Singapore And Italy Combination Culture Communication Problems Cultural Studies Essay

Singapore is the tiniest country in Southeast Asia with an amalgamation of 63 islands (Economy Watch, 2010). The distance between Singapore and Italy is roughly 9365. 5km apart (Bosrock, 2006). Despite the distance, there are a lot of Italian firms establishing their flagships and perform other business functions in Singapore. Predicated on the Straits Times article on 22nd April 2009 on 'Singapore, Italy region deal', it declares that both countries are looking at R&D to boost their economic success and are trying to interact to find new patents and products that may be commercialized. According to Lombardy's Chief executive Roberto Formigoni in the article, said that "Singapore is strategic for Italy, especially in leveraging on Singapore's knowledge of, and relations with, China and Vietnam". This shows an example of a strong bilateral relationship between both countries. (Perfect Minister Office, 2009)

However, being said that, you may still find problems occurring during day-to-day procedures in terms of communication between Singaporean and Italians. This newspaper will focus on the inter-relationship communication obstacles confronted by both Singaporeans and Italians in a particular organization.

Overview of Singapore

Singapore and European countries had great history links since 1869 when Singapore was still a significant trading and shipping and delivery slot. (Hanson and Curtis, 2010)

After practically 150 years under the United kingdom Colony, Singapore emerged as a Land in 1965. (Rogger, Year not stated) Thus, this might portray a deceptive imagine of Singaporeans as showing more 'westernized'. However, on the other hands, younger years of people in Singapore are usually more experience in getting together with people and tend to be flexible and open-minded to execute business with foreigners. (Katz, 2007)

Singapore is a cosmopolitan world where people live harmoniously and connections among different races are commonly seen. Singapore contains a diverse inhabitants due to immigrants of the past has given the place an assortment of 3 major racial categories consisting of Chinese, Malay and Indians would you not process a single dominant national id (Warnstam, 2007).

In order to do business successfully in a multicultural country like Singapore, it's important for all to understand the different social traditions, traditions, as well as qualifications of each contest groups. This will prevent unnecessary conflicts.

Languages Found in Singapore

English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil will be the four official languages that are generally found in Singapore. Singapore also has its own brand of spoken English, which is recognized as Singlish. It is quite not the same as British in its speaking accents and sentence structure.

Religion in Singapore

Although religious categories are at the mercy of government scrutiny plus some spiritual sects are constrained or prohibited, Singapore continues to be a country which generally allows religious flexibility (U. S. Office of Point out, 2010). The religion diversity in Singapore consists of Chinese temples (Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and ancestor worship), Islam, Hinduism, Christianity and others which comprises of Jews and Sikhs, etc (Lepoer, 1989).

Culture and Population of Singapore

The Family

The common characteristics of Singaporeans are that the principles of harmony, shared security and working in groups are definitely more important than that of behaving as an individual. The family presents the guts of the communal structures which highly emphasizes in unity, devotion and admiration for older people (Kwintessential, Season not stated).


Kiasu is a term often used by Singaporean to describe the social frame of mind of Singaporeans who tend to be afraid of shedding in anything or in virtually any situation (Warnstam, 2007). Matching to Warnstam (2007), the word Kaisu identifies both positive and negative connotation; some suggest the attitude to be Kiasu demonstrates the strong work ethics and competitiveness within each Singaporean. Whereas, others might feel that being Kiasu contributes to a graceless contemporary society.

Concept of Face

'Maintaining face' takes on an important part of the Singapore culture. According to Craig (2004), the idea of face is being measured by one's interior quality, status, good name, and good character. To avoid from getting rid of face, Singaporeans will control their temper and tendencies in public and can not criticize people on the facial skin (Warnstam, 2009). Thus, communication is conducted indirectly. In Singapore, face will not involve purely on personal delight but involves the united states and its entire population as it promotes group harmony and solidarity.


Singapore values the diversity of its people and frequently stresses the value of taking difference amongst its diverse society of men and women from different races such as Chinese, Malay and Indians. Regardless of the evitable separation of some categories, Singapore functions as an 'umbrella' culture creates a feeling of belonging among all Singaporeans (Warnstam, 2007).

Singapore Education System

Singapore used to put into practice traditional British based education system (Pakir, 1993). Presently, the training system in Singapore has developed to a broader based education with an increase of flexibility and diversity. The distinctive feature of the Singapore education system is based on the bilingual insurance policy which was integrated in 1966 (Pakir, 1993). Main median dialect, also called English is manufactured compulsory for students to take up to become able to talk to other races and especially with foreigners (Pakir, 1993). This experienced provided a whole lot of help to Singaporeans to communicate effectively with fellow Singaporeans that will prevent any pointless conflicts anticipated to miscommunication. As British is a trusted terminology internationally it also allows Singaporeans to speak well with foreigners across the world. Another terminology commonly presented to the training system, predicated on the competition of the learner, the mom tongue language which include Chinese language, Malay, and Tamil. This can help to keep the ideals of the respective racial categories locally.

Students will go to basic education for 6 years after pre-school which normal last for 2 years and pursuing on into extra university, etc. (Singapore expats, 12 months not explained). However, education will not just end after graduating. Singaporeans have many opportunities for even more trainings as the federal government in Singapore targets developing its labor force so as to increase efficiency as well as creating an experienced workforce to increase global competitiveness.

Singapore Politics

Singapore possessed her first elections in 1959 after being awarded full internal self-governance (Singapore elections, Season not Stated). The dominating party in the country is the People's Actions Party (PAP) that is business lead by Mr. Lee Kuan Yew. He's also the present minister mentor, a position created by his kid, Lee Hsien Long when he became Singapore's third primary minister. There are 4 opposition gatherings in Singapore. They are simply namely the staff' get together (WP), Singapore Democratic Alliance Get together (SDA), Singapore Democratic Party (SDA), Democratic Get together (SDP) and Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). Singapore was recognized internationally through subscribing to the United Nations, accompanied by the Commonwealth in 1965. (CIA; World simple fact book, 2009)

The unicameral Parliament currently includes 84 participants elected on the basis of general adult suffrage, or more to nine "nominated" users of Parliament. A constitutional provision assures at least three opposition members, even if less than three are actually elected. Since 1997, under this provision, a "non-constituency" seat presented by the opposition was filled till the previous election held on, may 6, 2006. In May 2006, during the general election, the governing party, People's Action Get together (PAP) won 82 out of the 84 seating. The chief executive appointed nominated members of Parliament from between those nominees with a specially preferred committee. Nominated participants of the Parliament (NMPs) benefit from the same privileges as users of the Parliament but cannot vote on any constitutional matters or expenses of funds. The maximum term of the Parliament is 5 years whereas the NMPs provide for a two-and-a-half-year term. Voting has been made compulsory since 1959. (Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affair, 2010)

Singapore is a democratic population but some views Singapore as a "cross" country comprises of both authoritarianism and democracy. The present Singapore enjoys political stability which attracts many investors and foreign talents to work and spend money on Singapore.

Overview of Singapore Economy

Despite the small geographic size of the country and small local market, Singapore not only has strong international trade links with many countries. Singapore Overall economy is also one of the most prosperous countries internationally. Singapore was positioned third in '09 2009 as being the most competitive overall economy on the globe by the earth economic message board (Perris and Wong, 2010).

According to the planet Bank "Doing Business 2010 Survey, " Singapore current economic climate is considered to be easy and simple to do business in. Some favorable conclusions about Singapore explained in the report (Overall economy Watch, Yr Not Explained):

Ranked No. 1 for getting the most open and liberal market for international trade

Ranked No. 2 as the current economic climate with the best investment potential

Ranked #1 in Asia and #4 on the planet for having low levels of problem in the economy

Singapore doesn't have any natural resources. However, because of its tactical location and federal government policies, it acquired become a hub of foreign investments. The neighborhood government techniques a pro-foreign investment and export-orientated financial policy which really helps to attract a big scale of international investments despite a high operating cost. For instance, United States have spent about $106. 5billion worth belongings in the service and creation industries (Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affair, 2010).

Other factor that allures the foreign shareholders to invest in Singapore is for its skilled personnel, advanced infrastructure, politics stability and corruption free federal government (Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affair, 2010).

Hierarchy and Framework of Singapore Companies

In Singapore, companies operate in a top-down composition whereby the mature management in the company will all major decision-makings. Admiration is given before the senior users of the group which is always being introduced first. As applied in Singapore, it is always polite to stand whenever a higher-ranking official finds a venue also to be seated after the important workers is seated.

Unlike other countries, women also play an important role in the work field and receive chances to hold managerial positions in the organizations. Under the fair employment laws in Singapore, there is absolutely no prejudice against gender, time and competition during employment.

Singapore Business Practices

In Singapore business culture, building of personal associations is considered more important that the business that you signifies (ASAG-biotech network, Year unknown). During business situations, a light handshake can be used (Warnstam, 2007). Singaporeans want to deal and haggle during negotiations. (Katz, 2007) Whilst in business discussion, Singaporeans appears to be calm and hardly reveals their feelings. It is also considered very rude to speak loudly or interrupt throughout a conversation.

It is important that business credit cards are being inspected carefully before adding them away as it symbolizes a kind of respect and recognition of the person. Name cards should be placed with both hands and present to the receiver with the right print facing to him / her. Name cards should be located on the table rather than shoving into wallets or handbags as a kind of respect. It is also important to wait and be presented by the variety. Intensive eye contact with a senior management or an elderly is considered a sign of disrespect. In order to show a form of respect, it is important to know how to greet a person name predicated on his or her race. For example, greeting via surnames is essential through the first ending up in Singaporean Chinese. Gift ideas are acceptable in most organizations. However, gift items to administration employees may be looked at as bribery and is prohibited in Singapore (Warnstam, 2007).

Singapore Working Practices

In Singapore Business contemporary society, punctuality is really important and attempts should be made to arrive early on or on time. Appointments should be made beforehand. Should there be any later arrivals, it is of basic courtesy to inform the other party and to advise the latest entrance time. The normal office hours are usually between 9:00a. m. to 5:00 pm from Mondays to Fridays that includes an hour lunch break in between. Some office buildings will also are powered by Saturdays especially in the morning.

Overview of Italy

Italy used to be diverse culturally, financially and politically. However, today, the Italians are mainly homogeneous linguistically and religiously. Italy gets the fifth-highest population thickness in European countries, with an approximate people of 60 million people (Iexplore, Season not mentioned). Minority groups are small. The greatest group belongs to the German-speaking people of Bolzano Province and the Slovenes around Trieste. There are also small neighborhoods of Albanian, Greek, Ladino, and French origins. Although immigration has been increasing in recent years, the Italian society is still declining anticipated to low delivery rates. (US division of Express, 2010)

Brief background of Italy

Through the ensuing years, numerous rulers from beyond the Alps, with or without the consent of the papacy, failed to impose their specialist. Throughout the fourteen and fifteenth decades of campanilismo (local patriotism), only a minority of people would have heard the term "Italia. " Loyalties were mainly provincial. However, there were elements that made a solid contrast to the globe beyond the Alps that is clearly a common legal culture, high levels of lay down education and urban literacy, a detailed marriage between town and country, and nobility who frequently employed in trade. (Anonymous, Calendar year not mentioned)

There are three features, specifically, from this period that solidified the notion of a unified culture. First, it was the maturing of the economic development that was originated in the early ages. With increasing urbanization, the northern and central Italian trade, manufacture, and financial capitalism prolonged with remarkable vigor and also have remarkable affect throughout majority of the Mediterranean areas and Europe all together. It was a development that dished up as the required primary for the expansion of Europe beyond its traditional bounds at the end of the fifteenth century. Second, the expansion of de facto independent city-states, which, whether as republics or as capabilities ruled by one person or family, created a robust impression upon contemporaries and posterity. Finally, allied to the activities stated above, it is at the fifteenth and sixteenth hundreds of years that civilization of the 'Italian Renaissance" was created from this world, which was to be exported to the rest of Europe. (Anonymous, Calendar year not mentioned)

Ethnic Relations

Many countries and peoples have conquered and occupied Italy on the centuries, and therefore, causing the Italians to resent each of these conquerors. However, they intermarried with them and accepted a number of their customs. (Salamone)

Culture of Italians

Ethnic Italians constitute about 95% of the population, and the major ethnics minority of the Romanians (officially 1%, however maybe two times that). There can be an increaseing wave of immigration from the EU countries of Eastern Europe and unlawful immigration from the south-eastern Europe and north Africa are increasing.

Appearances concerns in Italy and having a good image 'bella physique' is vital. And you will be judged not only by the smartness of your clothes and accessories, but also by the overall style and demeanour. Social etiquette is generally full of energy but also slightly formal. (Italy)

Economy of Italy

Italy started to industrialize swiftly after 1945, leaving the original agriculture, until a point where significantly less than 5% of the population is involved in agriculture. Nearly all these populations live in the south of Italy, which is substantially poorer than the rest of the country. Their main plants are sweets beet, wheat, tomato vegetables and berries (especially grapes. Most the grapes are being used for wine beverage, which Italy is a respected manufacturer).

Italy is constantly on the rely heavily on the export of created goods, however the travel and leisure industry is enjoying a significant position alongside other service companies such as financial services, along with most european economies. Their strengths are particularly in advanced creation techniques and systems, high-quality design and precision engineering.

Most of the industrial raw materials and much more than 75% of energy requirements are brought in. The Italian's economy has been sluggish since 2000 with growth in 2009 2009 of 5% which is likely to drop further. The inflation in '09 2009 was slightly below 1% and the unemployment rate is 7. 5%.

Despite concerns about how big is its growing budget deficit (general public personal debt is 105% of GDP) in Europe, Italy was among the list of founding people of the Euro-zone in 1999. The current authorities has enacted some reforms to improve competitiveness and growth. (Italy Travel Guide)


The official terminology in Italy is Italian, and majority of the populace (about 93%) are indigenous Italian audio speakers and about 50% of people speaks a regional dialect as mother tongue. As many of the dialects are mutually unintelligible and are considered by linguists as a separate language, thus it is not officially recog



90% of the populations are Roman Catholic, and the rest of the of the populations comprises mainly of Jews, the growing population of Muslims, Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholics.


The type of government in Italy is parliamentary democratic republic. The major political parties: People of Freedom (Popolo della Libert ), Democratic Get together (Partito Democratico), North League (Lega Nord), Italy of Values (Italia dei Valori), Union of Religious and Centre Democrats (Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e di Centro), Communist Refoundation Get together (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista). (_)

Political Philosophy

There differs types of politics philosophy that existed in Italy are mainly egalitarian socialism / communism and nationalistic fascism.

One of the instances is Benito Mussolini. He ruled as a dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943 and his politics idea, which he called fascism, was based on the total domination of the federal government in every spheres of political, social, economic, and ethnic life. The Italians respect him as a hero in the original stage until he was influenced by the federal government before the end of World Warfare II. (Benito Mussolini)


At present the Italian school system is divided into four levels:

Kindergarten / Preschool (Scuola Materna)

For children aged three to five, the scuola materna provides optional education for children and every child is entitled to a place. It is not compulsory for a child to attend preschool but most parents enrol their children in a scuola materna. Preschool in Italy is free except in private colleges.

Primary college (scuole elementare)

School in Italy is compulsory from age six onwards. Recent legislation changes means that children may start scuola primaria from age five. 5 onwards (this is to bring Italian schools in line with European schools regarding school leaving ages). Primary school lasts for five years. Student had to go away an exam at the end of fifth calendar year before they could improve to secondary college.

Lower secondary (scuola marketing)

Attendance at lower supplementary school (scuola marketing) is compulosry for all children between your age ranges of 11 to 14. Students must attend 30 time of classes weekly, though some universities may offer additional classes if there is demand (up to 40 hours).

Every term, each student obtains a teacher's survey outlining their aptitude, habit and achievement. At the end of the third year, pupils be seated a standard evaluation consisting of written documents in Italian, as well as examinations in mathematics, knowledge and a foreign language.

An oral exam is also administered in all themes except religious beliefs. Successful students are given their lower extra college diploma (diploma di licenza media) and move on to upper secondary school.

Upper secondary school (scuola superiore)

Upper Secondary College (scuola superiore) includes between three and five many years of attendance. Students do an obligatory two years (biennio) of general studies follow by an optional three years (triennio) of specialised education. Students have to choose at the moment which type of course they want to examine, depending on whether they are planning of going on to university after, or if they're looking at obtaining a vocational qualification. Condition institution in Italy is free until the end of primary education. School in Italy is compulsory before years of 16. (Italian Education & Schooling in Italy)

Introduction of Organisation ABC

In 1912, founded in Italy, Florence, Organisation ABC is one of the world's leading and well-established luxury brands. The brand designs, makes and distributes highly suitable leather goods (handbags, small leather goods, and suitcases) shoes, ready to wear, silks, wristwatches and jewelry. The business distributes by having a network of carefully chosen and directly handled stores in major markets throughout the world and offers inexpensive product through franchise stores, duty-free boutiques, leading section and area of expertise stores.

In 2009, there are a total of 283 directly operated stores all around the globe.

Organisation ABC in Singapore

In Singapore, ABC has two direct operated stores and is also one of the tiniest regions on the list of Asia Pacific. Within the office and shops, there are a total of 200 employees. Cross-Cultural Issues experienced between Singapore and Italy (Florence)

As presented, since ABC organisation is a multi-national company, the employees within the organisation have to work with people round the world very frequently. The employees typically connect to the overseas associates through emailing and phone calls to go away down information's from head office to disperse to the rest of the regions.

One of the problems Singaporean employees employed in ABC organisation encountered while dealing with the Italians (Concentrate on country: Singapore and Italy) is enough time zone differences between the two countries. Between Singapore and Florence, Singapore is six time before Florence. (http://www. happyzebra. com/timezones-worldclock/difference-between-Singapore-and-Florence. php)

As the employees within the organisation must speak to Italy frequently, Singaporeans will will have to support to the Italians' timing (which is six hours later) to complete any project assigned. For instance, division XYZ received a delivery from Italy and experienced found that the props inside were damaged plus some parts were absent.

Based on the organisation's commercial rules, the Singaporean team was supposed to setup the props within the week to launch the campaign together with the remaining world. Therefore, with no delay, the Singaporean team immediately contacted the Italians through devices to further discussed on the replacing on the damaged parts and the absent props.

The whole procedure for getting the Italians to displace the absent props and damaged parts got almost a week through e-mail and phone calls. In frequent conditions like this, the Singaporean team confirms it hard to communicate with the Italians through the e-mail as it contributes to business delays, misunderstandings and problems to commercial and personal associations. They feel that the business enterprise decisions are generally delayed scheduled to a lack of response to email messages resulting from enough time variations for both countries and especially during summer months breaks in European countries.

During summer breaks, it's very difficult for Singaporeans to in touch with somebody who is the only real in-charge in a category whom had opted for summer rest. Despite having trip seasons, you will see no substitutes to help out the staff (who is off for summer season vacation), to gain access to any enquires from the others of shops stationed overseas. Consequently, problems tend to be not being able to solve immediately and thus, in this scenario, the simple dependence on replacing the absent props and broken parts are postponed for a week and not in a position to meet the required time for set up. With assisting article, "Email culture may harm business" clearly described that quality of the content of some e-mails sent is often responsible as much important emails includes no means of attracting the recipients' focus on their value.

When the Singaporean team communicates to the Italians over the phone, they'll also face problems of communication barriers between both countries. During interactions, most Singaporeans usually speak in British some Italians are too used to, speaking in their first words, which is Italian.

With the difference in accents and pronunciation, Singaporeans often confronted problems such as striving to understand the particular Italians are conveying with the difference in pronouncing vowels. This shows the inability of Italians to differentiate words distinguished in English entirely by the vowels (e. g. , sheep - dispatch, beg - tote, etc). Therefore, contributes to intelligibility problems as their inclination to truly have a little epenthetic vowels by the end of every English words, especially those finishing with an end consonant (e. g. , in did, big, etc. ).

This is an attribute is often typically emphasized in stereotyping of the Italian highlight in English. (http://www. openstarts. units. it/dspace/bitstream/10077/3228/1/06Bus . pdf). Thus, this creates a problem to the Singaporean team as they often times mistaken the particular Italians are conveying through the phone conversation. They will only understand the genuine so this means of what they were referring to, after having a supporting email had been dispatched by the Italian team consisting of better clarification and understanding on what is being emphasized through the telephone conversation.

Next, we are making cultural distinctions evaluation on Italy and Singapore using Geert Hofstede model.

Geert Hofsted Cultural Dimensions

Power Distance Index (PDI) is the amount to which the less powerful members of organisations and establishments (like the family) recognize and expect that vitality is sent out unequally. It shows that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the supporters as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality are fundamental facts of any culture and a person with certain working experience or discussion will be aware that 'all societies are unequal.

Individualism (IDV) is the contrary of collectivism. Ties between folks are loose: many people are expected to look after him or herself and his / her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from labor and birth onwards are usually cohesive in groups and often long families customers continue in protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word 'collectivism' may haven't any political meaning but it is discussing the group, however, not the state of hawaii. Again, the issue addressed is fundamental, regarding all societies in the world.

Masculinity (MAS) is the contrary of femininity and it identifies the syndication of roles between the genders which is also a simple issue for just about any culture to which a range of solutions are found. Studies revealed that women's ideals change from men's worth which men's worth from one country to some other contain assertiveness, competitiveness whereas women's prices on the one other side tend to be modest and caring. The assertiveness and competitiveness pole has commonly been referred as masculine while modest and caring is often referred as female.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it finally refers to man's seek out Truth. Uncertain situations are novel, anonymous, surprising, and various from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the opportunity of such situations by rigorous laws and rules, safety and security options. People in countries which face doubt are also more emotional while people whom are receptive of doubt will be more tolerant of views not the same as what they are being used to. There are few rules to adhere to and folks within these civilizations are definitely more phlegmatic and contemplative.

Long-Term Orientation (LTO) versus short-term orientation: this fifth aspect was found in a study among students in 23 countries across the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars it could be said to offer with Virtue no matter Truth. Values usually associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and determination while principles associated with SHORT-TERM Orientation are value for tradition, gratifying social commitments, and conserving one from shame. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of the dimension are located in the teachings of Confucius, the most important Chinese language philosopher; however, the sizing also pertains to countries without a Confucian history.

[http://www. geert-hofstede. com/hofstede_italy. shtml]

Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions

The World Factbook 2002

The Buddhist-Shinto societies also have an additional Dimension, that of Long Term Orientation (LTO). Geert Hofstede added this Sizing following the original study, and it was put on twenty-three of the fifty original countries in his analysis. The Buddhist/Shinto Countries of Taiwan and Japan have LTO as the utmost closely correlating Dimension.

Differences between Singapore and Italy: Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions:


















N. A

Based on the figures above, there are several distinctions between Singapore and Italy which is discussed in as of the following.

Power Distance Index (PDI)

Based on the PDI, Singapore has an increased PDI than that of Italy. Despite the fact that, Singapore and Italy shares the same areas of hierarchy and a common characteristic of downward communication, Singaporeans is commonly more respectful to the older management and elders. On the other hand, Italians are usually more outspoken in their conversation and they wish to ridicule specialist and with folks who are in positions of power (http://students. depaul. edu/~jborger/#Individualism). To Italians, breaking petty rules are a form of entertainment. However, breakings of rules are unusual in Singapore.

Individualism (IDV)

As individualism has been thought as societies linking people are considered loose, individuals in Italy are only in charge of themselves and their immediate family (http://students. depaul. edu/~jborger/#Individualism). However, Italians have also lowest views on collectivism in such whereby under people collective cultures are born into an organization and they'll remain the same customers of this cohesive group for his or her complete lives. (http://students. depaul. edu/~jborger/#Individualism). On the other hand, despite the similarities of Singaporeans on the views on individualism, being a multi-racial culture, Singaporeans are more privately to be collective; in such whereby man is to be judged not by his own identity, actions or race. (http://freedomkeys. com/collectivism. htm)

Masculinity (MAS)

Based on the style of Hofstede's Cultural Measurements, Italy has a higher level of Masculinity than Singapore. Many Italian men are still treating women with gallantry and value machismo. (http://students. depaul. edu/~jborger/#Individualism). Despite women entering the labor force, the amounts are kept nominal and just a few are in an increased management because they are still experiencing a 'wine glass roof' situation. Duties of Italian women are mainly to prepare food, clean and look after the children. In contrast to Singapore's culture, Singapore is more available to women in workforce and the amount of women working in higher management is increasing speedily (http://www. singapore-window. org/sw00/000115ca1. htm).

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

Italy experienced various wars, political and economic instability ever sold. These factors had created a direct effect on Italians and also generate fear for the unfamiliar.

Generally, Italians choose to partner and deals with people that they can be more acquainted with. Thus, they'll prefer to know more in regards to a particular person before conversing (http://students. depaul. edu/~jborger/#Individualism).

As in comparison to Singapore, Singaporeans are usually more willing to venture out into setting up own companies and they are able to take more risk. That is because of the great efforts of the local government. They are really encouraging citizens to venture out of Singapore, conquering psychological barriers in failing and learning from other successful situations (Chhokar and House, 2007). Hence, you will see lower uncertainty avoidance in the country.

Long-Term Orientation (LTO)

Being an Asian country like Singapore (unlike European countries like Italy) and with a major population consisting of Chinese, Singapore is principally influenced by Confucianism. Conformity, sense of shame, interpersonal commitments and duty are the characteristics of the Chinese culture (Tian, 2004). Inspired by the Confucian culture, Singapore's rate for individualism and masculinity is low but on top of the energy and doubt avoidance. Roman Catholic is the key religious beliefs in Italy and therefore, long-term orientation in Confucianism does not can be found in Italy (http://www. kwintessential. co. uk/resources/global-etiquette/italy-country-profile. html).

Implementations to solutions of Singapore

1. Training in International Management

To improve employees attitude and tendencies to minimize needless issues or misunderstand when working with other international parties.

Social and business ethics, traditions, etc are some essential areas of training focus.

This is important as it can help to smoothen most daily functional issues which take up lots of time in resolving them. Hence, by reducing time wastage in resolving unnecessary issues, it will allow more time for further development of business globally.

Communication Barriers

In the international management, there are a number of common communication barriers, which includes words, culture, notion and nonverbal communication.

Language Barriers

Knowing and understanding the home country's vocabulary used at the headquarters of the Multi-national country (MNC) is important to the personnel located in a international assignment. Managers who do not understand the dialect that is used in the headquarter will likely make a wide number of problems. For most countries, many MNC are using English as the common language for interior marketing communications so that professionals can more easily convey information to their counterparts in other geographically dispersed locales.

Written communication skills has also been getting increased attention as poor writing communication is commonly a greater barrier than poor speaking. For example predicated on the scenario organisation ABC, the Singaporean managers find it too difficult communicating to the Italians through calls explaining the missing props and parts, a contact backup must be followed right after to the Italian on the phone call dialogue to explain in detail on the problem so to provide a clearer picture to both celebrations. Singaporean, on the other hand, has a distinctive words, which is the Singlish. Singlish can be an English-based creole incorporating Chinese and Malay words; used informally in Singapore. Many foreigners often mistook this is and so lead to dilemma and misunderstand the info. (http://en. wiktionary. org/wiki/creole) In addition, if written communication skills aren't properly trained, the Italian supervisor will see it even harder to communicate to Singaporean even following the phone call dialogue.

In comparability, as the Singaporeans communicate in English whereas the Italian communicates in their first terminology, Italian, then follow by British in most business instances. As British is not the Italian's first words, the majority of the Italians find it difficult to communicate with the business partner and frequently, credited to communication pronunciation, it lead to misunderstanding and miscommunication where information is wrongly communicated.

Solution: It really is strongly motivated to send managers to language education center, as it's important for them to figure out how to speak or increase the words used at the MNC head office. Human resource team should send managers for cross cultural business course to raised understand how different culture would impact their functions and daily business. This aims to guide managers to respond to different culture that influences business relationship, practices and policies and to provide ways of use it favorably to true to life situation.

(http://www. kwintessential. co. uk/cross-cultural/business-culture. html)

Without feedback we can not have agreement. Make an effort to encourage feedback to allow communicators to improve and adjust messages within the company. It is important to make the atmosphere and culture to produce feedback and study from each other's problem to avoid further turmoil.

(http://ezinearticles. com/?Culture-As-A-Barrier-To-CommunicationHYPERLINK "http://ezinearticles. com/?Culture-As-A-Barrier-To-Communication&id=55341"&HYPERLINK "http://ezinearticles. com/?Culture-As-A-Barrier-To-Communication&id=55341"id=55341)

Cultural Barriers

Today, we all have been familiar with stereotyping, which is one of the very most serious problems in cross-cultural communication. Culture impacts day-to day activities of corporate communications. For example, when sending messages to international clients, do keep in mind on the different meanings of words before mailing out. Not everyone understands what is the meaning of "counterclockwise" or "quite good". This may lead distress even in the English speaking countries.

To a certain scope, the culture of the Western european aren't well-supported by the other culture, nor understand the result of national principles on work tendencies. For instance, the Asian don't realize why the Western european employees drink alcoholic beverages at lunchtime and it is unwilling to bargain to work night shift duties. These kinds of action are commonly seen by people as wasteful but to those who know the culture, such action will promote the long-run good of the business, which indirectly means socializing. It is the outsider that misinterprets such cultural action and therefore, become a hurdle to effective communication

Solution: Seek commonalities among diverse culture and find out about the cultural differences among other countries. Many civilizations are alike in many ways and it is important to get the common ground to establish the bonding between ourselves and all of those other humanity. Endeavor and be committed to help ourselves while others to overcome the barrier that culture creates and develop the frame of mind and skills that are had a need to speak cross-culturally. (http://ezinearticles. com/?Culture-As-A-Barrier-To-CommunicationHYPERLINK "http://ezinearticles. com/?Culture-As-A-Barrier-To-Communication&id=55341"&HYPERLINK "http://ezinearticles. com/?Culture-As-A-Barrier-To-Communication&id=55341"id=55341)

Perceptual Barrier

Perception is someone's view of certainty and every specific has his own interpretation of the world, with one's own assumptions and thoughts. So, perceptual barrier is produced when communicating to some other party, significantly less to say the other get together is a foreigner with little culture similarities. He'll develop his own knowledge of the message predicated on his own earlier experiences and fastened meanings to what was conversed. Therefore, the Singaporean director is to ensure that the meaning is effectively relayed across to the overseas counterpart as that which was designed to be by investing in commonly used terms and messages must be short which can make comprehending it easier.

Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal communication is the copy of signifying through means such as body gestures and the utilization of physical space. The normal varieties of nonverbal communication are the hand gestures, cosmetic expression, pose and stands, eyesight contact, and even the tone of our tone. Given the length faced by the Singaporean Director and the company headquarter in Italy; telephone is another common tool of communication used. The agitated modulation of voice can be found by both functions when you can find frustration or an agreeable tone is instantly accepted over calling when work issues have been resolved. Therefore, scheduled to distance, both parties cannot observe the body gestures and gestures during dialog. The tone of voice over the telephone thus becomes important as it is the only way of sending nonverbal signals. When the Singaporean Director is speaking, the pitch to the tone of voice, the swiftness of discussing and volume shows his emotions at the time of communication. Thus, his note can be 'read' with these nonverbal elements in the communication. (my applying for grants this part) In Singapore, the idea of retaining the "face" plays an important area of the Singapore culture. The idea of face has been assessed as one's position, good name and good personality and it should not destroy by misbehaving or criticizing people in public areas or immediately in the face. Similarly, its also can be applied the same to Italy as looks and using a good image 'bella physique' is vital. Social etiquette is generally enthusiastic but also relatively formal. (Italy). (Applicable here?? Cant identify the hyperlink with nonverbal communication. Refer to link: http://www. helpguide. org/mental/eq6_nonverbal_communication. htm)

Solution: Remember to understand and identify folks you are/going to work with. Pay attention to other party. Any other suggestion?

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Solution to resolve Communication barrier

Training in International Management

To improve employees attitude and patterns to minimize unnecessary issues or misunderstand when interacting with other foreign parties.

Social and business ethics, traditions, etc are some essential areas of training emphasis.

This is important as it can help to smoothen most daily functional issues which takes up a lot of time in solving them. Hence, by reducing time wastage in handling unnecessary issues, it will allow additional time for further development of business internationally.

Solution to resolve time area barrier

As Italy and Singapore have a time difference of 6 time, the business could create a standard operational policy that indicates emails should be responded within a short while frame. For instance, emails received in the morning should be replied within the day to avoid delays. Immediate emails should be responded within 50 % of your day.

During the vacation period, like the summer holiday, the business could implement an alternative working composition to counter this issue. As such, during the long summer season breaks or any other getaways, the particular team that handles retailers, that are stationed abroad, will require at least one person to work on day move to respond to the get from the abroad outlets. Such preparations could be done as a rotating transfer. Reimbursement can be paid in terms of time/day-off or financial methods to the employees involved

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