What Is Meant By The Age Of Enlightenment Criminology Essay

John Howard- was a region squire, interpersonal activist, and sheriff of Bedfordshire. He previously great affect in bettering sanitary conditions and protecting humane treatment in prisons throughout European countries. He was accountable for persuading the House of Commons to enact a couple of penal reform acts. Along with others, Howard drafted the Penitentiary Act of 1779, which needed the creation of houses of hard labor where people convicted of offences that would usually have received them a word of travel would be imprisoned for 24 months. Prisoners were to be restricted in solitary skin cells during the night but were to labor silently in common rooms during the day. The twofold reason for the penitentiary was to punish and reform offenders through solitary confinement between intervals of work, the inculcation of good patterns, and religious teaching so that inmates could reflect on their moral tasks.

4 principles

Secure and sanitary structure

Systematic inspection

Abolition of fees

Reformatory regimen

New penal institution should be a place not merely y o f industry but also of contrition and penance

All these affects created a significant change in the practice of the penal system. Penal codes were rewritten to emphasize adaption of abuse to the offender. Correctional methods moved away from inflicting pain to the body towards methods that would set eh specific on a journey of credibility and right living. Conclusively, a penitentiary was developed where criminals could be secluded from the enticements of society, think about their crimes, and for that reason be rehabilitated. The end result of the Enlightment era was that prisoners were tortured less but pressured to suffer much longer, more psychologically tormenting, remains of imprisonment.

4. Discuss the idea of criminal offenses as a moral disease. What's intended by this? What are the implications? How do this affect the thought of imprisonment and prison?

Morality is a couple of principles concerning the difference between right and wrong or good and bad behavior. Criminal offenses as a moral disease means that crime happens because of an choice predicated on bad worth by the offender. Quite simply it could be described as an illness of the mind. Crime is the consequence of your environment and values that produce you choose to do what you do. Criminals were viewed as the victims of cultural disorder. It came about during the years of the penitentiary in the 19th hundred years America. While alcoholic beverages was one of the biggest sociable problems, psychic disorder, opium addictions and general public and moral disorder offenses started to become more and more common. Offences of assault, property offenses (robbery and burglary) were increasing. (Bloomberg & Lucken)

Crime was additionally attached to sociable factors. Four reformers during this time period offered their ideas: Gresham Powers claimed that the "causes of crime can be found in the rapid expansion of wealth, inhabitants size, immigration and commerce and creation" (Bloomberg & Lucken). Edward Livingston stated that criminal offense was product of intemperance, laziness, ignorance, irreligion and poverty (Bloomberg & Lucken). John Griscom found crime to maintain the framework of bad parenting which parents allow children to do what they want without restraints and boundaries (Bloomberg & Lucken). Lastly, Thomas Eddy claimed that offense could be followed to increased passions like lust, greed or assault. These passions overpower the features of reason and rationality. (Bloomberg & Lucken) Every one of these reformers recommended various reasons as to the reasons criminal offenses was existing using communal factors like the city and attitudes of these areas and upbringings as the causes.

The many assertions of what the causes of crime quite simply implicated three different foundations: "broken family, intemperance and a general bad environment: (Bloomberg & Lucken). Therefore, when you put all three of the sources mutually, the crimes that occurred during this time period held a tainted community filled with temptation and wicked promoted morally poor surroundings which contributed to morally poor people who can't withstand the communal evils. Within the mid 1800's modern culture was in decline. (Bloomberg & Lucken) Things were not going good around this time. Because of this, when you yourself have a cracked family and you live in a negative environment, people have no idea right from incorrect. The morality of the surroundings you reside in blended with temptations will make someone steal or burglarize a home. The morality of what's inherently bad and the good was never instilled so the morality of the individual is weak. Therefore, these offenders' conducts are seen as a moral disease.

The get rid of for moral disease was a moral knowledge. This concept damaged the thought of imprisonment and jail because it was presumed that scientific progression that treat physical disorders could be used to treat evil. Dr. Benjamin Dash was a famous physician at that time and believed criminal offense as an infectious disease. Hurry along with other doctors medicalized just about all behaviors. He taught that disease was a habit of wrong action and habits that cause injury are diseases. Criminal offenses can ultimately be healed and the shot against evils and criminal offenses first need strong willpower and the shutting down of any organizations of bad personality. Any affects that can corrupt your brain need to be removed in order for one to progress (Bloomberg & Lucken). As a result, Rush suggested the idea of a "House of repentance". Imprisonment and prisons took on the "The House of repentance" which helped the prisoner meditate on their crimes, experience remorse, and undertake rehabilitation. These ideas turned into the Pennsylvania System and later led to a penitentiary hoping to make a repentant center with solitary confinement. Prison basically became a place to think about what you have done day in and day out and ask forgiveness for your evil acts of criminal offenses.

American Penology: A history of Control (Enlarged Second Release), Bloomberg, Thomas & Lucken, Karol

6. What's the medical model of penology? What was it's approach? How did this result in real life applications? Did it work- why or why not?

Prisons in our society have gone through many transformations and adjustments. When one design does not work we change it for a new one hoping of better final results. Our jail systems have shifted their emphasis from abuse to rehabilitation then from reentry and reintegration back again to incarceration. Along the way, the demands of the unlawful justice system altered and prison models were developed to help criminal offense rates reduce. In 1929, the theory to have companies that target treatment as its definitive goal was presented. Prisons were to convert into something similar to a mental hospital that would rehabilitate and determine the offender for readiness to go back into. Therefore, in the 1950's the medical model started to become wide-spread regarding this notion.

The medical model is the model of corrections predicated on the belief that criminal patterns is brought on by social, subconscious, or biological defects that want treatment. Crime was regarded as a moral disease and looked at criminals as victims of social disorder. This model was the first proper effort to apply medical strategies that aimed directly at clinically classifying, treating, and rehabilitating legal offenders. The offenders in this model were handled on an individual basis to establish the cause or factors behind their criminal action. The methodology this model got was to figure out why a person committed their offense and what could be achieved to repair it. The average person treatment was predicated on what the technology of penology chose was needed. Prisons and jails were the ones diagnosing the causes of crime (drug abuse, alcohol misuse, etc). These were also those suggesting programs and steps to cure the illnesses. Many of the programs applied by the model: home confinement, halfway residences, pre-release centers, parole, compulsory release and work programs. Also, the new penology steps included: psychotherapy, distress therapy, behavior modification, guidance and group therapy. The offenders' criminal history, personality and their particular needs were considered to figure out how to repair their disorder.

Furthermore, the medical style of corrections was designed and targeted to treat thieves' conditions with expectations that whenever they may be released, the offender is healed and can not recidivate. The suitable programs and methods of the medical model possessed an admirable goal of supporting offenders find solutions to what caused those to commit offences and apply them. However, the model was unsuccessful and it came up to a finish. One reason the model did not work was because of budget problems. Many claims followed the medical model but only in name. Even though the model was at its highest point, most areas didn't assign any longer than five percent of the budget towards treatment.

The medical model was also said to be forced and motivating dishonesty. The participation of the model was all necessary rather than voluntary. Offenders were required to take their medications and treatments whether they wished to or not. Because of this, the inmates knew what to do if they wished to get out of prison or prison. They knew if they displayed good behavior and do the treatments and solutions needed, they would be released. Dishonesty amidst the inmates seemed to be seen as inspired because of this.

7. What accounts for the expansion of prisons in the U. S. ? Give at least 3 explanations along with specific examples. Are these valid explanations- why/why not?

There are many things that take into account the expansion of prisons in the U. S. Three things specifically will be the new penal procedures that occurred in the get-tough time, inequality of poor, disadvantaged men and recidivism and violations of probation and parole. In '09 2009, three are 2, 429, 299 people in national, state, and local prisons and jails which is the highest incarceration rate in the world (http://www. drugpolicy. org/drug-war-statistics ).

One reason is the get-tough-on-crime laws and regulations that boosted an increase in prisons. The regulations include obligatory sentencing, three hits, truth-in-sentencing and even more that cause longer and harsher fines. So why would this be a reason for prison progress? Well the hostile policing in minimal crimes like shoplifting, medicine possession or other trivial offenses traps people in the three-strikes-laws for repeat offenders. The three-strike laws establish necessary twenty-five years imprisonment which mandates much longer sentences for duplicate offenders. Another example is the mandatory minimum phrases from 1986 that are in essence fixed sentences to the people convicted of any crime, irrespective of culpability or other mitigating factors. Required minimums were used to get drug distributions & most people in a required sentence are low-level medication offenses. If caught on drug ownership charged you are going away for at the least fifteen years no questions or quarrels. That is valid because in line with the "Drug Coverage Alliance, more than 80 percent of the increase in the federal prison people from 1985 to 1995 was because of drug convictions" (http://www. civilrights. org/publications/justice-on-trial/sentencing. html). Also, the three-strike regulations are also non-violent duplicate offenders. Because of this, prisons are constantly wanting to make room for all these non-violent offenders and launching violent felons because these laws say that trivial offenses must be hard and the offender must provide their amount of time in prison rather than rehabilitation. The reason for these regulations was to avoid violent criminals, but the opposite is taking place and trivial offenses by offenders are sent to prison much longer than those who commit violent functions.

Mandatory minimum amount sentencing and the three-strike laws and regulations were very hard mostly on medication offenses. The "War on Drugs" was taken to stop the offering, manufacturing and importing of against the law drugs. Both sentencing types led to the increase of medicine offenders to fill up the jail systems. The "Number of men and women arrested in 2011 in the U. S. on nonviolent medicine charges: 1. 53 million (http://www. drugpolicy. org/drug-war-statistics )".

A second reason behind the expansion of prisons in the U. S is because of the inequality of poor, disadvantaged men. Corresponding to "Punishment and Inequality in the us" by Bruce Weston says that "unemployment, family instability, and neighborhood disorder combine to produce especially high rates of assault among young dark men".


Poverty cycles create prisoners. Complete demographic groups that are classified as living at or below the poverty level generally in most studies reflect a person from that generational group heading to prison or jail. In the past 25 years, there has been a widening difference in America between your haves and have nots. Once a person has been jailed or incarcerated, they can be grouped by most employers as third category citizens, which limits their opportunities to climb out of a circuit of poverty years after their release. The cultural group impacted the most is African-Americans.

A third reason is recidivism and technological violations of probation and parole. There are so many people out on probation and parole that parole and probation violations rises making them return back into jail. Serious specialized violation like the repeated failure to report, violent criminal offenses a routine of misbehavior can land a person on probation or parole back in jail. As we realize, there aren't many rehabilitation programs that help the offenders reintegrate back to world. Therefore, when prisoners are released back into society they just recidivate and finish up back in jail. This causes a rise of prisons in the U. S. You will find two specific statistical illustrations to show the rates of recidivism

Of the 272, 111 people released from prisons in 15 states in 1994, an estimated 67. 5% were rearrested for a felony or serious misdemeanor within 3 years, 46. 9% were reconvicted, and 25. 4% resentenced to jail for a new crime. (http://bjs. gov/index. cfm?ty=tp&tid=17 )

Released prisoners with the highest re-arrest rates were robbers (70. 2%), criminals (74. 0%), larcenists (74. 6%), automobile thieves (78. 8%), those in prison for having or selling stolen property (77. 4%), and the ones in prison for possessing, using, or advertising illegal weapons (70. 2%). (http://bjs. gov/index. cfm?ty=tp&tid=17 )

This argument is valid because these statistics plus a lot more show how offenders are cycling in and from the unlawful justice system. Not only do we have new offenders but now old offenders who cannot pattern out of the system.

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