Since this is a historical structured paper concentrating on how wallpaper designers converse through the use of visual words, different interpretations of the subject of botanical forms, historical qualifications information must be provided to produce a fuller understanding possible. This chapter is vital to the study of two dimensional surface design as it'll explore the history of wallpaper and the reason why one desires to decorate one's surroundings.
2. 2. Books review
As well as the study carried out checking out the innovations of 20th century wallpaper design and the exploration of different interpretations of the floral motif, some time and effort was also focused on investigate the first background of wallpaper. The essential intention of commencing this research was to analyze how wallpaper appeals to society and also to provide a more in depth knowledge of the sophistication of wallpaper design, which is a vital element of this review. Questions that are deriving the development of the historical chapter include:
Where did the concept of wallpaper originate from?
What was the function of wallpaper?
When were blossoms and botanical forms first used as a kind of decoration?
The above objectives were explored by the analysis of literature surrounding the topic of the history of wallpaper, combing knowledge from books, journals, home design magazines, and the info from internet options. The ultimate dissertation will answer these questions and bring relevant conclusions regarding the improvements of two dimensional surface design.
The books review in this section is supposed to mention the options used and will not attempt to measure the categorised research which underlies them.
For this historical section a number of options have been thoroughly researched however some of the resources were more informative than others. Wall membrane Paperwork of France 1800-1850 by Odile Nouvel (1981) gives a extensive narration of the history of wallpaper seeing back to wallpapers prior to the nineteenth hundred years and also refers to United kingdom wallpaper design. A similar book in terms historical record information that was also studied, Wallpaper in America FROM Seventeenth Hundred years to World War 1 by Catherine Lynn(1980) concentrates more on the styles of wallpaper and refers to British and French affects on North american Wallpaper design. Chapter three - Eighteenth-Century British wallpaper styles devotes 36 pages of typical wallpaper styles, motifs and patterns from this hundred years including a detailed section on floral patterns. Whether imprinted in distemper or varnish colours, or whether flocked, floral motifs produced from textile prototypes form the largest category of repeating habits in this relatively large group of wallpapers recognized to have been used. (Catherine Lynn 1980 p52) this section will be more highly relevant to later sections of this paper because of the specific information on the interpretation of the floral motif as well as the comprehensive annotations of the provided images which plainly illustrate the style as well as the predominant characteristics of wallpaper from the 18th century. The Floral home Advantages by Leslie Geddes-Brown (1992) is a very good informative source discussing the history of the floral motif that was a far more difficult at the mercy of locate using internet options.
More up to date sources that have been looked at closely include Lesley Jackson's Twentieth Century Style Design and Off The Wall by Lena Lencek and Gideon Bosker which both examine design as a quintessential area of the 20th Century design background. Both authors give a brief, informative record of wall membrane coverings because the 15th hundred years and suggest that wallpaper often demonstrates the cultural local climate of the period which it was produced. Timothy Brittain-Catlin's A Papered History claims that wallpaper was for, who chooses it, who will pay for it, who it applies to and who appreciates it are questions that contain got different answers at different times. (A Papered Background p7) The three literature mentioned previously will be very helpful in conditions of adding into framework how wallpaper designers, historic and contemporary, are influenced by their sociable surroundings which in end result affect the cosmetic qualities of these designs.
The most effective source however has been the wallpaper background website which lists and allows usage of online articles which provide a very detailed information to the annals of wallpaper. By far the most relevant articles concerning this section have been by Alan Benjamin (2009) and Babara Krasner Khait (2001) where both texts were created as an aid in comprehending the many areas of today's products. Benjamin in particular refers to proof wall coverings which dates back to thousands of years B. C, with the use of cave drawings and although this will not resemble wallpaper as we realize it today' it does signify man's first desire to enhance one's surroundings. The annals of wallpaper chapter in his article offers a very specific and specialized overview discussing the introduction of wallpaper and exactly how it was used functionally as well as aesthetic purposes in the 16th century to keep out the frosty and damp. Both articles are very well crafted, being brief yet adequate and objective historical accounts which are crucial for this newspaper.
Where did the concept of wall coverings originate from?
According to archaeologists, the traditions of decorating wall space dates back to many thousand years B. C by means of cave drawings but still to this day it is uncertain as why early ancestors thought we would decorate their area. Both major theories regarding the reasons behind these graphics are discussed as wish fulfilment and looks of art. Although this does not resemble wallpaper as known today, it does signify man's earliest desire to enhance his area. (Benjamin 2009) The ancient Egyptian and Roman civilization are also observed in history to acquire painted their living environment in an extremely individual manner expressing two dimensional portrayals of visible and unseen worlds - Globe and the site of the Gods. (Benjamin 2009)
Wallpaper actually started in historical China, first because the Chinese language invented paper, and second because they glued rice paper onto their walls as soon as 200 B. C
What is the function of wallpaper?
The use of wallpaper primarily began as a cheap substitute for tapestry and panelling. Some historians think that the utilization of wallpaper goes back to the 1400s. (Krasner-Khait 2001) The first wallpapers in England were individual bed linens, adorned with geometrical woodcut patterns and printed in dark ink on pale newspaper by a hand controlled press. These documents could have been used for anything from covering up an unlucky space, concealing uneven plasterwork or as an progressive alternative to hanging pictures on the wall membrane. (Brittain-Catlin p7) Homes were built of natural stone during this time period so the primary function and practicality of these hangings was used to keep out the cold and moist. Wallpaper was soon to be the indegent man's tapestry, an imitation of the expensive textiles found in royal households.
Elizabethan England observed a higher demand for wallpaper as its acceptance increased. The elite of contemporary society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the wall space of these homes, a tradition from the middle age ranges. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia) These tapestries added coloring as well as providing an insulating level between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining high temperature in the room. However, tapestries were very costly and therefore only the very rich could manage them. For the not so rich associates of the elite, they turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms as these were unable to but tapestries scheduled to price or wars stopping international trade.
Throughout European countries, a fascination began with these paperwork that offered security against dampness and increased ability to take care of fireplace smoke.
In the twentieth century, when mass development, innovated materials, and stamping techniques combination pollinated with an unprecedented fluidity of traditions and designs, wallpaper leapt from its privileged position as a covering for the elite to become the truly democratized and democratizing purveyor of home elegance refinement and in some cases, downright kitsch. (Lencek and Bosker, 2004, p9)
When were blossoms first used as a kind of decoration?
It is amazing how floral skill crops up in every century and civilization. There exists evidence of an in depth wall membrane painting from old Egypt that depicts geese grazing from grasses and very small red blossoms which goes back from 2550B. C. Indeed if the tribe or land does not respect and recreate the beauties of nature, they have little claim to be called civilized. (Geddes-Brown 1992 p8) The blossom was used as a symbol and sometimes reflected religious values. The Iris and Lily were both symbols of royalty and the Virgin Mary and were popular themes of renaissance painters. It is a mistake to recognize floral art and decoration only with the chintzy, the countrified and the cosy - though all these styles have tremendous charm. Blossoms can be architectural (the Greeks used hand and acanthus leaves for his or her capital), politics (roses and thistles were top secret Jacobite indicators) as well as perhaps even sinister (the blood thirsty cultivated dahlias and zinnias). (Geddes-Brown 1991 p8)
Being mentioned as important age in the history of wallpaper design, a great deal of time was dedicated completely researching Victorian wallpaper. That is an important chapter in the study of the floral motif as this era not only put United kingdom design on the map but also redesigned wallpaper all over the world and is still, even today, popular within the interior market.
As well as the typical characteristics of Victorian wallpaper, much attention will be given to the research of British developer William Morris, who not only was a one- man pattern-making happening, but was also the founding dad of the arts and crafts activity.
The overall goals and objectives of this chapter will sketch conclusions as to the reasons this period of design was so innovative and just why Morris's designs are still used to influence today's designers. It'll put into perspective how wallpaper has developed with the ever changing culture and how the subject of the floral motif has morphed from a realistic representation to a far more abstract and simplistic form throughout the decades.
The Victorian period, was a grand time for wallpaper featuring over embellished designs. Floral Prints were extremely popular in Victorian Great britain. Print upon printing lined the interior wall space of rooms, mostly in a rich and heavy coloring palette. Dark red, bottle inexperienced, chocolate dark brown, maroon and deep glowing blue were predominant in a great profusion of routine and ornament. The development of mass creation of wallpaper position the cabbage rose and arabesque patterns within the cost range of practicality of every home.
Designers such as William Morris and his lyrical interpretations of characteristics, hand-printed by the solid wood block method, arrived to symbolize Fine art Nouveau.
William Morris's first wallpaper designs began to come in the 1860s. They came up as a just a little later edition to the textile designs. Morris himself had not been a big admirer of wallpaper for interiors. He much preferred the idea of using hung textile work, such as tapestry or heavy textiles framed as sections, which he found as more traditional for interiors than the quite recent wallpaper industry. Another reason was the issue in obtaining a good and faithful duplication of initial design work. Morris was a particular perfectionist and was not prepared to undertake a medium if the results were to be very poor.
William Morris retained that beautiful surroundings improve the quality of life, and that all of the elements which play a part in the entire style of an inside, textiles and wall structure coverings are among the most important.
"Whatever you have in your room, think to begin your surfaces, for they are whatever makes your house a home" William Morris (1834-1896).
William Morris Floral wallpaper designs.
Naturalistic bouquets and berries were characteristics of early Victorian wallpapers; first, these were superimposed on classical architectural backgrounds however in the 1840's they were intertwined with sophisticated scrolls and cartouches.
By the 1850's, however, design innovators such as Owen Jones and AWN Pugin got turned down this naturalism in favour of flat, formalised habits. John Ruskin whose theories on design possessed a big result through the second 50 percent of the nineteenth hundred years, rejected the whole repertory of Renaissance-Classical attractive motifs as 'prefabricated'.
William Morris, the guiding light of the arts and crafts motion of the 1870's and 1880's generally distributed the views of Pugin, Jones and Ruskin. He presumed however that flowers used in textiles and wallpaper designs should be observed to be growing by natural means. Motifs from characteristics, though flattened and stylised, were obviously layed out and recognisable in is habits. They maintained their fundamental characteristics, yet their style was so emphasised. Morris and other Arts and Crafts painters were attracted to the natural world because of their imagery. Morris himself dismissed the amazing 'hothouse' vegetation so favored by the Victorians and instead drew his floral motifs from his garden and the English countryside. Marigolds, honeysuckle, jasmine and lilies were one of the plants depicted in his wallpaper designs.
Morris assumed that the structure of patterns was of vital importance, as he explained "if the lines of these grow highly and increase gracefully, I think they are simply decidedly helped by the framework not being elaborately concealed. " His designs were rigorously produced, on the symmetrical gemstone design construction or a branch framework that created a bower result. Willow boughs or scrolling acanthus leaves were used as a structural record in a number of Morris' designs. A lot of his designs also included complex, subsidiary habits of small rose growing from meandering stems. His insistence on the highest benchmarks of design is noticeable in this quotations:
" no amount of delicacy is too great in the pulling of the curves of an design, no amount of attention in getting the best lines from the first. Understand that a structure is either right or incorrect. It cannot be forgiven for blundering. Failing forever recurring torments the attention. " William Morris (1834-1896).
Morris's first commercial wallpaper designs, as is seen in the first two images here, Daisy and Pomegranate, were quite definitely an instance of stamped motifs on a reasonably simple and ordinary background. A number of the motifs were actually reproduced from Morris's middle ages style tapestry work, usually from incidental backgrounds or lower foregrounds where these were used to fill in spaces about the more important people figures.
Both Daisy and Pomegranate were produced in the mid-1860s and echo quite definitely the straightforwardness of much of Morris's early textile work. In fact, lots of the designs primarily produced for textiles does finish up as wallpaper habits, with very few changes in the design, if any.
By the 1870s Morris wallpaper design work possessed become a lot more accomplished, and therefore much more complicated. There is hardly any, if any basic background to be seen, and whereas the sooner examples were generally independently stamped to a surface, the later examples are clearly intertwined with one another, so that it is difficult to see any obvious motifs.
The three designs shown, Larkspar, Pimpernel and Chrysanthemum were all produced in the 1870s. They evidently show the self-assurance in the design work and the medium, and are therefore a lot more smooth and free form than the sooner, more tentative work of the 1860s.
It would be appealing to see a few of the smooth and meandering rose stems, abundant, full blossoms and languid leaves, as a sign of the origins of Skill Nouveau, even though there is a certain similarity in a few of Morris work, additionally it is solidly rooted within both Uk Arts & Build activity and the styles and fashions of the mid-Victorian design world.
What makes Morris wallpaper design work stick out from others of the same age is the depth of the compositions. There's a real observational love for the natural world that is absent from so much of Victorian floral produced work. To Morris, these designs could not merely be interpreted as 'quite', or 'attractive', these were much more. These were indeed part of his life's work and interest. They were a record of the British traditional rural panorama, one of mother nature and man in a harmonic symbiosis. The intertwining of much of his floral work could be interpreted as a framework in which we all have been a component, which is one of the reasons that Morris disliked geometry as a design tool, as he interpreted it as a man-made system for wanting to quantify the natural world, rather than allowing the natural world to quantify itself.
The Acanthus wallpaper
The Acanthus has been trusted since early times. A flower with boldly indented and scrolled leaves; it was a common factor in Greek and Roman architectural ornament as mentioned in section 1 and a trusted Renaissance Motif. They have came out in textiles again and again, from Italian velvets to Arts and Crafts images. William Morris said from it, 'No form of ornament has truly gone up to now or lasted so long as this; it has been infinitely varied, employed by almost all subsequent styles in one form or another, and performed a great many other office besides its original one. " Large business lead verdure tapestries, employing foliage in delicate greens, tans and browns on a dark blue backdrop were manufactures in France and Flanders in the Sixteenth hundred years and greatly inspired William Morris' designs for wallpaper. Many designs of the 1890's including lots of William Morris images incorporated the top swirling patterns of Acanthus scrolls or other traditional floral motifs from the sixteenth and seventeenth hundred years.
(type up books review)
British Wallpaper in the 1970's
The Revival of Fine art Nouveau in the 1970's
Over half of a century after the initial movement of Artwork Nouveau, it re-emerged for a second amount of time in the 1970's. This however had not been the only artwork movements that was rediscovered and re-energised in 1970's wallpaper design. The Fine art Deco motion was of particular interest which inspired two dimensional surface design, but also aesthetic qualities from lots of Victorian art styles were reincorporated like the works of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts activity.
What where in fact the reasons for the re-emergence of the Fine art Nouveau activity?
However, the era that came after the Modernist outlook the 1950s and 1960s, began to trawl through the ephemera that had been left out by nearly a century of Victorianism. A fresh technology of textile and wallpaper creator, who had no of the prejudice against nineteenth hundred years design that was shown by earlier generations, were enthusiastic to examine the design work and if possible produce work that was inspired by the original, but with a modern-day twist.
There was an array of work produced in this neo-Art Nouveau style. Some was close to the original notion of using florals and including the sinuous range that was present in the initial style. Oddly enough however, although this appeared like a kick from the ideas of modernist design, lots of the ideas and philosophies of twentieth century design were incorporated into these new Fine art Nouveau inspired patterns. Lots of the colour schemes for example, were heightened and evolved altogether to squeeze in with interior plans that were predicated on an entirely different set of parameters than the move of the hundred years originals. There is also less of any emphasis on the portrayal of floral design plus much more on the vaguer, even abstract quality to the look work, which positioned the emphasis tightly on style and shape, rather than any form of representational design.
Much of the look work reproduced here (refer to images) is interesting as, though it does represent a re-emergence of interest in past styles, it does not descend into pastiche or plagiarism of the initial decorative style. This is not the Laura Ashley design of design, which was more or less a slavishly faithful backup of the time; it is more an interpretation of your design style as seen on the gulf of the twentieth century. Designers observed no point in reproducing faithful copies of the Fine art Nouveau style, as reproductions were already available. However, in addition they noticed no point in producing new work that copied the style just as no-one could pretend, as Laura Ashley performed, that seventy many years of the twentieth century had not happened.
These Art work Nouveau revival wallpapers give a fascinating possibility to picture two factors in the history of design, the difference between them and how that gap influenced the procedure of design and interpretation.
Wallpaper design was still popular in the 1970s, though starting to miss out to painted walls. However, it was still a mainstay in many homes and would continue being so for the rest of the decade. This attractiveness meant that the decision and range of design work available was fairly large compared to today's alternatives. Geometrically derived habits, as those shown here, were still popular throughout the decade, as were all forms of floral, from the traditional realistically looking blossom patterns, to popular visual interpretations.
All of the habits shown here are of wallpaper designs from around the 1970s. Each of them take the flower as their source of inspiration and its subsequent decorative result. All are basically flat pattern designs, even more abstract than others, but all still using the rose as a typical motif.
Taking a bloom down to its basic components, you are kept with four petals and a round centre. There are of course limitless variations upon this theme, with the petals multiplying or reducing, though four tends to be the low limit. The centres can also range between a fairly intricate pattern with a variety of centres, to a simple but effective group. A number of the bloom motifs in these illustrations have become bit more than geometric styles with the bloom becoming so abstract that it is barely recognisable therefore. However, that will mean that the look is not a floral, no subject how far removed it is becoming from the original inspiration, it might still justifiably be classed as a floral beautification pattern.
Often, by including several type of flower motif, the pattern can take on a far more complex appearance. In this manner patterns may then sit within habits, so while the petals and centre of the flower can produce a decorative effect within its right, a personal contained structure, these can then be used as multiples, creating another routine. If a different blossom motif is then created, that blossom has a attractive effect of its own if juxtaposed with the initial blossom motif, they contrast with one another, thus creating yet another pattern effect. This can go on so that a number of more technical levels are added, though care should be studied never to overload the look, which may become confusing the greater elements that are added. This can be a particular problem with wallpaper design whereby a pattern effect needs to be able to be interpreted easily from a distance, but must also succeed when seen up close.
Another interesting impact you can use is when flower motifs overlap each other, creating an opportunity to produce just one more bloom motif, and by changing the color tone just a bit, this new flower design will appear as though still linked to the overlapping attractive blossom motifs, while keeping some freedom from them at the same time.
Colour and tone is an important element, specifically within flat pattern where it may also be difficult to give the design elements that make up the structure enough differentiation for this to own any effect, specifically from a distance. Through the use of similar colorings or one shade with different shades, it becomes much easier to see separate elements of the design while still maintaining a balanced piece that appears to be both harmonious and effective.
The art world has presented many ideas and methods that contain been reinterpreted by both textile and wallpaper designers. Abstraction and shade and car paint techniques in every their modernist facets, have been used regularly and constantly by designers who had been keen to add to the repertoire of the industry. Large strong habits, still with the rose as its centre of creativity, have been part of the wallpaper industry for a long period. By interpreting and often reinterpreting for the medium worried, effective large duplicate habits have been produced that seem to be to get little to do with a mass development industry, but are still produced in higher quantities nonetheless. These patterns often look like less created and less precise, often offering the illusion of spontaneity and imagination, the hallmarks or at least the common interpretation of much of the twentieth century's fine art output.
This is by no means a thorough interpretation of flat design. It only provides few ideas regarding the complex nature of the design of design and the number of variations that are easily achievable. TO CONCLUDE flat design is apparently a lot more creative and motivating than traditional floral realism for example, with limitless opportunities to both simplify and complicate the same pattern motif.
(Images of 1970s wallpaper)
When getting into a topic of research, all of the possible methodological factors must be taken into consideration as sources of information are of great importance. Decisions ave o be produced into which method of data collection to work with to attain the greatest information specific to the question at hand. To be able to try and find out the maximum amount of information about the topic and area being disgussed, a variety of acedemic sources were needed, such as books, publications and the internet. These academics options wer all accesed in an array of different places. Despite a wide variety of ways to find all of this information, the information did not come without it's problems. \
Finding the information
There a wide range of means of findng the information that is needed. Most of the information with regards to this study was within the university collection in the textiles department. This was done by searching for and looking through relevant literature in the catalogs which were available in the catalogue. Finding catalogs for relevant information was main things that needed to be done in order in order to find track record inforation on this issue, such as what work got recently been done in the region. Literature were also then found in order to find informaton with regards to the question being asked through the use of se's, which produces a set of books/journals with relevance to tips words, authors etc.
The internet was also used as a method of supplementary resourcing. This was used to find websites like the Wallpaper Record website which provides links of online aricles discussing the history of wallpaper and the innovations of wallpaper design. The internet also allowed journals to be found online, this allowed access to more current literature that was not provided by the available literature in the catalogue. Publications are also fast and simple to find, simply using the internet search engine tool online, a big number of journals become open to read. These publications were found in the same way as catalogs, to find history knowledge and help find information into the question.
The catalogs and publications especially, helped to find essential home elevators the topics of the inventions of wallpaper design and exactly how designers have put their own stamp on the popular floral motif which has developed with te ever changing society. This is all acedemic wock which was needed to be able to answer fully the question as thoroughly as possible.
Interviews provide a ricj insight to people's biographies, experience, viewpoints, values, aspirations, behaviour and thoughts. Interviews were occurred inside the Temple Newsome Museum which is celebrated for it's wonderful selections of fine and attractive arts, especially paintings, furniture, gold, ceramics, textiles and most importantly wallpapers. James Lomax the exhibition curator who specialises in the 17th 18th and 9th century was interviewd. This was to acquire an insight of the professionals take on the problem.
Using interviews as methods of colecting data became a reliable source of researc. This is because of the specific questions are asked with a trusted reply associated with the subject subject. Data can be acquired easily and resourcefully using certain questions.
Interviews can be shipped in a set up or unstructures form. Factor was given to the sort of interview that was completed to gain the best results. You can find both benefits to consider when chossing the most appropirate one. Set up interviews have emerged as having established questions. These questions are asked and documented on a standardised timetable. The question cannot be improved during or after the interview. In contrast an unstrctured interview is less formal, where the interviewer has a larger flexibility and flexibility. It had been thougt that an interview on the less organised theory would be more effective as the researcher didn't want to domain the interview. Planning was needed for the process.
Limitations include trying to find books that were relevant and that were also up to date. As a way of traking this because the university or college library only experienced a restricted amount of books on the floral motif, inter collection lending options were used, this is when catalogs can be loaned form other college or university libraries. This however can be very frustrating because people may curently have the catalogs out and even if they haven't normally it takes a couple of days before the ooks arrive to be collected. Another drawback of using the collection which became a difficulty in the stages of research was the chance for others to place a reserve on books which were already loaned out. This not only adds pressure to the researcher but limts enough time available to go through the books and thoroughly break down and understand the information provided.
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