The life course theory is one of the developmental theories that is interesting. The life span course theory includes the theory from the public learning theory that "crime is a discovered action" (Siegel, 2011). This occurs when the individual experiences a move during their life course. According to the life course theory we start behaviors at an extremely early age that can have a significant effect on our adult life. One of the points raised in the life span course theory is approximately transitions that people go through once we expand up such as concluding school, obtaining a job, getting married and having kids (Siegel, 2011). These transitions are what make the life course theory a developmental theory because these transitions are what can make or break your life. If a person experiences a good transition throughout their life it can help them to remain away from criminal offense whereas if indeed they have an undesirable changeover period it can actually cause them to get started on or continue a legal lifestyle. If these transitions are experienced to soon or too later additionally, it may impact your daily life. Our textbook discusses these transitions as being too soon whenever a lady gets pregnant at a young age or too later when a teenager gets into the wrong crowd and makes selections that influences their futures and how these decisions can put their life on a completely different path than the one that these were on. The life span course theory and the social learning theory are similar for the reason that they both have the concept that a person exists not knowing how to be a criminal but instead learn how to be a criminal over the span with their life. The life span course theory and the social learning theory are different in that the life course theory concentrates more on the encounters of a person's life that impacts them if it affects them to become criminals or not whereas the public learning theory concentrates more about how the person is shaped by the society that they live in and exactly how that influences them to become criminals or not.
2. Compare the different theories of victimization. Furthermore to detailing the ideas, discuss their advantages and weaknesses. Also, use one of the theories to explain why women are more likely than men to be the victims of rape and home violence.
There are four different ideas of victimization. Included in these are victim precipitation theory, lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and the daily habit activities theory.
The sufferer precipitation theory is where "some people actually start the confrontation that eventually leads to their damage and loss of life" (Siegel, 2011). There are two techniques this theory can happen. It can either be lively or passive. With energetic precipitation you hold the sufferer that is exhibiting threating habit along with an exchange of words that sometimes even contributes to the victim attacking first. Inside the passive precipitation the sufferer acts in a manner that can encourage the individual doing the attacking to strike or sometimes the victim can even send out threating signals that triggers them to be always a victim of crime. I believe the passive precipitation form of the sufferer precipitation theory would be the reason why women more than men are the victims of rape and local violence. Some women unknowingly flirt or display sexual tendencies that can encourage or attract a male into attempting to have his way with her. In the case of domestic violence the woman can cause the person to feel threatened by her activities without signifying to. She may be mad and yell or punch at him and he seems threatened so he battles back. This isn't a justification for a man to strike a female of course but it can occur. One weakness of the victim precipitation theory is the fact that with the passive precipitation form of the theory a person can become a sufferer when they actually possessed nothing at all to do with what was occurring.
The lifestyle theory is where "crime is not a random occurrence; alternatively it is a function of the victim's lifestyle" (Siegel, 2011). Simply the more risk factors that you have got in your life such as taking in and taking drugs the bigger the chance that you will become a victim at some point. I like just how that our book highlights that if your home is a party type lifestyle in college it makes you more susceptible to becoming a victim. If you are a person on the other hands that is resolved down and stays on home a whole lot it reduces your chances of learning to be a victim.
The deviant place theory is "the greater the contact with dangerous places, the much more likely people are to be victims of crime and violence" (Siegel, 2011). This is basically that the individual does not show any habits to encourage the criminal to victimize them but because of where they live they become a victim. For instance people that are in the poorer areas of the city are usually more susceptible to learning to be a sufferer than say someone that lives in the suburb beyond the location where they can better control the elements that they are in and around. Within the poorer areas is where I really believe most of your criminals and homeless live and people who live around those elements become easier goals for the criminals.
The routine activities theory is where "victimization results from the relationship of three everyday factors: the option of suitable focuses on, the lack of ready guardians, and the existence of motivated offenders" (Siegel, 2011). Quite simply this theory is where you have three things that can improve the likelihood of criminal offenses taking place. You might have homes that are in a good neighborhood that have nice things in them that entice a legal to break in to get these exact things to market, you have no one home to protect the home and the nice things in the house and you have the unlawful that is determined by witnessing this and attempting to profit from breaking into the house.
3. Explain the theory of basic deterrence and the idea of specific deterrence. Discuss how certainty, intensity, and quickness of abuse impact basic deterrence? Then, discuss whether our current legal justice system effectively produces general deterrence and specific deterrence? If so, how? If not, what needs to change to produce general deterrence and/or specific deterrence? Make sure to answer these questions in regard to both general and specific deterrence.
Theory of basic deterrence is "a criminal offenses control coverage that will depend on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the laws violator that the aches and pains associated with crime outweighs its benefits" (Siegel, 2011). Quite simply with the theory of basic deterrence it is saying that you will have a lower criminal offense rate if the unlawful believes that they will be significantly punished for the criminal offenses that they commit. The certainty of punishment aspect impacts the general deterrence theory for the reason that offenders that think that they'll be punished and that the punishment is not worthwhile to them may cause them to not commit the criminal offenses whereas offenders that think that when they get caught they'll not be punished will commit the offense. Certainty of consequence has a huge effect on a criminal when they are deciding to commit a offense or not. If a criminal believes that they will be seriously punished for the criminal offense they will think twice before committing the crime. However this aspect has little effect on the overall deterrence theory. The swiftness of punishment does not have a large effect on the overall deterrence theory since it takes so long to get through the court systems that by enough time the criminal is sentenced that the effect of deterring the crime has long since been forgotten. It might be a good deterrent if the punishment was carried out quickly I think. Like in the old days when someone killed someone they were applied for by the neighborhood sheriff and hung. This being observed by the community deterred anyone else from attempting to commit the same criminal offenses and a similar thing occurring to them.
Theory of specific deterrence is "the view that unlawful sanctions should be so powerful that offenders won't repeat their criminal functions" (Siegel, 2011). Fundamentally with the theory of specific deterrence you have the idea that a very high abuse or long jail word would keep a criminal from repeating their criminal offense. Some times this may backfire though where the worse the abuse the greater the criminal wishes to commit the criminal offenses. This can be triggered by the legal attempting to show what size and bad they can be and that the judicial system didn't win. I think that the criminal judicial system produces more general deterrence than specific deterrence because we see more people that are deterred away from crime as a result of perception they have of the consequence that they will receive than we have people that don't drink and drive because of a fine and a little time put in in jail. In case the punishments were higher for drinking and driving then I think we'd have more specific deterrence than we do.
4. Community disorganization theory web links crime rates to community ecological characteristics. Identify and discuss these characteristics and clarify how/why they lead to criminal offense. Use communal disorganization theory to clarify why there are more robberies in Atlanta, GA compared to Kennesaw, GA.
The characteristics of the cultural disorganization theory are poverty, interpersonal/community disorganization, breakdown of traditional values, legal areas, cultural transmitting and criminal careers. Poverty can lead to criminal offenses in the neighborhoods which have a poverty focus effect occur due to the middle class giving and only the poorer residents continue to be. Our textbook says that, "cities marked by concentrated poverty become isolated and insulated from the public mainstream and even more prone to criminal activity" (Siegel, 2011). In an area where you have "white airfare" appear the people that are still left have a harder time keeping gangs and assault under control because of the limited resources. Friendly/Community disorganization occurs when you have too little informal communal control. When the family members in these communities have trouble keeping their kids in order and away from delinquent behavior this in turn causes crime that occurs. When a breakdown of traditional ideals occurs the youth feel detached off their areas this leaves them more open to be recruited by a nearby bad guys and this brings about gang being created and therefore criminal offenses being done in a nearby. Cultural transmission occurs when you have community fear. In neighborhoods that have teenagers that are getting into trouble a whole lot and a lot of clear stores the residents of the neighborhoods become fearful that they will become a victim of crime which causes those to withdraw from their neighborhood. This fear is then offered to younger generation. According to our textbook the "crime rates are raised in highly transient, mixed-use and changing neighborhoods where the fabric of communal life has become frayed" (Siegel, 2011). Atlanta is more of any mixed used world than Kennesaw and with the larger businesses in Atlanta they have more people relocating and out of the town for work that is continually changing the various neighborhoods in Atlanta. Kennesaw doesn't have the big commercial offices and therefore does not have the change of the neighborhoods and is apparently more secure than Atlanta. Atlanta struggles to supply the basic services to all or any of its residents and where you have a lot of folks unemployed and homeless with a lot of time on the hands you usually have a high criminal offenses rate. The thing is more homeless people in Atlanta than you do Kennesaw. Also you have the attentiveness effect taking place in Atlanta in which a lot of the center class have gone the city giving the disadvantaged citizens in the city. Kennesaw will not seem to really have the concentration effect that people see in Atlanta. When you have a poverty focus you observe more criminal activity and an increased rate of robberies.
Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology, the central. (4th ed. ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co.
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