity- this is where they admit what they have been given and can get on with it. A good example of this would maintain work, they have been given an activity to do and they accept that they need to do it and get on with it.
- Innovation- this is actually the contrary of ritualism. Invention is where they will accept the ethnical goals and they will adhere to them but the manner in which they achieve it like the traditional way, they'll reject it and achieve them in their on way. They could vacation resort to illegitimate ways or illegitimate ways.
- Ritualism- that's where they will reject the ethnic goals that are there but they encourage and adhere to the method of completing something. This would be the traditional ways of reaching things that they need to do. This might be known as bureaucrat. That's where they will do the job from what it will probably be worth they'll not put any more effort than what is had a need to complete the task.
- Retreatism- this is the less extreme form of rebellion. They'll not accept the communal goals, goals and method. They'll not comply with them. They'll be a drop out of modern culture.
- Rebellion- this is where they will not accept any of the social goals, which means that they will go by their own rules and do what they want. They'll do what they need, not what other people tell them to do. An example of this might be terrorists because that is going against the cultural goals and guidelines.
When it involves relating this to criminal offenses. You can relate it because he developed within the theory that folks who are in lower classes are more likely to commit crimes because they have significantly more of a stress than people in higher category. They also came up with a theory that working class is more likely to commit crime. The only thing that also he cannot find out when it comes to crime is that is nothing in connection with finance and people in classes. They can not describe why people are wiped out and assaulted when it isn't anything to do with money.
He also discovered that not everyone gets the same goals; everything depends on a whole lot of factors like living, fund, religion and many more. Merton could not describe why people will choose one adaption other another one.
- My own view
I agree with the theory, the thing that we don't agree with is that I don't think that folks are put into some many groupings. I think that there should only be three categories. The three organizations that I believe there must be are conformity, ritualism and also rebellion.
This is a theory that Karl Marx developed in (1818- 1883). This theory includes information about the new criminology, Critical criminology, Radical criminology, Remaining realism, Discord theory.
His theory wasn't much regarding offense, it was more so to do with economics and possession are the power influences in contemporary society. Examples of this that a lot more land you possess the more powers you have. They'll employee visitors to work on the land. Which also assist with the theory that they will have more electric power than people focusing on the land. The Bourgeoisie are the owners of the means of production.
The Proletariat will be the working classes. He thinks that there is always a conflict between classes that will lead to sociable change. It really is basically a discord between bourgeoisie and proletariat. Bad behavior was seen as things someone will that the folks in power do not approve of. Individuals in power will bring in laws if they feel that the individuals who are behaving in a terrible way are in risk of overtaking.
Crime originates from the unfairness as well as the corrupt aspect of the society. How employees were treated. The reasons why working people dedicated crime was because these were fighting from the repression.
The bourgeoisie determined what should be laws and regulations and what shouldn't be. The proletariat listen closely and just thought they were normal. Why the bourgeoisie brought in the regulations was to be sure that the proletariat don't try to dominate and take their place.
Crimes of the Bourgeoisie
Crimes of the Proletariat
This table shows the different types of offences that both categories are most likely to commit. The bourgeoisie group are likely to create pollution because if indeed they own factories as their own business. They have fumes developing of course, if there are too many they'll be polluting the surrounding area and the earth.
The proletariat group are likely to commit offences like theft because they don't really receives a commission much money for doing jobs for the bourgeoisie. This means that they might not exactly have the ability to provide for their families properly which can force them to commit crimes. Both group's offences are so different, the bourgeoisie can do because they know they can escape with it and save additional money but the proletariat might undertake it to allow them to live properly and provide for their households.
This is a theory a theorist called Becker came up with. His theory was very different to the other theory because they blame crime on society where as in this theory it is all regarding people who label people. That's where people label an become a unlawful offence.
If people didn't label them people wouldn't think they were a unlawful thing or an incorrect move to make. It won't be a criminal offenses till we say it is. With this theory they say that it's not the criminal who is liable, it's the society. He remarked that most people have committed a offense in their life at some time, big or small. A lot of people have been found for carrying it out so they haven't been labelled. The only real difference between people and criminals is they have been caught for this and labelled as a legal.
- My own view
I agree with this in a few ways but I don't recognize in others. I agree that some crimes should be labelled because a lot of people might consider it and think that it is not a offense but it actually actually is. I don't think that some offences don't need labelling because everyone morally recognizes what's right and what's wrong. So everyone understands that getting rid of someone isn't right so I don't think criminal offense with seriousness of that doesn't need labelling.
This is a theory that was made by the Chicago school developed. It all came about in the 1930's in the us. It pertains to Robert Park's theory where he talked about urban ecology. They viewed the folks and what happen when there are ecological changes in the environment. This could result in people contending for space, invasion of place and also dominance of other groups of people.
This pictures shows where criminal offenses is much more likely to happen. It really is predicated on a concentric area theory where different areas and Burgess highlights that more criminal offenses will be determined in 'the loop' and the zone 'in changeover'.
(Criminology_ideas and effects on website in crime and its own effect on culture folder. )
- My own view
I agree with this theory in the fact that the area that individuals live make a difference people to commit criminal offense, but I believe it is to centered around that taking care of why people commit criminal offense. An example of this might be peer organizations, family etc.
Psychology theories of Crime
- Psychoanalytical theory
- Social learning theory
- The id: the childlike challenging side of your person
- The ego: the logical logical side
- The excellent ego: the moral part of our personality
He came up with the idea that if parents do not socialise with the children enough, they'll not be able to develop the ultra ego properly which can bring about them not being able to control their ID. Which means that it can lead to bad and also destructive behaviour.
- My own view
When it comes to this theory I don't agree with it in the sense that it is all to do with sexual and intense drives. I believe it is just to do with thoughts not erotic or hostile thoughts. I also disagree in a few ways with if the father or mother don't show enough focus on their children they would stay in the ID stage. I feel that they might just a little be affected however, not to the degree that he says it will be.
Social learning theory
This is focused on behavioural psychology. Behavioural mindset is where they people learn behavior and they're in a position to maintain it by rewards and also sanctions. When this comes to crimes, they state that crime has either been discovered or it is failing of socialisation process. This is where they were never taught that which was right or wrong. They say crime is a discovered behaviour, which doesn't differ from other learning experience.
- Criticism of the interpersonal learning theory
The criticism that was made was that people are very different and no-one is the same and you don't understand how someone will respond to abuse. Someone might be happy but some individuals might not. All depends upon the person. The idea assumes individuals are unaggressive and unquestioning. It neglects the influence the influence of multimedia and wider culture
- Other contributing factors to crime
- Family- Farrington and West (1990) they discovered that a small amount of people will commit crime because of their family. They take into account the large proportion of unlawful activity. Families take into account a tiny amount of computer though. (UK most criminal offenses committed by 10% of the population).
- Economic factors- this shows that people from low monetary will commit crime or involved in unlawful activities. Benyan (1994) and Harrower (1998) investigated this theory and discovered that the type been poverty and crime will never be described as a rock solid facts to prove why people commit offense.
- Peer pressure- this is where friends and also peer groupings influence visitors to commit crime. They could undertake it because they would like to be in a group. Or they feel just like an idiot if they don't do what everyone else is doing. This would normally happen in gangs.
- Education- an unhealthy education can affect it because if they don't like it. They might not go which can turn these to committing offense because they have nothing at all else to do.
- My own view
I think that these all contribute to crime in a major way. I feel that normally most plays a part in criminal offense would be peer pressure because you'll be with friends and family and other peer so they impact a lot of various things one does and also how your home is your daily life. I feel that family is close in back of because they'll teach you what's right and wrong when you are younger so you know for if you are older.
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