China is circumstances of ceremonies because the early times while traditional western countries also have their own etiquettes. Together with the coming of monetary globalization period, negotiation becomes the most frequent and useful activity daily. In international business discussions, two or more parties, which can be belong to different countries, come together to discuss common interests and issues. Successful business discussions certainly bring more benefits and additional development to both get-togethers. However, in the real life, etiquette distinctions will result to some cultural issues, even lead to discussions failures. To be able to examine how etiquettes effect on business discussions, this paper uses the method of contrast and examination, compares Chinese language and european business negotiation practice at length, talks about the impact of etiquette dissimilarities on international business discussions, and puts forward some useful suggestions on the procedure and strategy of negotiation.
[Key words] Reception Etiquette; Difference; Business Negotiations; Impact
1. 1 The Purpose of the Study
The success of business activities starts with agreements come to between firms. An satisfactory contract requires effective business negotiations. Negotiation is a basic human activity and is also such an activity involving types of interpersonal communication activities that takes place at the verbal, nonverbal, situational contextual levels. In a single culture environment, the negotiation process is more predictable and correct, as negotiators don't need to concern with troubles of languages and cultural variations. Individuals getting the same cultural backgrounds tend to display common patterns of thinking, sense and reacting consistent with their cultural history. However, there will be more obstacles in international business discussions. International business discussions are ones where in fact the negotiating parties belong to different cultures and don't show the same ways of thinking, feeling, and behaviors. The complete negotiating process is generally more complicated because social norms may undermine effective communication.
As above, international business negotiation isn't just the communication and co-operation in the field of market, but also among world civilizations that have great impact on such kind of discussions. In fact, conflicts over goals and types of procedures of negotiations tend to be intensified by cultural differences. Etiquette, as you part of culture, if its differences are not well known or dealt with can be serious barriers to successful international negotiations. The greater the ethnic difference, the much more likely obstacles to communication and misunderstanding become. Hence, learning and understanding etiquette differences between your negotiating parties are actually conductive to the success of intercultural negotiations.
Chinese culture differs from western culture in terms of beliefs, ideals, lifestyles and world point of view, so discussions failures often happen credited to great dissimilarities of the two cultures. In an international business environment, negotiators with an understanding and respect of cultural variations, will have large edge at the bargaining stand. Thus, the writer tries to concentrating research on the impact of etiquette dissimilarities on conflict management styles in sino-western business negotiations and makes a comparison of different conflict resolution styles commonly within Chinese and Western cultures.
In brief, the goal of this thesis is to identify etiquette distinctions between China and western countries, providing recommendations for the international business discussions, which can help to reduce unnecessary failures of negotiating and complete desired contracts.
1. 2 The Organazation of the Study
This paper involves five parts. Part 1 presents the purpose and the organazation of the study. Part 2 gives a general understanding of etiquette and discussions, which providing a basis for further research and explores core factors of Chinese and western etiquette. Part 3 details the impact of etiquette on international business negotiations. Part 4 sets forward some recommendations for international business negotiations. Part 5 is the conclusion.
This paper will keep pace with the changing times and is also of great practicability. This is the need for writing the thesis. There are various factors which may have impact on international business negotiations such as international economic factors, political environment, pluralism of legal system, culture and etc. The paper combines the materials of language and culture with the material of business negotiations, which illustrates the thought of doing research from a multi-disciplinary point of view. The thesis presents a comprehensive overview of theories on etiquette, bushiness.
II. Variations of Etiquette Between China and Western Countries
2. 1 Description of Etiquette and Negotiation
Generally speaking, etiquette refers to the utilization and communicative situations, which really is a form of displaying value and friendly. Bisiness Etiquette is a code of do which must be reputed running a business dealings(Jin Zhengkun, 2005). It is a kind of art, which ultimately shows a stylish picture of life. Using the globalization of the whole world, there are increasingly more communications between american culture and Chinese culture. As everyone knows, civilizations between China and european countries are almost different. You will discover etiquette differences between the two ethnicities in the respects of reception, greeting, banquet, presenting gifts and so forth. In international business discussions, etiquette is one of the key factors to be concerned.
There will vary kinds of definitions of "negotiations". "It might be understood as a process of several parties incorporating their conflicting tips of view into an individual decision of common interest"(Wang Guanfu & Su Yurong, 2001: 38). Common passions and conflicting pursuits are two basic elements of negotiations. Negotiations get-togethers will need to have common goals, or there would be no dependence on negotiations. Conflicting pursuits refer to most of preferred outcome is the most suitable for one party. In business discussions, conflicting interests may include payment, distribution, income, contractual obligations, quality and so forth.
2. 2 The Variations of Shaking Hands and Forms of Address
Shaking hands is a typical way in communication. In western countries, people will not necessarily shake hands, simply a smile and say hello to others. But in China, even it's the first-time they meet, shaking hands is also regarded as a simple courtesy. There is no much limitation to tremble hands in China while the european countries have certain etiquette. For example, between women and men, woman ought to be the first person to reach out and shake hands. If the woman has no interpretation to shake hands, the man can only just nod and bow; between old and young, the teenagers should supply the hand after the old; between the superior and lower levels, the superior should give the hand first; between the host and guest, the individual who should first supply the side is the number. Handshaking should be paid attention to watching each other, and take off gloves; otherwise they'll be regarded as impolite.
In american culture, "people can call each other's name directly"(Austin, 1962: 30), without watching the age, position and seniority. "They treat this form of address as a means of showing seductive and close relation"(Austin, J. L, 1962: 31). However, in Chinese culture, the position in the family hierarchy and the professional articles are incredibly important. You can not directly call a person's name whose position is higher than you; otherwise people would think you are incredibly impolite. Furthermore, Confucianism has the strongest impact on the daily lives and business civilizations in China. One important doctrine of Confucianism is its teaching on admiration for hierarchy and get older. The Chinese language has a huge vocabulary used to tell apart people in conditions old. The family name plus profession linked title is popular form of address, such as "Professor Wang", "Doctor Li". This difference of the same generation and the difference between paternal and maternal relationship are shown in kinship address terms in Chinese however, not in British. The desk shows the partnership of English and China kinship.
2. 3The Variations of Greeting
Greeting behaviour are important tools for creating and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Differences in British and Chinese greetings are impressive. The european people usually use "Good morning hours/ afternoon/ night?" "How will you do?" "Nice to meet you. " "How are you doing?" "Hello" "Hi"etc. to greet other people. "Perhaps you have ingested yet?" "Where are you going?" "Where have you been?" When Chinese language people lengthen greetings to one another, they always ask such as this. That is a Familiar greeting method for Chinese language people but no other meaning. "In Chinese language etiquette, this type of greetings is considered as attitudinal warmth and good care toward others rather than inquiring others' personal matter. However, these questions make the european people puzzled, even misunderstanding"(Goffman, E, 1967: 48). For instance, "Have you consumed yet?" they may misunderstand you are inviting him to dinner. "Where have you been?" They may think you are inquiring about his privacy and response you with "It's none of your business. "
2. 4 The Variances of Banquet
Chinese stand manners occupies a very important position in Chinese language people's lives. They assume that eating is not simply the physical needs, but also important public experience. Therefore, it is vital to grasp some knowledge of Chinese kitchen etiquette, whether you will be the host or only a guest.
In Chinese table manners, the guests seated on the chairs first. Chinese food food include chopsticks, meals, spoons, bowls and so forth. Chopsticks are the key food food. When use chopsticks to consider food, several problems should paid attention the following. First, do not lick the chopsticks whether there is certainly food about them or not. Second, when chatting with other people, it's important to put down your chopsticks, do not waving your chopsticks when talking. Third, do not put chopsticks on food upright, because it is merely used for reducing. Fourth is purely the function of chopsticks. Chopsticks are being used to have food only. It's very rude to clip teeth or take another thing but not the food. Sometimes, when taking food with chopsticks, spoon can also be used to aid, the primary role of the spoon is to scoop. You should position the spoon on your plate if you do not use it briefly, do not wear it the table directly, or make it in the meals. After taking food with the spoon, you should eat it immediately, or put it on your plate, please understand that do not put back again to the original place. Of course, if the meals is too hot to consume, please not to use the spoon to scoop or boast the food, you can put the meals within your own dish first, and await a while to consume. Do not position the spoon into your mouth or lick it again and again. When finish eating, chopsticks should be putted up for grabs neatly the bowl by the right side, all of the guests can leave only following the host indicates. You cannot leave with falling your chopsticks after finishing meals(Yangliu, Tian Dandan & Yuan Fushan, 2008).
The american people will probably have a banquet in their own properties, which are different from Chinese language etiquette. The guests should reply the invitation before attend the banquet. On formal supper, a male clerk the stand by position the gate to help a visitor to take off jacket. The web host and hostess greets a visitor in the hall and expresses welcome. The guests always arrive later ten to quarter-hour to let the hosts to prepare effectively, which is another difference from Chinese language etiquette.
In Western-style banquet, the hostess always enters dining room within the last time. In fact, the hostess is the real number in the banquet, operating the main role first and last in the banquet. The guests always notice her activity, lest miss appearance. After the banquet begins, when each dish arises, friends also follow the hosts' action. The visitor cannot refuse any dish. In case the guests do nothing like some food, they may take less as far as possible. The tableware of Western-style food is blade, fork and dish. People use the right hands to carry a knife and left palm to hold fork. Usually do not change blade and fork when eating. Blade can be utilized as slicing food and fork can be utilized at feeding(Music Guoshuang & Jiang Wenjing, 2008). In Western-style food banquet, take what course, send out drink what wine beverages, and deserve to make use of what mug are incredibly rigid. Western-style banquet often use seven varieties of wine and every dish should catch up with a kind of wine. Cold meats or choice sea food glass often follow spirited wine beverages with spirited goblet. In deputy dish, people drink the claret with drink claret cup. Entree practices bubbly with bubbly glass and the desert uses Slot with wine-cup.
When eating out, people should be silent and do not make sound. The appear to be burp and chew up can be regarded as discourteous behavior. When the banquet ends, the variety stacks up first and declare the end of the banquet. The feminine guest leave place first. Regardless of be to leave banquet or take one's couch, male guest should help female guest to move chair. The friends cannot hastily leave. However, they ought to wait for the hostess to start to see the visitors off.
2. 5 The Variations of Presenting Gifts
Presenting gifts can be an important form of social communication. Both Chinese language and westerners focus on presenting items to others, but there are a few differences between them. First of all, it is the differences of product. The Chinese language attach importance to the functional value of the product. For example, they could send quilt or home appliances to the new few. The Chinese language people also think highly of the price of the product, so a lot of people will leave the price label with the surprise. In the truth, Chinese people prefer to present gift ideas with high prices because of their face or other compelled reasons. However, the westerners always send surprise like a bunch of plants or a wine. They attach the importance to the feeling of receiving gift ideas, not the present itself. In most cases, they neither present too expensive gift items nor too cheap items but pay attention to the gift presentation. Even it's the very common present, they will use color paper packaging with ribbon bandage to make it perfect as a manifestation of their deep friendship.
When agree to the gifts, Chinese language usually politely refused at first, they consider it as a politeness. Once they accept the gifts, they'll not open the gift ideas when the givers still stay nearby. However, the westerners allow gifts with no decline, they communicate their gratitude to the givers and compliment the gifts after accept them. They believe that praise the gift idea is the same with compliment the givers. "When you get something special, sometimes you open up it immediately, or the giver may think it's rude if you don't open"(George Y. Tang, 2006: 68).
III. Affects of Etiquette Distinctions on International Business Negotiations
3. 1 Affects of Business Discussions During the Whole Steps
Business discussions should be mutually beneficial. There is no conclusive win and an effective business negotiation is that every part is success. Business negotiation should be considered a process that is based on the needs of several parties, to seek the best interests. During the process, each part is eager to meet the needs immediately or indirectly. However, the opponents' needs must be studied into account so that business negotiation can achieve success. What strategy an effective business negotiator usually uses is making the opponent as a pal.
First, the negotiators, the personal information of the other negotiators and obligations should be guaranteed before negotiation. Second, we have to prepare the topic, content and progress well, and make ideas, aims, and negotiating methods. Then, negotiating room should also be established, using rectangular or oval-shaped table, and the seats facing the door is ideal for the respect, which should be given to the other part. Negotiators must also have good quality. Dress should be clean and formal. Men should clean beard up, using a suit and link. Women should not be wearing too naughty.
The first impression between negotiating gatherings is vital, which is whenever you can to make a friendly, slow paced life throughout a negotiation. Self-introduction should be natural. Requesting questions should be polite. Following the introduction, choose a topic that both factors have interests to talk about. A short greeting can create a gentle atmosphere. Negotiating actions also play a significant role in negotiation atmosphere, for example, when you look at the opponent, you should look into the eyes to help make the other feel worried. Gestures should be natural, avoid cross-arms at the chest, for it is extremely arrogant and rude. At the start of negotiation the most important task is to find out the other's important thing, which is necessary to listen to the other's speaking very seriously, providing careful observation of the action and expression, and providing appropriate reactions, so it isn't just to comprehend each other's motives, but also to show esteem and courtesy.
In the putting your signature on ceremony, all people mixed up in negotiations of both sides must be there. The two factors also have helping sign people, standing up beside their own associates, and the rest stand behind their particular party representatives. Aiding sign people should help open the documents and point out the position where you can sign. Reps from both attributes to remain owns record first and then exchange to to remain other's document. After the signing, both attributes should operate, exchange the text, and shake hands with one another, congratulating successful cooperation. Other users should give warm applause and congratulations(Wang Fei, 2007).
3. 2 Different Attitudes to the Time Orientation of Negotiation
Time in China is a lifetime commitment, and no long-term or short-term errors will be produced through hasty and hurried decisions. All Chinese language know the Confucian proverb "Think three times before you act". They have a tendency to do more than one thing at the same time. Not being hasty is an indicator of wisdom and sincerity. These sayings indicate the different time orientations. Sequential time stresses involvement of men and women and completion of transactions rather than stick to a present plan. As China has a history that dates back a large number of years, the China think it is normal to have a long-range view of happenings and are less likely to be rushed when they face decisions. Negotiators usually stress the process rather than how long it requires to get there. So they could make concession before last second of discussions. Therefore, more Chinese language negotiators favor slower discussions than western negotiators do.
According to Chiness ethnical characteristics, available discussions, Chiness people focus on "discuss the rules first and then talk about the facts", while westerners point out "discuss the facts first and prevent talking about about the principles". This difference often contributes to communication difficulties in the West. Western negotiators aren't adapt to such discussions way, and the rusult of the negotiation is often more to help the Chinese language negotiators(Wang Min, 2008). A simple assumption of american negotiation would be that the faster that money or goods change hands, the higher the increase in value and the larger the profits. The american negotiators want to produce a deal quickly, then the next. Short-term trades are appreciated. They are known for their velocity and shoot for getting through this content of the discussions as efficiently as is possible. They always seem to be to maintain a rush and under great pressure for results. Most westerners have suprisingly low tolerance for extensions and postponements. They pleasant development and change and also have less regard for past communal or organizational traditions and traditions.
3. 3 Different Etiquette Culture reflections of Chinese language and Traditional western Negotiators
Different ethnicities have different etiquette. In hierarchical cultures, social status implies social power. Social inferiors are anticipated to defer to communal superiors. Most Chinese language people in subordinate positions are pleased to place their rely upon their superiors. They have a tendency to believe that those above them in the hierarchy are truly their superiors and want out for his or her welfare from a broader point of view and a larger base of experience than they could themselves. Status brings with it great responsibility to do what is best for one's subordinates. Those in positions of vitality are expected to make use of that power responsibly and advance the passions of all those in their collective.
Chiness people give attention to the value and humble, that admiration the mature and learn how to give way to keep up the sociable order of hierarchy throughout. For example, when meeting each other, they often times used the subject of "old" character. Within the junior and subordinate are usually respect the views of these superiors' and didn't dare expressing their personal views. Within the West, the Renaissance praised people's value, the revision of equality is deeply rooted among Westerns, there is no factor between people and people(Cheng Yuanfang, 2008). The westerners think that all people have the to success in life. They treat others as equals when communicating. They do not add great importance to the place of delivery, family or other backgrounds. They find it is much easier to interact with each other when there is at least the illusion of equality among customers of the group. Western culture minimizes position differences and prices equality over hierarchy and social class. They are really pleased with the equality character of their society and assume that people will appreciate being cured as equals.
In early China it had been put forward the idea of family, patriarchy been around long-term, while everyone should treat in the nationwide interest as the starting point. In essence, people should maintain the emperor point out. Today is also based on the rule of collectivism. In addition to call them but also should add Ge or Jie, which in regards to unity and harmony. In the West, the Renaissance was began with individualism as the main and advertised personal freedom and independence. This individualism has permeated in to the political economic, ethnical and other aspects. It is generally non-interference in other's business, specifically in age, relationship, family, income, religious and other aspects. General when they meet there are just some the most basic hello "How are you?" In the UK, people often discuss the elements when meet. In China, "what are you heading to do" "Did you eat?" They are regarded as interference in other people's privateness in the West(Cheng Yuanfang, 2008). The westerners pay more focus on "I" alternatively than "we". Individualists often like to place forth their own work and to be judged on the basis of these personal work. In terms of business discussions, western negotiators tend to be more self-motivated and their business relationship is dependant on self-interest. The consequences for international discussions are that negotiators from high-power-distance cultures may need to seek approval using their company supervisors more often, and then for more issues, resulting in a slower negotiation process.
. Recommendation to Effective Negotiations
4. 1 Respecting and Reconciling Etiquette Differences
In international business negotiation, negotiators should value the etiquette of the opposite side to begin with. Admiration is most effectively developed once people recognize that most cultural variations are in themselves, even if indeed they havent yet identified the differences. For instance, westerners often think that the China are mystical, even unreliable. They never really know what Chinese are sense or pondering and Chinese always say "yes", even when they are negative about something.
Then, to be able to attain an agreement, they ought to reconcile the etiquette dissimilarities. In short, one is seen as a his own ways, and there is nothing good or bad, noble or humble when is conversing his own features. However, once he's in a culturally diverse situation, one should be flexible. Being adaptable means that negotiators should prepare yourself to change their way of frame of mind when required. To change one's way or attitude has nothing to do with giving up one's guidelines or benchmarks for business. In fact, such an alteration is merely for solving the situation or for accumulating some business relationship. People need to obtain the skills that will allow them to react to various conditions. For instance, behaving in an informal manner when encountering a culture that utilizes an informal style or speaking softly instead of loudly when discussing with people who use a subdued communication design (Chaney, L. H. & Martin, J. S, 2000). With this sense, patience is an important attribute required for modern business people. Because they are in the business of creating riches and value, negotiators need to talk about the values of shopping for, retailing, of joint venturing, of working in partnership. It would be wiser for international business negotiators to take a neutral attitude when contacting people with various ethnical backgrounds and deal with business in a specialist way.
In order to better reconcile social differences, a good negotiator should keep in mind the following tips: There are no specific values or behaviours that are universally right. They need to be adaptable and acknowledging of dissimilarities in values, values, benchmarks and mores. Only in this way can they do a successful negotiation.
4. 2 Conversing Etiquette Differences
Chiness and Westerns negotiators, aren't only to stand on their own perspective of taking a look at the issues, but also to stand in the other's position to consider, namely, empathy. Empathy means in the negotiations use more from the other side's things of view, understand each other's negotiating style, negotiating practices, interests, preferences and hobbies of their finest point. For example, the U. S. negotiators like to talk straight about the specific provisions. The Chinese language negotiators have to adjust their overall following the first part of considering and negotiation strategies, specific provisions right from the start, finally discussing general principles. For instance, at the start of discussions, the U. S. negotiators always on the facts, start with the Chinese language negotiators, who, if trouble with the negotiations on the details, the negotiations not only very efficiency for america that can make sense of the Chinese side on their mode of pondering and pattern of negotiations to respect and so they will respect China's volume of the corresponding negotiations not the same as their own. In this way, the relationship between your two edges will move toward a win-win, harmonious and friendly direction. Furthermore, the Chinese language negotiators in the negotiations with the United States should behave directly, genuine, resolute. The dialect in the negotiations, we have to be straightforward, and also have a pragmatic way to politely discuss issues or calmly dispute, avoid using terms such as "may be" "perhaps" or similar ambiguous answer. Language should be firm and polite, can say "must" will "definitely" when rather than "should". When can not be accepted, you must obviously tell the other area, do not shy, or still maintain partially concealed(Zhou Guiying, 2007).
Try to assume differences in order to take advantages in intercultural negotiations. Be familiar with ethnical difference when encountering them rather than make negative attributions about counterpart. Be cautious of unchecked ethnic assumption and do not impose social bias on the counterparts. Be Prepared for diffuseness in concern about punctuality, reasoning process and legal process. Be more flexible and flexible when encounter conflicts. Get more capacity to make decisions individually. To determine a warm, personal relationship with the counterparts. Get to know them even before negotiations. Avoid ethnocentrism to ensure the effective intercultural communication in negotiations process. Be patient. Hasty will likely mean needless concessions.
With the fast development of economical globalization and the wealth of international business, international business negotiations are on the remarkable increase. However, negotiation is affected by a set of variables, including the nature of the initial problems and the overall context of the negotiation.
Culture is one of the main factors which cannot be neglected. Etiquette is one part of culture which takes on an essential role in the internetional business discussions. When all negotiators are from the same culture, reciprocity reinforces culturally normative negotiation behaviors. When negotiators are from different cultures, reciprocity may help negotiators adapt their ways of each other. Chinese language culture is different from western culture in conditions of beliefs, beliefs, life styles and world perspective, so negotiations failures often happen anticipated to great variations of the two cultures. Within an international business environment, negotiators with a knowledge and respect of cultural differences, will have large benefits at the bargaining table.
Shaking hands, forms of address, greeting, banquet and presenting Gifts between Chinese and American countries shows the variations etiquette in internetional business discussions. Business negotiation should be considered a process that is dependant on the needs of two or more parties, to seek the needs. During the process, each part is eager to meet up with the needs straight or indirectly. Therefore, within an international business environment, negotiators with a knowledge can make a decision large advantage at the bargaining table. Thus, the reason throughout this thesis is to look at the activities of business negotiations between Chinese and european from the perspective of etiquette variances. In connection with the etiquette differences even the cultural differences, it's important to put forward some ideas in the international business negotiations. The opponents' needs must be taken into account so that business negotiation can achieve success. In international business negotiation, negotiators should value the etiquette of the opposite side to begin with. Both Chiness and European negotiators should use more from the other side's tips of view, understand each other's negotiating style, negotiating techniques, interests, tastes and passions of their best point.
In brief, as the global economic integration deepening, business competition becoming more and more intense. In the internetional business, due to the impact of European cultural distinctions at the negotiating desk with their respected negotiating style shows a great difference. Therefore, understanding the differences between Chinese and American business etiquette will help us find constructive programs of communication and make the full use of advantages and overcome some of weaknesses. Make an effort to deal with the negotiation process, understanding the direction and improvement of the discussions, which is both Chiness and Western negotiators should be attention.
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