Types and Forms of Racism: Exploration of the US

Racism has been around for an extended it which is quite difficult to point out whether it's going to get rid of today or soon. Many people would think of racism in conditions of Whites oppressing the Blacks but there are several forms of racial discrimination that people will analyze shortly. Racial discrimination overall is not a good thing. Those that practice it will put themselves on the shoes of these being oppressed and try to visualize how good or bad it is. Following that we would have the same platform of reasoning together. In america, there are different groups of individuals that are discriminated against. This consists of; the Native Americans, African Americans, Latin Americans, Arabs and Muslims and Iranians.


Racism in simple terms can be described as the hatred one human being hast towards another individual (Human Rights Watch May, 2008). This hatred is based on the differences in pores and skin, language, place of origin and cultural customs. One band of individuals believes that their group is preferable to the other. A good example of the worst racism is that of the Whites into the Africans. Some, even up to today believe that Africans are incomplete creatures. This is what led to the first slave trade and the present enslavement. Racism also exists one of the Whites themselves depending on whether one can be an Easterner or a westerner. This is influenced by the superpower capability that a country possesses. Racism has resulted in slavery, war, splitting of nations and formation of new ones and drafting of legal codes.

Types of Racism

There exist different kinds of racism as described by Human Rights Watch (May, 2008); the first type is the historical racism. This happens due to a person's lineage and decent. People who have common historical origins, however, not necessarily biological characteristics, are categorized as this category. It is used to categorize nation states in Europe. Including the Nazi eagle, Aryan cross; was believed to be more advanced than other nations. The second type of racism is the institutional based racism. This is put in destination to protect the interests of a certain group and maintain the status quo of inequality one of the society members. This can best be expressed by the apartheid rule that was set up in South Africa. The 3rd kind of racism is the scientific kind of racism. This classifies people to have superior characteristics than the other for example intelligence due to brain size, a fore head which is sloping. It really is believed there is a hierarchy of races and this is what was used a justification to colonize others. The very last type of racism is new racism. That is predicated on new expressions. This encompasses immigrants, integration and cultural values.

Forms of Racism

According to Human Rights Watch (May, 2008), racism can be classified into two categories: Minority racism and majority racism. Minority racism is practiced by affluent minority groups that take a look at themselves as special and in a few circumstances; you will find they have support from some external powers. This kind of racism tends to be closely associated with imperialism. It is usually y called minority racism from above. Western imperialism falls under this category as well as the former colonials that practiced apartheid in South Africa. The Whites were not able to exterminate the local Africans as they did with the natives of North America. The Chinese nationalism also falls under this group. The Chinese Diaspora views themselves as an excellent ethnic group especially in Southeast Asia. Jews, in Israel, view themselves as a minority group surrounded and oppressed by the Arabs. However, the Jews are many in number in Israel. This hails from the Arabs need to oppress the oppressor. This view of the Jews is what's known as minority racism from below.

Majority racism from above is a populist in nature usually predicated on racial reversal including the Hutu and Tutsi genocide in Rwanda or Sinhala, who discriminated the Tamils (Human Rights Watch May, 2008). There is generally a divide and rule force behind this type of discrimination. In the United States, this is illustrated by the hatred the natives had contrary to the immigrants. Racism from below is the normal form of racism experienced in the West. This is illustrated by discrimination against the African Americans or discrimination from the Native Americans. African American is the most hated group because of the poverty levels they exhibit and the crime rate levels they get excited about. Racism can become more dangerous and hurtful if its forces are being propagated by a well social-economic class. Anti-racism oftentimes is involved in seeking to distribute power equal in conditions of economy, employment opportunities, access to social amenities and education thus eliminating ethnic tensions which could arise

Overview of Racism in the United States

Racism in america dates back as far as to the colonial era (Anthony 34). Inequality in human rights has been witnessed by the Native Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans and Asian Americans. Racial discrimination dates dating back to the 17th century up to the 1960s. Only the White Americans enjoyed access to literacy, the right to acquire and own land, citizenship, and the to vote, immigration and the right to a fair trial in court proceedings. Other European groups like the Jews and the Irish have experienced major social exclusion. Despite the fact that racism was officially banned in the mid 20th century, it continues to be experienced in areas of employment, housing, education, lending and government institution. Many people have not accepted the ban and therefore racism continues to be experienced in terms of segregation, slavery, reservations, residential schools, internment groupings and Indian wars. Discrimination is also evidenced in terms of religion. Muslims are discriminated against due the actions of extremists and are thus, widely seen as terrorists (Alvin Poussaint, par 3).

Recent Day Racism Situation

According to a United Nations Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination report (March 2008) reported by Anthony (38), the United States has or it is failing to meet international standards on racial equality. The equality disparities are being witnessed education, housing, criminal justice and healthcare. In March 2006, the same committee criticized america for not upholding the right of land ownership policy by the Native American. The committee wanted america to enforce the United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous communities. AMERICA was also to provide a detailed report on what it had done to market the culture of indigenous Hawaiian, Alaska and Indian Americans (Alvin Poussaint, par 3). The committee also observed that there was indiscriminate environmental racism and environmental degradation of spiritual areas and also areas that held certain cultural significances. The environmental degradation in question includes mining on sacred lands.

Anthony (37) reports that racial discrimination was also seen in the judicial system. This is so especially with the death penalty and life imprisonment sentence. It was observed that minors were sentenced to either of both harsh sentences as compared to their other counterparts who received a more lenient sentence having been convicted of the same crime. The committee was outraged by the government's comments that black kids get life without parole as a result of many crimes that they had committed. The committee was also not happy in the way america continued to hold non-U. S. suspects of terrorism in the Guantanamo Bay prison. The wanted america to expose the prisoners to a judiciary review. To them, this was just another form of racial discrimination. Ajamu Baraka of the Human rights network observes "Racial discrimination has been normalized and accepted as a way of American life" (Anti-Defamation League, par 4). The committee advised the United States to set up a Human Rights body that will keep track and oversee racial discrimination or disparities. The committee went ahead to warn america that it is not above regulations.

Racism in the Criminal Justice System

According to Anti-Defamation League (par 4), the United States' criminal justice system has been mentioned negatively in various print and press. It is stated to be racial based. It is stated that African Americans are usually targeted and severely punished as compared to their white counterparts. The following few incidents go on to show the extent to that your criminal justice system is reported to be rotten. According to a Human Rights Watch (May, 2008), the Whites and Africans who get excited about drug trafficking are fairly the same. The United States BLACK population is made up of only 13% and the ones using drugs are made of 14%. However, when it comes to arrests made on those dealing with drugs, the majority is African Americans. It beats the logic why it is merely the African Americans who are arrested the most.

It is also reported that stops that are made by police involves mainly Blacks and the Latinos (Anthony 62). It is said that 80% of the stops created by NYPD in NY involved either Blacks or Latinos. For these stops, 85 % were frisked while only 8% of the white stops made were frisked. A similar happenings are reported to be the same elsewhere in the country. In California, for example, it was discovered that Blacks were stopped times more compared to the Whites. It has additionally been revealed that once arrests are made, the Blacks are more likely to remain in jail awaiting trial as compared to the white counterparts. Inside a 1995 review report on the pace of trial of felonies carried out by the New York State Division of Criminal Justice, it was discovered that 33% more Blacks would be detained awaiting trial as compared to their White counterparts 80 % of men and women convicted of the crime seek a public defender. The bigger numbers of individuals seeking a public defender are Blacks. The general public defenders are an overworked lot who are underpaid and effectively, this means the poor Blacks who cannot afford the services of a private attorney will cope with the services of a tired and disgruntled public defender. In the end, the Blacks stand a large chance to reduce their cases (Anti-Defamation League, par 3).

As reported by Anti-Defamation League (par 3), the Equal Justice Initiative released a written report on June 2010, arguing that BLACK are underrepresented or excluded from the criminal jury services. It really is reported that in Houston County, Ala, 8 of the 10 DARK-COLORED juries have been barred from participating on death penalty cases. It is stated only few cases end up in the trial chambers. The primary reason being, the African Americans plead guilty to a crime they did not commit to be able to prevent the flawed court process that can sentence them for a long period for a crime they didn't commit. Additionally it is reported that Blacks found guilty will probably get a sentence that is 10% longer than their white counter parts for a similar crime. The report still goes on to state that 20% more Blacks will tend to be sentenced to prison on drug offences as compared to the Whites while 21% more will have the compulsory minimum sentence.

According to Anthony (2009), in July, 2009, the sentencing Project reported that more people who aren't Whites were obtaining the permanent serving sentences. It reported that 2/3 of individuals servicing life imprisonment were either the Blacks or the Latinos. According to the Congressional Testimony for The Sentencing Project report mentioned by Anthony (34), 56% of those in prison convicted of drug offences will be the Blacks. This is a huge contrast compared their population of 13% and drug users of 14%. The United States Bureau of Justice Statistics implies that a male by born it the year 2001 will probably go to jail five times and 3 x for Latinos greater than a white boy born in the same year. A couple of about 16% juvenile Black American youth in the whole population and about 28 % juvenile arrests are made. 37% of the juveniles are imprisoned in juvenile jails and about 56% are sent to adult prisons (Anti-Defamation League, par 5).

The USA has the highest percentage of population in prison than any country on the globe (Anti-Defamation League, par 5). However, the majority of the prisoners are Black males. This is in line with the ABC News report. It really is reported that even after the prison stint, racial discrimination continues to be felt outside prison. Whites who've criminal records are treated much better than Blacks who do not have a criminal record. Whites who are released from prison have an increased percentage odds of being called back in comparison to Blacks also who have a criminal history.

Impacts of Racism

Racism has some negative psychological effect. Delivering an integral address, Allavian Poussaint (1993) said; "to be black in America is usually to be a suspect" (par 2). A black must prove that he/she does not have any ill motive. Competence also should be proved beyond reasonable doubt. Thus a black will not walk comfortably in the streets with long over his/her shoulder due to security reasons. Racism can impact negatively using one psycho-politically. Black on the whole has been regarded as evil. Lucifer is depicted to be black. Thus African Americans are believed to be of a dark ancestry. This quite simply is promoting white purity and stigmatizing the black race. Overall, the implication is that the Blacks should be segregated, oppressed and enslaved.

Racism has led to genocide. Allavian Poussaint (1993) also says that based on the white Americans, "the one good Indian is a dead Indian" (par 6). This shows how life has been devalued. During the civil rights struggle, several people were killed. Anthony (2009) reiterates that regulations is not applied in equal terms. That is especially with the death penalty. It is stated that minorities who are sentenced to death are highly apt to be executed as compared with their white counter parts. Based on the anti-death penalty Organization Amnesty International, murderers of white people are 6 times apt to be executed as compared to the killers of the black people. It goes to show that the judicial system values White live than that of Blacks and other minority groups.

Global Research (2008) has indicated that racism has led to formation of attack gangs. In Southern California for instance, there are DARK-COLORED and Mexican American gangs. The gangs have special mafias who attack the other person i. e. the Mexican kills the Blacks and the Blacks kill the Mexicans on sight. It has been witnessed in the prisons where riots have been reported due to 1 group attacking the other. The Black Americans havent had a cordial relationship with the black immigrants. That is predicated on the cultural and social distinctions that exist between them. Anthony (37) argues that there is disparity in wealth creation. The tax policies have restricted people about how to obtain wealth. The Social Security Acts excludes some sectors of the economy such as agriculture where most minority groups work and rewards other groups like the army. This has a disparity of wealth of acquisition by a factor of just one 1 to 10.

Racism has afflicted negatively the health of the minorities. It really is observed that the amount of minorities that who visited psychiatrists was much higher when compared with Whites (Anti-Defamation League, par 3). Stress levels have also been learned to be higher in the minorities groups. Frequent physical diseases and common colds have also been discovered to affect the minority females when compared with the white women. Inadequate health care is blamed for the countless deaths seen in the black race than the white race. The Blacks lack or have inadequate medical insurance cover, reluctance to seek medical assistance and poor medical service. It is said that many lives would be saved if the minority groups received proper medical assistance as that of their white counter parts. The minority are no privileged to receive adequate health care if the treatment involved involves the most recent technology.

Affirmative Action

Though he has been critical in highlighting the plights of the minority groups in the us, Anthony (2009) adds that affirmative action has been placed into spot to address the historical injustice imposed on groups that were discriminated. This includes usage of education, employment, health facilities. Most universities and employers are using affirmative action while admitting new students or employees respectively. Historically disadvantaged groups are given priority or a quota system can be used. Opponents of affirmative action have displayed openly their discontent and would like people to be taken on merit and not based on other methods.

Fighting Racism at Individual Levels

There exists techniques can help fight this racism vice. Some of the ways as held by Global Research (2008) as such that is to the sense that whenever one makes a racist joke, we aren't likely to laugh at it. Laughing encourages someone to continue. Instead, we have to make the person recognize that the joke had not been funny or we do not appreciate such kind of jokes. The worst thing is to keep silent. Instead we have to speak over minds out but cautiously and politely. We should strive to find out about others and understand their cultures; the variations in our culture demand appreciation and celebration. We can learn from them and appreciate why some things are the way they can be. There is no culture which is considered superior than the other. It really is assists with enriching our own cultures.

We should use the correct language. It is not prudent to mention races in a conversation. Some people get offended by using a language which it, there is an implication of racial discrimination. We ought to never use words haphazardly whenever we aren't sure where one ails from. Whenever you can, we should make an effort to be role models. We have to speak against however, not criticize comments that are racist in nature. Educate others the unwanted effects of racism and narrate your own experience to them if any. The other most sensible thing though it could be uncomfortable is to venture into areas where you are not of the other kind. However, you need to take his/her safety issues under consideration. If one learns in a White institution, you need to try to venture into a Black institution or if she/he is a Christian, she/he should find time to go to lady mosque. The experience will certainly be enlightening than one might expect (Global Research, par 7). If presented with projects, one should try to do them with people who are not from their own kind. Playing at the same level enhances the confidence of the minority and really helps to cancel the bitter discrimination injustice feelings they might be harboring in their hearts.

According to Anthony (2009), If is a parent, he/she should young make an effort to mingle his/her children with the kids from the other groups. You need to strive to discuss TV programs and movies that might be of stereotype. This can help children to comprehend other folks and their culture. This will help in suppressing racial discrimination traits from creeping in. Whenever you can one should support and help organization that voices their ideas against racial discrimination. This will help in fighting against it and by joining these groupings; you'll have a better voice at the neighborhood level. People you will need to listen to you. As they say, "united we stand and apart we fall". Thus being within an organization with a standard goal, great strides of achievements will be produced.


It is safe to state that racism has drastically reduced with the continued legislation and having the best populace. Religion also offers played a significant role in eradicating it as people believe racism is a sin and practicing or helping in its propagation is sinning against God. Affirmative action programs have majorly benefitted the minority even though the white believe that they must be done away with total. They feel that they are the ones at the losing end. As always people make an effort to resist change to the old ways they are really used. Racial spats nowadays are not common. If one does an act implying racism, it is almost always unconscious, unintentional and not malicious. With the reduced amount of racism, some things are yet to be performed like equal employment opportunities and wages. The economical status of the minority still is wanting. This may be one of why hate crimes remain in the increase. The ultimate way to reach a conclusive end to race disparities is to find a way of eliminating institutionalized discrimination. This sort of discrimination maintains the status quo of the society and therefore the groups that have historically been disadvantaged continue to be on the losing end. As Martin Luther King Junior said that we as a nation need to endure a radical revolution of values. Thus the United States criminal justice system must check the key cause of the trouble. It will not rely on what it calls reforms; reforms of having nice beds in good position.

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