specific and general crime prevention approaches and strategies

In this device, we will explore specific and basic crime prevention strategies and strategies, hired to reduce and control the event of criminal offense in the culture. The role of the resident and the city will be differentiated from the role of the state of hawaii through the companies of the unlawful justice system.

Unit Objectives

To appreciate the need for citizen involvement.

To discuss the role of the authorities.

To explain the role of Plan Makers.

To examine the techniques utilized by the legal justice system to impact reform and treatment.

To review at least four methods to crime prevention employed by the criminal justice system.

Readings and Online Resources

Reid, Oral (1998) Community Policing: A Philosophical Approach to the Study of Community Building.

Reid, Dental. Policing by Consent. The Copper 97 Vol. 1 No. 1

http://www. schererville. org/index. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=257&Itemid=58

http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=RTYIPBoeGaU

http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=jENcqG_Kd5c&feature=related

Session 4. 1 Community Criminal offense Prevention Approaches

Learning Goals:

By the finish if this treatment the student should be able to:

Define the components of the crime protection triangle

Discuss the elements of the crime prevention triangle

Describe the criminal offense prevention triangle

Define the tasks of the elements in the offense prevention triangle

Discuss the participation of the elements in the criminal offenses prevention triangle

Understand the need for citizen contribution.

Appreciate the role of specific and community categories in preventing crime.

Explain the need for the Criminal offenses Prevention Practitioners in creating a community team

Introduction

In this session we will take a look at specific crime reduction approaches intended to identify the critical role of the citizen, the authorities and policymakers in their effort to address criminal offenses control or lowering both at the local level of the community and their state in general.

The Crime Reduction Triangle

Figure 4:1 THE CITY Crime Elimination Triangle

Effective crime reduction requires a closer relationship between your police, policy creators, and the community at large. It is necessary for all sides to open lines of communication and work to define their respective assignments in such a way that they understand their responsibilities to the overall cooperative effort. The task of providing these key areas of the community together is not easy neither can one be effective with no other. The task is often that every sector has specific viewpoints that seem to be inconsistent with the needs and objectives of others in the triangle.

For instance, the police have usually been one of the most closed communities in Caribbean contemporary society. This position has been inspired by several factors among which will be the following; Police Forces in your community raise a paramilitary in composition; Many of the cultural and professional problems they face cannot be talked about with folks outside their vocation; and the nature of law enforcement officials work frequently confines those to persons working of their respective formations. The factors stated all support a growing trend towards police isolation from the folks they are intended to serve.

On the other hands, most citizens have very limited knowledge of police work. Such views are often further distorted by tv set programs that suggest gorgeous and unrealistic method of solving crimes and interpersonal disorder. Hence a typical citizen's impression of the police is associated with issuing traffic tickets, or arresting felons. The resident is not likely to be in a pleasant spirits in either of the circumstances, and frequently learns to relate officers with enforcement and specialist. The authorities spend most of their time working with the less advisable elements of Caribbean culture inasmuch as they package with suspects and vagrants on a regular basis, and sometimes tend to associate the uncooperative behaviour of these elements with the general public. It is not uncommon for the police to threat with suspicion volunteers who wish to aid in the management of offense.

Politicians or policymakers are given labels that maintain them up to public scrutiny and ridicule. Views expressed during heated campaigns or unrealistic goals by the public that an standard has the capacity to wave a powerful wand and cure the ills of population have offered to strain the partnership between your elected officers and their constituents.

All of these realities show that all aspect of the triangle comes with an important part to experience locally crime prevention process but that there are problems which, if not carefully supervised could deepen the divide between each sector. The strength of a triangle depends upon strong linkages. If one of these three groups will not participate, the chances for success will be seriously diminished.

Defining the Assignments in the Offense Prevention Triangle

Citizen and Community Participation

The need for citizen contribution in community crime prevention is crucial to the establishment of any "crime-free" society. Two essential substances are a well-trained police and the best and cooperative citizenry. It is the situation that too few individuals have made a committed action to actually participation.

Participation in community "crime prevention work is not merely attractive but necessary. Authorities and crime prevention specialists by itself cannot control criminal offenses; they want all the assistance the community can provide them. Despite the later there appears to be an irreversible development, in recent years, towards less involvement by citizens and increased tasks being delegated to the authorities. Increased specialization in various police forces coupled with increased taxation has motivated citizens to turn to the authorities, as experts, to assume the duty of community safe practices. Subsequently, calls for service to the average law enforcement agency have increased steadily as citizens looked for assistance, not only with unlawful matters also for an array of service endeavours, such as invites to talk with the wayward boy or girl that didn't adhere to house guidelines, retrieving trapped cats and dogs and moving mental patients to a healthcare facility for treatment. It would be reasonable to suppose that approximately 80 percent of law enforcement calls relate to noncriminal conduct as opposed to actual investigation or the apprehension of crooks.

Community ranges from isolated individuals to diverse community organizations. The degrees of expertise vary from novice to completed professionals. The desire to participate is really as diverse as the community itself. The key to changing general population attitudes and eventually behaviour lies in this vast and generally untapped resource.

The pursuing are various levels of involvement in offense prevention efforts with which residents feel safe and choose to identify. It is helpful to first look at the role a person might play, and then extend the bottom for involvement to group tasks or collective citizen action.

The Role of the Individual

Practitioners know a vast majority of your community's population does not participate in an identifiable group but still participates in an array of activities. These people have concerns regarding offense and should be come to and urged to take part in crime prevention programs as individuals. Some of the ways a person might participate include

1. Contributing volunteer time to programme efforts

2. As an advocate for criminal offense prevention concepts

3. Reporting suspicious activities to the police

4. Taking initiatives to apply opportunity lowering strategies at home/work and while moving

about the community, such as

a. putting in secure, deadbolt locks

b. providing good security lighting

c. trimming shrubbery away from entrances and windows

d. always locking car entrance doors and windows

e. using good sense and understanding when traveling alone

f. marking all valuables with an individual identification number

g. not taking or displaying massive amount cash

h. steering clear of walking alone after dark

Activity: Crime Elimination Tips

View the Youtube videos below, they give some useful criminal offense prevention tricks for individuals

http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=RTYIPBoeGaU

http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=jENcqG_Kd5c&feature=related

Activity 4:1

Collective Resident and Group Jobs:

The community's role is strengthened when group initiatives are added to individual citizen initiatives. If Crime prevention is to be effective in improving standard of living, the role of the community-at-large must be broadened to add supportive attempts from a broad bottom part of existing private sector groups-businesses, establishments, churches, etc. in just a jurisdiction. Organized organizations including the Chamber of Business, P. T. A. , Scouts, Women Tutorials, Kiwanis, Women's Clubs, and Church Organizations lend their support to community criminal offenses prevention coding and bring with them a preexisting pool of volunteer time, talent, energy, and the excess clout and sources of established organizations. In addition they bring with them the organizational goals, policies, and steps, resolutions on community issues, and reputation that may or may not specifically fit everyone else's plan. The role these organizations must play is sometimes difficult to identify and mobilize, and always difficult to control.

Yet it is vitally important to reach and involve individuals of their own context. The task is to attain people where they may be and with the tools they are accustomed to using. This will not simply mean that everyone has to join Neighbourhood Watch Programs. It does mean that every resident can participate in crime prevention doing whatever a citizen is a part of-Boys Night clubs, a tenants' firm, the insurance industry etc. The trick to citizen engagement is to provide them desire within their own familiar environments.

The experiences gained in community crime prevention programmes across the Caribbean region have helped establish the following factors in the community-at- large role

The community most importantly must accept the duty for managing a community criminal offenses prevention programme. They may have the biggest stake-and in the end they have more to reduce than either the law enforcement or policymaker segments.

The community must identify committed management for an planned crime prevention effort.

The city must provide the required resources (time and cash) for the control to receive basic crime avoidance training.

The community must plan prepared training for other volunteers in the program.

The citizens must identify the issues of the community through cooperative work with law enforcement agencies, using such tools as surveys, judgment polls, and genuine crime data.

The members of the city must plan a coordinated method of crime prevention attempts by building and matching jobs to the passions of various volunteer groups.

The market leaders must establish a powerful system for outreach and insight so various teams know what others are doing. This will help ensure coordination, and is generally termed networking.

The city group must solicit commitments from various categories supporting crime prevention work to ensure program continuity.

The group organizers must provide opportunities for many organizations or individuals to take part in the community-wide programs (while allowing communities to hold on to their separate identity).

The group organizers must create an ongoing procedure for obtaining and evaluating job information for evaluation purposes to aid further decision-making.

The organizers must identify and acquire resources to properly finance a sustained criminal offenses prevention effort.

The market leaders of the offense prevention device must facilitate the smart use of collective citizen power to effect public plans that promote criminal offense prevention ideas.

The community group must provide as a solid advocate for increased communication between your various segments forming the crime avoidance triangle.

The categories must ensure the contribution of the marketing as a partner in the full total community crime avoidance programme.

Community volunteers have learnt much about their role in offense prevention during the last decade. Their role can be even more plainly defined through the next ten years as volunteers acquire additional knowledge in managing and preserving community crime avoidance programmes.

Police Participation

The behaviour of the individuals towards the authorities service are generally inconsistent. The authorities are appreciated when they are needed but often feared because they are regarded as the state's representatives of electric power and authority. The truth is that only seldom is the real nature of the police service broadcast and incredibly rarely is the person inside the even understood or known. Yet we understand his role to be critical.

What is normally agreed is that when confronted with trouble, people expect quick authorities response and subjects want and expect the effective service of a specialist. Based on the wide range of service demands there is certainly little marvel that both citizens and police alike are occasionally unclear about this is of the role of the authorities in the prevention rather than the detection of crime. The following items are crucial

The police are not separate from people. They sketch their expert from the will and consent of people.

The police will be the state appointed tools through which citizens can achieve and keep maintaining general population order.

Police officers are decision creators and often make a decision whether to arrest, to make a referral, to get prosecution, or even to use drive.

Police officials are in the same way in charge of their decisions as the magistrate or judge is good for decisions deliberated for months.

The police officer must understand intricate cultural and sociable problems and relationships to be successful and effective.

A officer is an integral part of and not apart from

a. The community served

b. The legal justice system that can determine what course society will follow to deter lawbreakers or rehabilitate offenders in the interest of general population order

c. The government that delivers the formal bottom of expert.

The police officer initiates the unlawful justice process through arrest of suspects and can be held responsible where they fail to take action.

The police will be the criminal justice component in closest contact with the general public (and therefore are frequently blamed for failures in other areas of the system).

The law enforcement officials are helpless to regulate crime with no cooperation of a substantial portion of folks.

The role of the authorities thus becomes

to predict that criminal offense will arise when hazards are high, to identify whenever a high-crime risk exists

to appraise the seriousness of this risk

to initiate action to remove or decrease the risk.

"Educational, technical and supportive source- an enabler rather than a primary doer.

The law enforcement role in offense elimination strategies should

Utilize the patrol function to generate and maintain initiatives to identify and arrest suspects

Help as a source for public information and training regarding crime prevention programs

Coordinate crime protection activities in their particular jurisdictions

Share information with the general public gathered through law enforcement data research capabilities

concerning the varieties of criminal offenses and the methods being used by perpetrators against citizens

Take initiative to develop sorted out crime elimination functions within each department

Policymaker's Participation

Many earlier attempts to establish crime prevention programmes carefully skirted the issues of evaluating the role of the general public sector or wanting to require the policymakers. This hesitancy was caused partly because notions of criminal offenses prevention were viewed as new and untested and hadn't been accepted as a feasible response to long-standing communal and financial problems. Very few programmes have had the opportunity to file specific successes in actually demonstrating a reduction of crime. Also, some communities possessed experiences with receiving politics support for offense prevention programmes during the course of a political election, only to be quietly swept under the rug when elections were over and the difficult job of getting together with costs was underway when confronted with declining resources.

Slowly, isolated experience surfaced that showed a positive marriage between renew resident participation in criminal offenses prevention/opportunity reduction programmes and less home burglary or vandalism rate in neighbourhoods. Policymakers were willing to take a closer look. Such closer scrutiny led in Barbados to the establishment of the National Task Power on Crime Protection in June 1996. This firm collaborates with the Royal Barbados POLICE on the examination of national criminal offenses statistics and start programmes targeted at reducing offense in selected domestic areas. In 1968 in the United States of America, Congress proven a legislative goal and provided economic resources to jurisdictions for mounting offense prevention attempts and funded them through the Justice Office POLICE Assistance Administration (LEAA).

Activity: A Caribbean Perspective

The aforementioned has been the American experience.

Can you think of ways this approach can be modified to match the Caribbean actuality befitting your country.

Post your suggestions in the dialogue forum and react to recommendations posed by your classmates.

Activity 4:2

As a result of this increased interest by representatives in the public sector and the connections within areas, there is currently a more plainly described role of the policymakers in the community crime elimination process. Experts are confident that this role will continue to develop and clarify over time, but for today's, I offer the following details on the role of the policymaker

1. Provides command in setting general population insurance plan that establishes a jurisdiction-wide crime

prevention program.

2. Encourages coordination and cooperation between government agencies to increase existing

resources and prevent duplication of work.

3. Develops and adopts building security codes.

4. Actively stimulates opportunity reduction techniques for public held properties, such as

a. marking all valuables with property identification numbers

b. providing good, security lighting

c. setting up deadbolt locking devices

5. Promotes criminal offense elimination education and training for employees within the general public sector.

6. Provides financial support for crime prevention programmes.

7. Publicly facilitates crime prevention programs to encourage other teams and individuals to

participate.

8. Designates a everlasting public firm to provide as an organizational base for crime

Prevention programmes.

9. Demonstrates a long-term dedication to crime elimination by transferring a formal image resolution to

sanction the criminal offenses prevention program.

10. Requires accountability of program efforts.

The Crime Avoidance Practitioner: Creating a Community Team

Even after the various elements within the community have a simple understanding of their role and duties in a community crime prevention work, there still remains essential work to be achieved in order to establish a promising crime prevention program in a community.

Much effort has been almost wasted in the past as various teams go about well-meaning attempts to establish programmes for avoidance with out a coordinated strategy.

Likewise, a community crime elimination "team" doesn't just happen. The various elements which exist in your community must be connected together before any game plan can be written. This requires specific attention. A number of individuals must be discovered to experience the training role and also to mold associates from various attributes of the triangle into an operating team.

These specialists are called offense prevention practitioners. Who are they and what do they actually?

Practitioners across the country represent a broad cross-section of our own inhabitants. Some are unlawful justice specialists, some are elected officials. Many are people, school instructors, or civic golf club volunteers. Crime reduction experts sometimes volunteer while some arc elected. In any case, they play a substantial role locally crime elimination process. A profile of successful practitioners would include

determination to contribute a significant timeframe to crime prevention efforts

the passion to motivate others

a basic knowledge of the unlawful justice system

a thorough knowledge of the concepts of crime prevention and the capability to teach and

advise others. .

capability of assessing skills and resources within the community

the capability to relate to all interested categories and match these interests to the entire program

effort

the expertise to facilitate links that achieve a coordinated method of programming

good organizational skills

a knowledge of the nature of the political process and the information that allows public

support to be translated through decision-makers into general public policy

Above all, the successful practitioner will have got two primary capabilities

COMMITMENT to the cause, and

the PERSISTENCE to keep the commitment over time when confronted with obstacles that are sure to arise.

Activity: Little Investigation

Identify and categorize the offense prevention professionals in your place.

Report your results to the course coordinator or tutor.

Activity 4:3

Summary:

In this treatment we have reviewed specific crime elimination strategies focused surrounding the crime avoidance triangle. In such a session we highlighted the critical jobs of people as a sub-sect of organizations, at one end of the continuum and the community as complete. The role of the police, and policy producers were also highlighted as necessary to the building of good offense prevention plan and practice. Within the next session we can look at the role of the legal justice system in the control of criminal offense and acts of unsocial behaviour.

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