The Physical And Tangible Evidence Criminology Essay

According to the lecture on criminal offenses scene management the procedure of crime arena management is as follows. The various role players within the SAPS react to the crime landscape with due consideration personal safeness, while at same time looking for potential evidence and possible suspects. The researcher wishes to determine if the role players from the components like the visible policing, detectives and the Local CRIMINAL HISTORY Centre attended the murder criminal offenses scenes with the goal of obtaining the required evidential materials for linking suspects with the offense scene as well as for court purposes, further to find out whether such role players has the expertise to recognize possible suspects at the murder displays, SAPS (2006).

In terms of SAPS, DCLP (2006) and SAPS Policy Number 1 1 (2004) on criminal offense scene management, the task in the crime scene of offense is as comes after

The first member to reach at the crime scene will have the crime world from the users of the general public and immediately manage the scene and identify the wounded victims. The first member will create the command line centre and act as Performing Commander for the Centre before Official Commander is appointed. The Performing Commander will administers all the resources as required by the offense scene role-players types of such resources are noticeable policing, Specialized products, Crisis services, Defence Drive units etc of course, if the scope of the criminal offense field escalates (i. e) incident where general public order policing or the task force is required, a major plane crash or any major operation), the command line centre will further supported by the establishment of an field joint operational centre. The establish surplus routes to the criminal offenses arena for control goal.

The first member will give the crime scene to the appointed offense scene administrator on arrival who will be accompanied by the detectives and the criminal offense scene tech and carry out a detail inspection to ascertain certain key areas of the crime picture. The crime scene manager, the crime scene specialist and the looking into official will gain on the first walk through plan and acknowledge the crime field investigation, control strategy and technique which they will observe.

The crime world director will appoints the investigating officer who will be the principal investigator and become responsible for the maintaining of the circumstance docket, investigating officer to co-ordinates the investigating team as well as for the keeping the investigation diary and keeping track of the whole process and the looking into team is accountable for information gathering and proceeds which the interviewing of witnesses and taking down statements (SAPS 2006).

The crime administrator will also appoints the criminal offenses scene technician who will be the principal processing expert on the offense picture and evaluates the evidence opportunities and assembles the handling team with the right skills to effectively process the criminal offense scene. Crime field tech will be backed by specialists open to assist the control team on the criminal offenses; such specialists are provided by the Forensic Technology Lab, Pathology, etc. The control team will prepare a realistic visual representation of the world to a court of legislations (SAPS 2006).

After the criminal offense landscape team has completed their activities in the criminal offense scene, the offense scene administrator will conducts a final walk - through of the field, associated with the investigating officer and the criminal offense scene technician. The purpose of walk-through is to review the activity of the inspection and control team, ensuring that the initial plan has been executed. The crime scene manager will carry out a debriefing with all role players as the previous opportunity to acquire any incorrect decision made during the process also to ensure that all required activities have been performed. The criminal offenses scene manager will repair the crime landscape and making certain all tools has been removed and authorised the criminal offense scene to be released to the public (SAPS 2006).

Sometime following the event the criminal offense scene manager message or calls a meeting with all the relevant role players to evaluate the process for lessons learned planning the ongoing exploration, commenced on successes and identify mistakes. Cox (2009) in her article, talks about that in order to ensure that the data is protected, the first person at the offense picture should secure it with barriers and or crime scene tapes immediately after arriving at the crime field, in addition, some should act as security safeguard so that folks who do not belong at the location are kept from the crime field.

According to Lee, Palmbach & Miller, (2001), the first responders to a criminal offenses picture are usually Law enforcement officials, Emergency Medical personnel or Fire Office personnel. Their actions at the picture are often the building blocks for the successful quality of the crime. These first responding Officials are also oftentimes a few of the individuals, who may, through the course of doing their job, inadvertently change or alter the crime picture from its original condition, Lee, et al (2001). They further emphasized that those persons must do their job nevertheless they must always keep in mind that they can begin the procedure of linking the criminal offense picture to the sufferer, the witness and ultimately, to the think. Any disruption of the crime scene may avoid the connect to the think. The critical issues such as training, education, experience are all essential for any potential first responder Lee et al, (2001).

The process to be followed regarding to Roland (2007) correspond with (SAPS 2006) in the sense that the first Officials to react are responsible for the securing the criminal offenses scene and protecting it as they found it. This implies ensuring that there is nothing touched or shifted so that any physical research is not affected or contaminated, if there are victims exhibiting signs or symptoms of life the Police will call a team of Paramedics to provide on site assistance if they did not react to the initial emergency call. The wounded may then be removed to Clinic, but dead bodies have to be left as these were found since essential causes can be acquired from studying the position and condition of the sufferer. The senior looking into officer will get started by interviewing the officers who were first on the landscape to get their first impression of the location and the behaviour of those who have been directly included.

In a murder enquiry the suspects property will demand searching as well as the site where in fact the body of the victim has been uncovered. Team is led with a crime scene controller who answers to an excellent the superior then reviews to the looking into officer. Once the crime world is a house, a flat, commercial building or vehicle all which can be covered off and reviewed in the minutes depth in case murder or violent harm has occurred in one portion of a building. The complete property will be considered relevant to the situation and you will be scoured for clause.

When outdoor location Police may need to lengthen the perimeter to includes vehicle tyre tracks, footprints and areas where there's a change of finding personal items, discarded tobacco butts, a weapon or trace evidence which might have been snagged on undergrowth. It is a burial site for murder victims. There may be other makeshift graves in the area all in which helps you to save to be excavates, photographed and put together for physical proof. Exterior scene may also have to be isolated by the tent to safeguard evidence from the effects of whether also to exclude the prying eye of curiosity seekers and mass media Roland (2007).

It is clear that the procedure for the first person to reach at the field of criminal offenses is to ensure that the criminal offenses is shielded for potential data. Cox(2009), Lee, el at 2001) and Roland (2007) support the (SAPS1 (2004) on crime arena management as well as the SAPS DCLP (2006).

Wayne, Patherick, Brent, Turvey, Claire & Ferguson (2010) reveals that particular attention should be given to find out if this is actually the only landscape or whether there are secondary crime scenes that need to be located. Researchers will have only a restricted timeframe to work a crime site in its untouched status. The chance to permanently track record the picture in its original status must not be lost, such files will not only be useful during a study but are also required for demonstration at trial Wayne et al (2010).

Wayne et al (2010) has also stated that it's important that upon entrance at the scene investigators implement offense scene techniques, supervise uniform personnel and provide direction to the exploration to help in this. An investigative team should be nominated. This team should consist of an arresting officer, a corroborating officer, and an display officer. This process is standard generally in most Police services for any major criminal offense. The exhibits official is responsible for protection and collection of exhibits, to the examination of displays and their final production in court docket conditions. The arresting officer and the corroborating officer are accountable for interaction with suspects and also have final responsibility prosecuting the problem to trial. This team should be overseen by way of a senior Detective who may have a wide management role in ensuring that a major occurrence room (MIR) or demand post is set up to support and deal with investigative functions at the criminal offenses arena and also at later periods of the investigations Wayne et al (2010).

Furthermore Wayne et at (2010) elaborates the initial assessment level of crime world that the trained investigators must have control of the analysis and begin to identify possible witnesses and suspects they must begin this level by evaluating physical facts located with a view to assisting with suspect generation by prioritising the most evidence (e. g) DNA located at a scene is powerful data as compared to an un-identified item such as clothing). Additionally it is at this time that the researchers should familiarise themselves with the victim by carrying out interviews with the victim if still alive, or alternatively by performing a victim logy (or profile) if the victim is the deceased. The profile should include the annals of the victim, associates, legal links, family and financial data. This task is important because the characteristics of a victim can provide links to possible suspects specifically, investigators may be able to sketch inferences about the offenders purpose, modus operandi, and signature's behaviour (Turvey, 1999). Having done this, the investigators can know the information about the victim. Wayne et al (2010).

According to Wayne et al (2010) during the investigation stage the investigators undertake the most challenging work. At this point investigators must try to establish a motive for the criminal offense, if this is done, it must be exact, then this information will greatly help out with reducing the suspect pool. See account also have to be closely examined at this time and evaluated as to the assistance they can create a profile for the suspect. In this level investigators should be making certain trained experts are assessing all available physical proof. Wayne et al (2010) further clarify about the target stage of experiencing carried out thorough study of the crime scene, investigators need to build a account for potential suspects from information available through the target level. The researchers should then test the speed of the evidence by seeking links between your suspect and the criminal offenses. All available data must be channelled into providing a nexus between the suspect and the sufferer, in relation to time, place and motive. It is at this time the investigators need to be totally conversant with the investigations accumulated by investigators with regards to build a account for potential suspects. The investigators should develop an investigative interview plan so that when the think is confronted, the researchers are clear of the route and purpose of the action or questioning that they carry out in the arrest level, Wayne (et al 2010).

According to Jackson, Andrew and Jackson, Julie (2004) the duties of the first Police Officer joining and preservation of the criminal offenses scene is really as follows

Maintain the worthiness of any physical information that may be present. Perform an initial diagnosis of the landscape. Deal with any emergencies (the overriding obligation of the first officer going to is to preserve life, whether crucial data is destroyed along the way). Demand assistance as necessary. Preserve the picture (unless it has been decided that physical information will never be recovered. Make an appropriate records of his or her assessment and activities (included in this times at which any key occasions took place, such as the first officer going to appearance at the landscape and any estimated time of the incident which may be available from, for example, eyewitnesses. Connect his or her assessment and activities to those who will take over the responsibility for the handling of the picture and or those responsible for the investigation of the case. Provide appropriate information about the processing of the circumstance to those members of the public who are immediately involved. The first officer attending the crime field must during his / her initial assessment, ascertain whether any of the following are present or nearby. Wounded persons victims.

Eyewitnesses (who should be kept separate from one another, by the first officer joining need to avoid conversation between the eyesight witnesses that may distort their stories of the incident). Suspects (who must be placed separate from one another and from witnesses) it should be borne in mind that seemingly innocent might, in fact be suspects in case. Further Jackson et al (2004) provides that any crime scene that physical research is recovered and recorded, this process is also known as documenting the criminal offense scene. That is done by making written records that are augmented by photographs, video recording recordings and or sketches, as appropriate Jackson et al (2004).

Jackson et al (2004) also stated the following tracking on the crime scene. There must be a record of every item of physical facts noted from the field, detailing the determined of the individual who retrieved it, the time and date at which it was documented, the precise location from which it was used and a information of the item included. A log of most images considered of the picture (whether by still photographing - standard digital or video taking) describing for every images.

The exact location of the camera operator

The identity of the camera operator

The direction in which the camera was directed.

The time and night out of which it was captured.

Any special lighting or other conditions used.

Any special light or other condition used.

The items and section of the scene that the image was captured.

A log of any sketches manufactured from the picture.

A detailed explanation of the environment of the criminal offenses scene.

A record of the conditions of whether and light that prevailed during the handling of the picture and a thorough explanation of the crime world itself in the problem where it was found before the removal of any physical information, including details or any features that might be of evidential price (like the location and condition of any likely points of the entry and or exits by the individuals mixed up in incident). It really is clear that on the criminal offenses arena the physical information must be protected for potential data. Wayne et al (2010) and Jackson et al (2004:19) support to each other in conditions of the procedure of crime picture management.

According to Savino, John, Brent and Turvey (2005) provides the information to be discovered from the offense scene the following

Investigators can experience the sights, smells and audio of the offense field, as the sufferer and the offender identified them.

Investigators can experience the spatial romantic relationship with the picture.

Investigators can experience how open up, or secluded the scene is, recommending possible witnesses.

Investigators can experience how accessible or hidden the picture is to the people not from the area, suggesting possible suspect populations.

Investigators can learn what kind of traffic (vehicle and pedestrian), residences or companies are nearby, suggesting possible witnesses and suspect populations.

Investigators can experience copy evidence first side, vegetation, soil, wine glass, fibres, and any other material which may have transferred to the sufferer or offender may copy to them, providing examples of what things to look for on suspect clothing or in suspect's vehicles.

Investigators can walk sufferer and offender routes themselves, witnessing the vision first hand, in order to discover additional witnesses and suspect people. This witnesses can include businesses with productive surveillance camera which may have registered some or all of the criminal offenses Savino et al (2005).

The attentive researchers may discover components of evidence recently thought lost and regarding to Savino and Turvey (2005) further elaborate the crime world dos and don'ts that, locards exchange process. Every contact cause a transfer of data contact between items in around and obliterate it. The investigator needs to be on the criminal offense scene and also have some contact with the data, as do Forensic workers however, fair steps can be studied to reduce how much data is added, relocated and obliterated consider the next guidelines.

Do not enter into the crime arena until you have signed in on the criminal offense arena security log. When there is not a security log, start one. The security log should contain name, organization, function, time in and out, and clothing explanation for later exclusionary purposes. One individual should be given to maintain the log.

Make sure that someone is designated to photograph the crime arena and adjoining areas. Part of the assignment involves retaining a log of every spin of film and each item and location picture.

Make certain that someone is designated to sketch the criminal offenses scene. A hard sketch should be prepared at the landscape demonstrating measurements between items of evidence and spatial romantic relationships within the scene. Your final or "smooth" sketch is well prepared later, predicated on notes, images, and other information collected from the landscape (Lee).

Make certain that someone is given to maintain and proof log.

Do not accumulate multiple items of evidence in a single bag or under one proof number. This gives for potential mix -contaminants.

Wear disposable latex gloves whatsoever times- this will help prevents the transfer of fingerprints, sweat, and other material from your bare hand on the picture.

Change gloves whenever you touch a fresh item on the world. This can help prevent cross-contamination between items at the same which you have touched.

Do not dispose gloves by carelessly discarding them in the picture. They could end up in the crime arena photo obscuring data, or worse, someone might collect them as information and run tests to determine their origins.

Do not touch everything in sight. Once you touch an subject, you may move it from it's original position or obliterate any proof that may have been transferred to it's surface through the crime, like a fingerprints or natural fluids filled with valuable DNA.

Keep your hands in your storage compartments until they may be needed.

Do not speculate aimlessly through the crime scene.

Do not touch, move or elsewhere alter components of proof before documenting them (photos, measurements, etc)

Do not stage collection effort from furniture mixed up in crime. Set up your equipments anywhere else, away from regions of potential evidence transfer.

Do not use calling on the landscape. The offender may have used the phone. This evidence that needs to be seized and prepared for fingerprints and other potential transfer evidence also, telephone details should be checked for all inbound and outgoing local and long distance calls, dating back to possible.

Do not use the television set and / VCR at the picture. The offender may have tried them, examine switches for latent images. Also, cable television documents should be inspected both authors have worked cases where in fact the offender has viewed TV and ordered pornographic films while looking forward to the victim to return home.

Do not use the toilet. The offender may have the bathroom and could have raised the toilet seat. The bathroom should be seized and refined for fingerprints and other potential copy evidence.

Do not smoke cigarettes, smoking changes smells of air and ends up with hot ashes that contain the actual to contaminate, melt, or even burn /ignite potential evidence. It also results in discarded cigarette smoking butts that may be confused as facts.

Do not eat in to the crime arena and lowered food could contaminate or obliterate potential research.

Do not drink. That is destruction and can ends in refuse that may find its way into the crime picture and get more potential accumulated as research, also spilled fluids could contaminate or obliterate potential information.

Do not spit, spitting cause the transfer of biological material into a offense scene.

Do not bring civilians to a offense scene. This kind of thing show too little respect and professionalism and reliability, as well as launching more potential copy evidence in to the world and increasing the opportunity that information may be carelessly contaminated or obliterated.

Do not allow your superiors or fellow workers to be civilians to a criminal offense scene.

Leave sealed containers sealed. Do not open sealed containers and sniff inside to look for the details by odour. They could contain hazardours or poisonous materials such anhydrous ammonia, a necessary ingredient, especially the attention, skin, and respiratory system will cause dehydration, cell destruction, and serve chemical burns.

Do not touch swimming pools of liquid in the criminal offense scene. This is Television set and movie behavior done for remarkable effects to market a picture, it does not have any devote real Forensic work. If you don't really know what something is you think it is important follow the correct documents and collection methods and send it to the LAB for examination.

Do not style anything at the crime scene. This also Television behavior done for remarkable effect to sell a scene, it has no place in real Forensic work.

Do not interview the victim in the place where the attack happened. This is extremely insensitive and may rot the trust between your sufferer and the investigator, to state nothing for possibly re-traumatising the sufferer.

Do not leave the crime arena to get something to consume, play lotto, go back to the office, or work on something else, until you are done.

Make written records of everyone in the criminal offenses picture and each person's role. That way you'll know whom to call later if you want statement.

Take written records of everything in the criminal offense scene that get a attention because "there is nothing significant to track record if it attracts ones attention.

Do not lead a victim' family from the crime scene through the area where there harm occurred unless there is absolutely no other way.

Supervisors in costed of the offense scene with looking at the work of your investigative unit prosper to notice those issues during performance reviews. They should also assess to ensure that once this type of blunders are determined, they aren't related. This is accomplished by training and by the example establish by seasoned investigators. Ignorance of physical proof and protocol usually starts at the very top, with those in charge and finds its way down through the ranks. Savino et al (2005). It is evident that participants who attended the crime picture must follow the information recommendations of Savino et al (2005).

According to Van Heerden (1982) the arena of crime can clarify, amongst others the next

The position of the deceased body and of various objects in relation to your body, can for example make a difference signs of the circumstance of death. This means that whether the loss of life is really as results of murder, suicide or accident. The direction that criminal approached the arena of offense and the way in which in which the scene was still left. The method used to commit the offense. The identity of the sufferer. The identification of the offender and the nature of his engagement in the criminal offenses.

In view of the clarification as alluded by VAN HEERDEN (1982) it's important to illustrate the way the potential facts should be acknowledged, protected, recorded, gathered and presentation, labelled or marked, submission for research, maintenance of string of possession of display in court. Marais, Rooyen, Pretorius, De Beer, Smith and Mostert (1992) et al provides that the following legal requirements should be critical importance to the investigator.

Before physical proof can be collected it must obviously be recognized. Within a murder exploration one usually concentrates on the weapon or subject that was used that induced the death. A search is also made here for bloodstream, hair, fibres and tissues in order to connect the legal with the criminal offenses scene. Circumstance and common sense should be always prevail with credited precaution never to destroy physical proof that may are present and the rules offered in this regard that the landscape should be observed in its completely and notes made of the location of most obvious physical hints, points of accessibility and exit symptoms of location (have difficulty) and the scale and show in the area should be limited and care used not to damage or even to disturb any information during the exam, a suitable search method must be chose upon and through the search of an inside world. Special attention should be paid to delicate evidence which may be easily ruined or contaminated. Places or items where latent fingerprints may be found and other physical clues to be examined by professionals later need to be seemed. Comprehensive records should also come in of all spots, spots, liquids and so on which could prove to have evidential value. The picture and encompassing areas must be demarcated off to ensure that valuable physical research is not ruined or destroyed by vehicles people or pets.

The three main ways that evidence is registered are images sketches and written records by the investigator. The images provides a long term record of the thing in the evident that succeeding handling alters or demolish it. An example is where efforts to make a plaster of your footprint mess up the impression or a lab examination, destroy the evidence a chance for the investigator to review the physical evidence in the event without handling the actual objects and opportunity for the officials of the courtroom to examine research which is too dangerous, troublesome or impressions on a door.

Rough sketch of the scene is usually drawn by the investigator for the primary purpose to indicate the complete location of folks and objects involved. Specific measurements of ranges on the area, and the exact location of all relevant information. The investigators records support the complete records of all evidence gathered on the criminal offenses scene. Paperwork of where and how the facts was obtained, every items accumulated should be got into in the records, the day, time, exact location and circumstances of how each item of evidence was obtained, should be included as well as a full description from it and the way the evidence was proclaimed Truck Heerden (1982).

Collection and product packaging of the physical data provides that great care and attention must be taken to accumulate all items and samples intact, uncontaminated, un-mutilated and it ought to be borne in mind that to fulfill legal requirements related to its advantages at a judicial proceeding, the investigator must have the ability to identify each little bit of evidence, even years after it was collected, described the location and condition of that at that time it was gathered. Assist in creating that, from the time of its collection until display in court, the evidence was consistently in proper custody and assist in explaining any changes which might have happened in the data between the time of collection and the subsequent introduction as information in judge and the adherence to correct packaging techniques is essential. Faulty packaging can lead to contamination, evaporation, scratching, binding, damaging and standard lack of physical proof. Packaging and the packaging materials must be of such quality that evidence do not move about and get destroyed during the subsequent process

The investigator should tag each item as soon as possible after discovered. The essential information on the label should include : type of evidence (fibres, locks, metal drillings, land etc) time and period evidence samples were collected, circumstance number, exhibit quantity or other figuring out amount and source from which the sample was obtained that is victim' s shirt, collar, forward doorknob, kept headlight or auto etc.

Preservation of the integrity of physical facts is a continuous responsibility from the time it is found out until the time it is offered in court docket or until the final settlement deal of the case determines its information. Preservation implies keeping the evidence without altering tampering, contamination, loss or harm, physical research. Preservation involves forwarding to the lab for assessment and examination, obtaining it from the laboratory and keeping it safe under lock and key where it can't be tampered with until it is sent in courtroom. In submission of physical facts for analysis, only physical evidence which has a bearing on the determined criminal offense should be send to the lab. No restriction is located on the nature and volume of samples. The probability of success are usually privately enhanced by a lot more samples that are received. Physical proof is usually professionally sent to the laboratory or sent by post or trial. It is sometimes essential for the criminal offenses investigator to in person deliver physical research to the laboratory. In practice the technique of delivery is determined by the length from the lab, the seriousness of the circumstance and the size of the physical data to mark all exhibits clearly this is the station case number e. g. exhibit "A" seal all exhibits with legible seal quantity, the entire addresses of the sender and the Forensic Science Laboratory must appear on each parcel and a covering minute in duplicate must go with each exhibit with the requirement that two(2) covering minutes must go with each individual parcel Vehicle Heerden (1982).

With maintenance of the string of possession, continuity of possession, that is the constant safekeeping and recognition of physical data, is actually important in the individualisation when the crime investigator does not properly identify or safe keep examples, that is, objects or items bought at the crime picture or in possession f the perpetrator, it decreases the value of laboratory examination to the very least. The integrity of physical information is often questioned by the defence in court docket. The right methods applied during collection, marking and product packaging of data may nullified if account can't be given of the persons who handled examined or secure the samples in order to protect the integrity of physical evidence to limit the number of individuals who take care of the data from the time it is found to the time it is shown in court docket. If the evidence leaves once possession, information in your notes to whom it was given with time and date, the explanation for being given to another and when and by whom it was went back, ensure that the persons handling the data affix their names, force quantity and project to the package deal. Obtain a agreed upon receipt from the individual accepting the data when the data in returned, check for your identification markings and ensure that it is the same item in the same condition as it was when it was recovered and any change in the physical appearance of the data should be taken to the attention of the court. Dowling state that when a question arises as to the authenticity of something offered as facts or its likely alteration or contamination. The location and condition of the evidence from time of its discovery must be proofed. Proof of this string of custody shows that the evidence offered is the same data bought at the scene, there has been no chance to replace or incorrectly alter the evidence and any change in the condition of the evidence can be described example destruction through laboratory examination.

Physical and tangible data when shown in court must be determined and authenticated the relevance to the situation by the dental testimony of those who do authenticate the data. The most reasonable person is the one who learned it, usually the investigator or another Policeman. It really is clear that the task of how the crime scene should be went to from the first person and when the exhibits (physical data) is accumulated from the criminal offense scene. The chain of evidence is implemented until it is shown in a court docket of legislations.

In a view of Vehicle Der Westhuizen (1996) about the criminal offense scene is the fact safety of the landscape requires not only the picture and physical potential research, but also the safeguard of individuals and property, possible patients at the field are medically cured so far as possible and comforted specialised assistance is summoned and plans are created for the procurement and control of any information which might have be moved or left out by the perpetrator or their person and clothing. All people who've no direct curiosity about the scene of criminal offenses or who aren't needed, need to be removed from the condoned off area to avoid contaminants of the picture. Protecting potential physical facts is presence at even the most unlikely places, the data comprises a large variety of items which include all organic chemicals such as body liquids, fibres, hair, tissues, bone and seed material, in organic and natural substances such as fibre, toxicological matter, soil, dust, a glass, disputed documents metal and plastic material as well as finger, bullet, ft. prints Van Heerden (1982). In this stage and excursion of feet is under taken through the scene of crime to be able to ascertain safe pathways for the investigators and get yourself a global picture of the crime scene. The precise location where in fact the criminal offenses has been perpetrated is marked in order to point its relation as to its position and distance to other objects on the world of crime and minimize contamination or destruction of information. The function of the investigator is to protect against the pointless handling of any items, the proliferation of images and monitors or trampling upon those already present. The displacement of any physical information or contamination or destruction of even potential materials by eating, drinking alcohol, or smoking at the landscape, combing wild hair and using the rinse -palm basin or the toilet (Marais et al 1992) calling at the picture of crime must not be used, apart from prints onto it, modern telephones have a recollection whereby the previous number which has been dialled can be traced responding to machine, which form part of the tool, can also bring important information to the interest of the investigator Van Heerden (1982).

It is vital according to Vehicle Westhuizen (1996), is encouraging Savino and Turvey (2005) in conditions of how the crime arena should be guarded to avoid contaminants of physical data and to react well in the criminal offense scene for cases not smoking, drinking and eating etc. Regarding to James, Richard Osterburg and Ward (2010) show the procedure of the crime scene and how should be went to by the role players when the lawbreaker has not been trapped red-handed and has fled from the arena before the first officer occurs on the criminal offense scene several tasks devolve upon the first officer on the arena.

According to Osterburg et al (2010) the first person on the offense scene have to call medical aid for the wounded. In those conditions in which a person is very seriously wounded, the steps (below) may be differed until this is taken care of. Medical personnel should be admonished not to move anything beyond what is necessary to assist the wounded. They must be instructed to transport a victim from a stretcher. That is preferred because a wheeler or cart makes it difficult to avoid disturbing blood spatters, foot or shoe impression, or other evidence on to the floor or part ways to and from the scene. Ascertain any facts relevant to the criminals that needs to be immediately sent to the patrol power, person description, make and style of vehicle used, course fled from picture. To indicate the crime field (if necessary, its environs) To limit usage of people that have responsibility because of its examination and control. To detain and divide eyewitnesses so they can not discuss their specific observations with one another. To continue to protect the scene until the officer who's to be in charge of the continuing inspection arrives. The time of any significant succeeding action (as well as its nature, the reasons when planning on taking it and folks involved) should be carefully known and noted. Not doing this enables defence counsel to produce the impression that an investigator is sluggish, through or incompetent. Being well informed on the guidelines of evidence, attorneys often assault the collection and handling physical data at the criminal offense scene. Their purpose is often to own it ruled inadmissible should there have been any procedural lapse. In Nicole Brown Simpson / Ronald Goldman dual murder case for example, investigators left the original scene early, and then run into what believed to be a second crime scene, as a consequence, the coverage of the original scene, the reason why for giving it and the handling of both picture for physical research became matters of strong interest to the defence Osterburg et al (2010). In such instances it was essential that the investigator had taken good notes in due time, saving the investigative actions and the reasons why.

On entrance at the crime arena, the investigator should never write the next details for his or her survey and, possibly much later, to answer questions by defence counsel later. Who made the notification, enough time of arrival, and exactly how long it needed to answer. The labels of people at the landscape, specifically the names of these who already went through the world of any part of the scene. The facts of the case as ascertained by the officials at the world. Subsequent activities on taking responsibility for the crime picture from the uniformed officer who was in control until and likewise to the criminal offenses scene, there are several other possible sources of physical information, like the clothing and body of the victim (if not at the criminal offense scene) The body and clothing of the think, weapons, automobiles, house, garage or other area or article under his or her control, electrical over a movable device, whatever source in criminal offense scene, victim or suspect. The essential precepts governing the breakthrough preservation and collection of physical data apply evenly Osterburg and Ward (2010) argues that the finding of physical proof as they quoted Barry Fisher the crime Director of the Los Angeles country sheriffs Department and author of the Landmark content material on crime scene investigation records that Forensic Researchers, crime scene specialists and latent print out experts are the individuals whose careers apply picture and technology to the answer of the unlawful acts. They make an important role in the unlawful justice system. The skills and knowledge in the legal investigation may establish the innocence or guilt of your accused, professional ethics and integrity are essential to their work Osterburg et al (2010).

It should be observed, however, that before any physical proof can be collected and transferred, it must first be recognised as such. Recognition is routine subject when idea materials are familiar like bullets, cartridge casings, tool, marks and bloodstream. When materials are unfamiliar, recognition will depend on the investigators education, training and creativity Osterburg et al (2010). Large Authorities Departments today have technicians and clinical equipments designed for collecting and protecting physical research. When each item of physical evidence has been properly saved, it must then be gathered separated and conserved for examination in the laboratory and finally in court. The requirements of both scientist and lawyer therefore must be considered because improperly accumulated or preserved will neglect to meet the checks defence counsel applied in court, legal requirements will be looked at first Osterburg et al (2010).

In addition to Osterburg and Ward (2010) it is clear how should the process of offense scene be managed and supported by Marais et al. , (1992) for identification, cover, collection and preservation of physical research.

According to Sutton and Trieman (2009) they mentioned the responsibilities of a scene of criminal offense officer the following

Confirm that a criminal offenses has been dedicated. The majority of enquiries are self-explanatory. Occasionally whenever a crime is looked into suspicion may be aroused that the problem is spurious. An intensive research of the world could provide research that will prove or disprove this suspicion.

Preservation of the picture- it'll be shown later a scene of criminal offenses officer will spend some time, initially examining and then saving the world before any awareness is given to the recovery of evidential materials, this stage, which by its aspect will postpone the exam proper, may necessitate necessary steps to be studied that ensure no proof is lost or damaged for example, in bad weather, shoes or boots impressions outside on view should be covered over to protect them from elements.

Identify key information areas. These areas normally related to parts of the world where offenders are known to have been in particular as attention is definitely given to the point of accessibility into and the point of exit from the arena. Both of these (2) or in some instances, more, areas are where it can be sure that the offender has been in distinct contact for a longer period of energy.

Identify key research types. Some types, as will be shown later, can in fact identify the offenders and for that reason may be referred to as key of track material has its potential to put a suspect at the arena and so, at least in the original levels of the evaluation, must be cared for with equal value.

Record all data making clear and concise information of evidential material is often as important evidence itself. Complete record have three main purposes, first of all, such records are used by scenes of crime official when compiling factual claims of information. It happens after event and without contemporaneous arena notes, blunders or omissions will be unavoidable. Secondly, other participants of the enquiry team details without concern with misunderstanding or misinterpretation. This is important if issues regarding the possible contamination of information are raised. Thirdly and arguably the main, accurately maintained information of the scene and evidential items recovered these provide to prove the integrity and continuity of each item without such confirmation the court may well not accept the evidence and this could lead to the truth being dismissed. You will find number of accepted methods which may be video recording, photo, programs and major criminal offense field logs which is merely required when it's a major occurrence and once it has been established that a major crime has been dedicated a crime arena manager or criminal offenses scene co-ordinator will be appointed to aid and recommend the older investigator in concerns relating to the scientific study of the arena.

Recovery of most facts: No little bit of potential evidential material can be reduced during the assessment and must recovered. It is at this stage, however, the consideration should get to establish (especially where fingerprints and DNA are concerned), whether there is a legitimate reason for it being there. This begins the procedure of evaluation. Also, when recovering any potential data material documents must be completed that will confirm the integrity and continuity of each item.

Packaging and storing: the things identified have to be removed from the scene the first step is to number each item in the document of possible evidence by positioning it onto a list. This will likely be information item, whether an image, fingerprint lift or DNA swab a reference number. This number is then bar-coded in all further procedures allowing tracking of the progress of sample analysis and avoiding misunderstandings between samples. This process may seem to be trivial but it is an integral part of tracking the continuity of the item retrieved from the picture. Care must be studied to ensure that items are packaged in the correct containers. This product packaging of the pot is important. The product packaging must provide a secure environment for that for the reason that. It must be evident as to whether the deal has been opened up. Such product packaging is referred to as being "tamper - evident". It must be packed in a container that will not damage the materials that should be analysed, for example, wet biological must be packed in air-tight storage containers, that would encourage microbial spoilage that occurs. Then it must be properly labelled. Insufficient attention in labelling affect its continuity. Therefore item obtained at the picture will be transferred into a secure storage area are within the neighborhood Police Station. Subsequently, such items may be directed for scientific evaluation by a proper Forensic Science professional. Police Services differ in the quantity of clinical support that is provided in house. Most services contain a fingerprint development lab that enhances latent fingerprints, associated with a center that analyses the designs against the repository of store images. Other services may contain foot wear analysis laboratories and some contain another scientific provision. Services in England and Wales will send the majority of their samples to an unbiased FSP for examination Osterburg et al (2010). This includes DNA analysis, wild hair, fibres, fire-arm and documents. The separation of FSP from Law enforcement officials services avoids accusations of conflicts appealing between Forensic Knowledge providers (FSP) and services. The forensic technology provider is seen to provide analyses unbiased by stresses from within Law enforcement officials services that expect the evidence can help secure a prosecution.

Briefing the looking into officer: THE AUTHORITIES official tasked with performing the investigation will need to know the probable of evidential materials retrieved from a criminal offense world. The relevant information can be transmitted to the noted or electronic form as appropriate.

Prepare claims of information each witness completes and evidence a written assertion before any research can be provided before a court docket. Statements published by scenes of criminal offense officials can be long and engaged photographic record is made before displays are migrated or disturbed and also making extensive records at the crime scene is very important.

Presents proof before a court docket: The complete process has been developed to ensure that any facts retrieved from any criminal offenses scene is to a typical which will be accepted in virtually any courtroom proceedings Osterburg et al (2010).

SUTTON AND TRUEMAN (2009) Support the Bennet et al (2010) also DCLP Training component (2006) and SAPS Coverage number two (2005) and Marais et al (1992). In the process of crime world management from the landscape until the potential evidence determined packaged, stored and analysed by the Forensic Technology Laboratory and used in court of legislation as proof.

It is important to demonstrate how the assortment of evidence, preserve, inventory, package, travel and submit data, Rene (2000) provides the following:-

Prioritize the assortment of evidence to avoid loss, destruction or contaminants. The investigators in control and associates shall determine the order where evidence is gathered. Conduct a careful and methodical analysis considering all physical evidence options (e. g. natural fluids, latent, prints, trace information). Emphasis first on the easy to get at areas in open view and process to out of view locations. Decide on a systematic search pattern for evidence collection predicated on the scale and location of the scene (s). Decide on a progression of handling / collection methods so that primary techniques do not compromise subsequent handling/collection method. Focus on the most transient facts and work to the least transient types of physical information and move from least intrusive processing / collection methods. Continually asses environmental and other factors that may affect the evidence. Be aware of multiple scenes (e. g. subjects, suspects, vehicles and location. Discover other methods that exist to locate, officially document, and collect evidence (e, g alternate light source advancement, blow pattern records, projectile trajectory analysis) which is also clear that the procedure for the assortment of evidence, preserve, inventory.

Evidence is supported by both Rene (2000) et al and Sutton and Trieman (2009).

The one researcher seek to investigate the crime picture search and information collection.

According to Utmost, Houck, Jay and Siegal (2009). The crime arena search should be methodical and performed in a specific pattern. The choice of design may be dictated by the positioning, size, or conditions of the landscape. Typical habits are spiral, strip or street and grid. Sticking with the selected structure avoids bagging and or tagging random items with corporation or system. Measurements exhibiting the location of facts should be taken with each object located by two(2) or even more measurements from non-moveable items, such as door or surfaces. These measurements should be studied from perpendicular angels to each other to allow for triangulation before alert for all facts. The perpendicular were required to enter or leave the scene. Make facts locations on the sketch and complete the data log with notations for each item. When possible, having one providing as data custodian makes collection more regular, organised and orderly. Again if possible two individuals should observe evidence in place during recovery and being designated for id, use tags or if possible, mark on the evidence. Wear gloves to avoid fingerprints, but be aware that after thirty (30) minutes when possible to leave fingerprints through latex gloves, proof should not be handed too much after restoration. Seal all information plans with tamper-evidence tape at the criminal offenses scene. An important activity often overlooked is the assortment of known benchmarks from the picture, such as fibre examples from a known floor coverings or cup from a damaged window. Monitor the paper work, product packaging and other information throughout the process for typographic problems, clarity and uniformity Utmost et al (2009).

Maintain picture security throughout control and until the world is released. Doc the assortment of evidence by documenting its location at the scene. Night out of collection and who accumulated it. Get hold of each item determined as data. Establish of guardianship. Obtain standard / reference examples from the world. Obtain control examples. Consider obtaining reduction samples. Immediately secure electronically record data e. g. responding to machine tapes, security cameras video tapes, computer vicinity. Identify and secure facts in pots e. g label, particular date, initial container at the criminal offenses scene. Different types of data require different storage containers e. g. porous, non-porous and crush confirmation). Package items to avoid contamination and mix - contamination. Document the condition of fire-arms / weapons prior to rendering them safe for travel and distribution. Avoid extreme handling of evidence after it is accumulated. Maintain information in a way designed to reduce degradation or damage. Order where evidence is collected. Carry out a careful and methodical evaluation considering all physical information options (e, g Biological essential fluids, latent prints, trace evidence. Focus first on the easily accessible areas in open up view and proceed to out of view locations. Select organized search pattern for information collection based on the size and location of the scene. Decide on a progression of producing/ collection methods so that primary techniques do not compromise subsequent handling / series method, e. g concentrate on the most transient facts and work to the least transient varieties of physical proof and move from the least intrusive to most intrusive processing /collection methods. Continually assess environmental and other factors that may affect the data. Be familiar with multiple displays (e. g. patients, suspects, vehicles and locations). Recognise other methods that exist to locate, technically document, and accumulate (e. g. different light source improvement, blood pattern documents, projectile trajectory analysed), Max et al (2010).

According to Robertson and Grieve (2004) Examination of a body at a criminal offense scene for trace data is usually done in the following order

Visible trace data is removed by hand using tweezers. Tape lifts are retrieved from epidermis surfaces as well as the external areas of clothing before the body is taken off the world. If this is done in detail, using each tape to correspond to specific segments or areas of the body, important info can be gained about the syndication of the incriminating fibres found through the victim's last contact. This might provide information helpful in reconstructing the situations of the criminal offense. Any stains of your skin areas should be inspected with a side magnifier for embedded fibres or other materials. This have to be removed prior to collection of the stain.

Sometimes the subjects clothing should be removed at the picture, particularly when moving the body will probably drain body substance to the clothing. This drainage can demolish pattern evidence such as footwear images on the clothing as well as left over trace data. The clothing should be folded carefully and placed into separate paper hand bags that are then closed. Place a clean piece of paper over and under each surface of the fabric to keep fibres and other trace facts from being redistributed. This also helps to protect unstained regions of the clothing from becoming polluted with damp blood staining or other body smooth from the areas of the clothing.

Head and pubic locks would have fibres and other particle proof. Trace facts can be carefully removed with a tweezers and or combed from the locks. Fingernails should be scrapped or clipped to accumulate track materials. Anybody move bags should also be collected as information. This body move bags should be new. Some jurisdictions use white sheets to cover around a body before transport. This sheets can add another source of contamination. Even if the sheet is laundered or new. Such sheet should be collected and examined for tracing evidence. The mouth area, genital, and nasal cavities of the victim should be inspected for tracing evidence. The mouth area can retain evidence of dental copulation, biting and items used to suffocate or gag a victim. If suffocation is mentioned, the nasal cavity should also be inspected. The genitalia can have trace materials from the assailant as well as from any overseas objects that may have been used in payment of the criminal offense.

Known criteria from the victim's body are usually gathered at the time of autopsy. This will include hair criteria and blood samples. The victim's body should be re-inspected for just about any additional trace facts before the autopsy. Clothing that is not accumulated at the arena would have to be collected before the autopsy. Significant trace evidence may also be present on decomposing bodies. Bloated systems must be processes for trace materials at the picture. Once in a body carrier. The body can be too greasy, making both recognition and collection of data extremely difficult. Trace research from a body in an advanced level of decomposition is usual limitations to the assortment of locks and clothing when present. In these cases the scalp, in its entirety can be commonly removed and taken right to the Forensic Laboratory for a thorough assessment using microscope. Furthermore to fibres information can sometimes answer specific reconstruction questions that may arise throughout a criminal inspection. Microscopic study of bullets or projective could show traces of items they approved through. This could be a fibre from the clothing of a shooting sufferer discarded fire-arm that have fibres from the clothing of the think when the weapon was carried in the coat pocket Robertson and Grieve (2004).

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)