Vernacular Architecture In Norway

All kinds of vernacular architecture are designed to meet specific needs, accommodating the prices, economies and ways of living of the ethnicities the produce them. It might be adapted or developed over time as needs and circumstances change. - Paul Oliver (Dwellings)

Vernacular architecture pertains to available resources and their environmental context, and they are usually owner- or community- built, using traditional technologies. (Dwellings) There isn't a number of just how many dwellings there exists in the world today, but between 90 and 98% of the complexes are vernacular. Traditional structures in most parts of the planet often reflect the data of a environment, an activity typical of its culture, and a building materials, which is noticeable in Norway's architecture. Norwegian wood (16) The know-how and sensibility, the abilities and the ability to build effectively in response to the environment, the land, and the resources to hand, have been offered between decades. (Dwellings) It progressed to meet up with the requirements of a distinct way of life, and lies built-into a distinct ground. Norwegian Wood (15) As opposed to the Mediterranean countries "natural stone culture", Norway belongs to a Nordic "wood culture". Reima Pietila, a Finnish architect, asserted that the eyesight of Nordic man was a "cave of solid wood. " The necessity for a "cave" was for protection against a hardcore climate. It needed to be manufactured from the warm materials wood to offer comfort through the long winters, and colourful to make people bear in mind the plants and the inexperienced trees of the summertime. Norwegian Wood (7-8) Norway possessed no urban traditions until the nineteenth century. But from the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution it had a solid rural course. Norwegian structures and skill were therefore inspired mainly by local sources. Then because of its rural practices, Norway's highest achievements in both building and art work were executed in the same medium: real wood. Norwegian Solid wood (15) Norway's traditional architecture had a remarkably long record, which began prior then the Middle Ages. The complexes that developed in Norway are inspirational because they show a romantic marriage between enhanced techniques and native materials, placed within a definite panorama. Stave churches in Norway (23) Within the wooden acres section of the northern world, the tree provided the Nordic man his building. Norway was a massive forest belt. The upper Europe's landscape was protected with woodland, and a strong wood-building culture grew from the fifth century. Norwegian Wood (15)

Vernacular architecture in Norway (Log building)

The Norwegians built well-crafted solid wood set ups for 800 years, plus they developed buildings that were well suited for their activities. The use of similar set ups for so very long was dictated by Norway's agriculture life-style and the surroundings. Norway's traditional structures is symbolized by two groups of wooden complexes: farms and stave churches. Norwegian wood (16) There was two specialized methods employed by the Norwegian contractors; the log and stave structure. In the stue (dwelling house) the horizontal logs created a cave of wood; in the stave church the vertical staves made the association to heaven obvious. Norwegian Structures (50) The farms were skilfully built to suit their specific needs. The delight of each farm was the loft, a two-story building that was used as safe-keeping on all traditional Norwegian farms. The best woodworking skills were applied upon this structure through the seventeenth and eighteenth ages, which therefore signified the highest success of Norwegian wood-building techniques. The loft's companion was the stue, the original dwelling, which mirrored the loft's identity in its advanced log structure. Norwegian solid wood (17) Norway's limited economy until the seventeenth century managed to get harder to import building materials other than wood. Real wood was plentiful, although the labour required getting ready it, moving it, and shaping it had not been. Tough conditions pressured the culture to accumulate a whole lot of knowledge about their native material. This collection of cultural "wealth" encouraged the creative capabilities of the craftsmen for a number of generations. Norwegian solid wood (18) Traditions is the heart of any vernacular. The Norwegian custom is the fantastic degree of workmanship. The Norwegians inherited an understanding about form and proportion from the natural properties of hardwood. The craftsmen of the Viking ships (ca. 900 Advertising), the stave churches (ca. 1200 Advertisement), and the farms (ca. 1700 Advertisement) used the same resources, resided on a single land, and constructed the same types of structures for centuries. Not unexpectedly, a thoughtful handling of the timber is visible in Norway's constructions. Norwegian wood (19) The rural practices in Norway stayed strong well into the nineteenth century, and the farmers continued to stay close to mother nature. The topology also resulted in extensive climatic conditions, which acquired significant consequences because of its building patterns. That Norway is located in north Europe contributes to short summer time and long winter months. The winter could go on up to nine weeks some places; this recommended that there have been no second chances if one didn't focus on the elements. Norwegian Architecture (28) I had been almost a life-and-death challenge between man and characteristics in some parts of Norway. In the numerous of places, life was an limitless battle against frigid, starvation, and disease, a factor that steered builders to choose their site smartly. Norwegian wood (30) Norwegian craftsmen experienced a precise awareness of the performance and weathering of the wood. Both building techniques; stave and log building, have been revised for many building types from culture to culture for a long period of your energy. In stave building the contractors used vertical planks to help make the walls. It was originally set to the bottom with no helping frame. These were later lifted and positioned on base beams. The logs that were notched at the corners were used for log building, and were horizontally stacked on top of each another. Less wood were necessary on stave properties than on log buildings, but their wall space were slimmer and retrained less warmth. Log surfaces were the main structure of the dwelling, the stue, and the safe-keeping building, the loft, was designed with a mixture of both stave and log work. The craftsmen decided to go with stave construction to make churches that would surge beyond the large pine trees and also connect the framework to a harsh ground. Norwegian hardwood (62) Log engineering is a fairly simple building approach: one log stacked horizontally together with another offers a strong wall and a solid connection at the corners. The integration of the log approach allowed for tighter and more compact structures. Norwegian Structures (50) The normal use of the log technique, or laft technique as it is known in Norwegian, commenced in the period after the Viking era. The earliest surviving farm complexes date from this time. A new era of creating began after the Black Loss of life, around 1535. During this time, the Reformation in Norway created connection with other Europe; this led to an increase in the Norwegian overall economy. The wider international communication and trade led to a highpoint of folk and building arts that culminated in the 1700s when log structure reached its highest expression in Norway. Norwegian solid wood (67) Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden in 1814, and this was the start of Norway's modern record. When the industrial revolution started out in the 1840s with the paper and textile business, farming had been a business, and the agricultural techniques were modernized. But the expanding economy cannot match the rapid development in the population. In the late 1 / 2 of the century, many emigrants, mainly from agricultural communities, remaining for America. Just how of life acquired then changed, one could not farm on a family group scale any more, and traditional building techniques had been replaced by mass-production operations. Norwegian solid wood (68)

Stave Churches

Norway is definitely a lightly filled country, and there were few public constructions during the medieval times. The exceptional exception was the stave church. The stave churches were built between 1030 and 1350. They usually stood unaccompanied against several farms and symbolized the sacred aspect of medieval life. The stave churches of Norway are a few of the finest real wood buildings in Europe and are, at the same time, a few of the oldest. They exhibit some of the most advanced farming methods maintained in wooden structures, and it is not shocking that this amount of intricacy is visible in a religious building. The stave churches confirm the extraordinary technology attained by wooden construction techniques during the Middle Ages.

It is surprising that these set ups have lasted for such a long time, even more astonishing when one realizes that most medieval structures remaining today were built in rock. Norwegian wood (17) Norway possessed no church-building traditions to draw upon when Christianity was created in the eleventh century. That they had to trust their instinctive and intensive knowledge of the landscape to find a appropriate site for these complexes. Norwegian architecture (27)

The stave churches represent the transition that the Norwegian people got in the eleventh-century, they travelled from pagan and animism worship to Christianity. Norwegian real wood (103) The Old Norse building techniques were customized the Christian consumption in the stave churches. It received many Romanesque features; the basilica shape is similar with the old Romanesque basilica. The round arcs wad used in almost all of the stave churches from the Middle Age ranges, mainly for development and dcor. The dcor could be found on gables, portals and in the interior. The dcor were mainly animal ornamentation, interspersed with Religious motifs. Norske stavkirker (19) The looks of the stave cathedral is unlike other things. They have a very simple basic constructional system, but its extrapolation has generated complex and luxurious architecture. Some of the churches contain greater than 2000 individual elements, without keeping track of the rooftop shingles. The church rests on horizontal beams of wood that rests on a rock foundation. The vertical poles, the staves, wraps round the central square. The staves are became a member of to the other person by clamping beams, usually with additional St Andrew's crosses and leg braces to help make the frame more sound. The pitched rooftop of the central part of the church is then recognized by this frame. Norske stavkirker (13) Stave churches were often built-in the best stored pine. The builders used different techniques to make the timber more solid. Among these techniques were to not decrease the tree, but to only cut the top of the tree off, all the branches and take away the bark, and then allow it stand there for sevral years. The tree then attempted to endure, but became increasingly more covered in resin. A lot more resin it came up on the lumber, the more stable it became. Stil og interiёr (70)

The Nordic sky is "low" and largely grey, compared to the "high", burning sunshine of the Mediterranean countries. Which means that in Norway sunlight casts long shadows. The interior in the stave churches was dark and secret, and the light was dimmed, this portrayed environmentally friendly quality of Norway. The staves grow like the pine trees and shrubs of the woodland toward the dark ceiling, and folks from the shut down horizontal stue are carried into a superior world. Stave Churches in Norway (13) The wood also helps to create the silently mysterious atmosphere, alongside the structural pattern rising towards the sky, which contrasts the hard undecorated aftereffect of the materials and approach of stone structures so radically. Stave churches in Norway (20) After the Reformation many churches became too small because of their congregation and had to be enlarged. The liberal pastors also although churches were to dark, and there for got windows built-in. They also often decreased the ceilings to be able to preserve more warmth in the wintertime. Stave churches in Norway (26)

The Black Death swept through Norway in 1349, with catastrophic results. Between 50 percent and two-thirds of the population died. It had been to use 300 years for the population to come back to its original size. By enough time new churches were built again, the knowledge of intricate stave construction seems to have been lost. Architecture in Wood It was built more than 1000 stave churches in the thirteenth century, but today only 22 remain. Norwegian wood (52)

Today's architecture

The union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905 and Norway became an independent nation.

Most countries in the turn of the nineteenth century experienced an enchanting, nationalist movement, also Norway, this is the effect of a desiring the greatness of its past. The building styles that emerged were an imitation of the stave churches, but the period also accepted the lost art of the laft construction. Because of this, remarkable buildings built-in the old log strategy were changed from several farms and put together into open-air museums. The necessity to describe building as an "art" quickly arose. Due to the people's nationwide feeling, the open-air museums had become thought to be folk museums. That which was called "folk" skill in other European building cultures was Norway's main form of manifestation and had been produced even as later as 1900. Norwegian real wood (68)

The Norwegian folk museum in Oslo, known as Norsk Folkemuseum in Norwegian, is the largest museum of Norwegian cultural background. It has a collection of over 150 structures from all over the country, and it symbolizes how people lived in Norway from 1500 to present time. These properties represent different areas, different schedules, and also the variations between town and country, and interpersonal classes. The stave chapel located in the open-air museum is Gol Stave Chapel, dating from 1200, this is one of five medieval properties at the museum.

(http://www. norskfolkemuseum. no/en/target-groups/About-the-Museum/)

In earlier times beauty was an expression of the people; today it's the expression of each person's personality. However, one instinctively feels that beauty is not either old or new, it is amazing.

Medieval buildings have the quality of beauty that one can rarely see in modern architecture. My readings have led me to ascertain that the idea of beauty prevails, and was always used prior to modern times. The concept of beauty seems to have been lost in today's building culture, because of the lack of good craftsmanship. The characteristics of Norway's traditional structures were the remarkable ornamental features. This shows the importance of the design process when development was still considered a skill and a craft. The relationship between fine materials and good design seems to have been forgotten by today's contractors and architects. This marriage offers the ideal enthusiasm for the building art. The past contrasts the present-day in many ways, and its own constructors naturally had fewer selection of materials. However the lessons and knowledge given by a vernacular building culture are still valid. Norwegian Solid wood (9) One of the most important attributes for an architect is the response to the physical surroundings. It requires an understanding of the land to solve the challenge of how to dwell in a particular area. The end result, generally for some traditional structures, can be a quality linked to a specific site, or even to a particular landscaping. The mountains that generate blowing wind or rain, the times of year that bring snow, the way that sunshine shines, or will not shine, are all important in identifying funds - social situations are not the thing that create its character. What sort of contractor responds to these issues displays his ability to construct in a certain scenery. Norwegian hardwood (27) The vernacular structures reflect the skill of creating when tradition, rather than new inventions, inspired builders: the wonder of the was that the traditions uncovered existential so this means. This is lacking in the current building culture, together with the drive of the craftsmen and the happiness of building. Vernacular properties have a breathing uniqueness, self-employed of its constructor, and because the contractors highlighted this original individuality in every its elements, an excellent building appears. The Norwegian architect, Gunnar Granberg, said, "the craftsmen's knowledge was confirmed: rather than great deal of thought, they simply built the complexes. " Norwegian Real wood (9)

Learn from vernacular architecture

Older buildings have many features that we can study from and leverage further, both in modern structure and the maintenance of older buildings. Older complexes are often constructed with materials that are locally produced and lightly processed. The creation of these materials has required little energy and triggered little environmental impact. This is an argument both to preserve older buildings also to use their knowledge for new structure. One should take advantage of the materials properties, this means the right capacity and quality at the right place and function. This means that this part of the building will be more effective for a longer period of your energy, and one is then resource successful when using the best qualities where it is most needed. Good design is all about good materials knowledge, good techniques, knowledge of what will last, and exactly how to perform the work. Every part of the buildings life time has great importance when considering resources. Old structures are often constructed of materials and building components that are designed to last, without sacrificing function or become visually undesirable. Just how long a building can be utilized depends on the initial quality, and whether it can be maintained within an appropriate manner. Traditional materials and building components are often very easy to maintain because the materials are gently prepared, and because the components are easy to get to and remove from the building. (Publication) Many modern materials are provided as "maintenance-free", however in reality they do not previous and must be substituted more often. Many modern building elements contain different materials which can't be taken apart, meaning it is the material which has the shortest life time that can determine the building aspect longevity. That is an unhealthy use of resources.

In older buildings not all rooms are heated to the same temperatures. The hallways could often be colder than the living rooms, and some rooms were sealed off in the wintertime. It was also common to provide the guts of the area or against the fireplace, so that the breeze from the glass windows had not been so infuriating. The inside temperature was also held lower. This was who they kept energy. Traditionally the natural venting made a good in house climate. Wood heating up and air channels create negative pressure, and oxygen is used through leaks or vents in the wintertime. Venting through available windows in warmer summer months is also a straightforward and good solution. Natural venting provides ventilation without the need for energy input to use the followers and heat exchanger, etc. When utilizing a air flow system the toughness of the system corresponds to the sturdiness of the building. The existing building polices make it almost impossible to make for natural venting. The tighter and better covered a building is, a lot more energy is necessary for venting and a lot more dependent you are that the advanced specialized equipment works, preserved and used properly. Development of natural air flow will give us knowledge and alternatives that contribute to energy efficiency also in modern building. (publication) Modern construction depends on 'as tightly protected as possible' and signifies with other words, a completely different building physical concept the traditional buildings. It is therefore important not to think "modern" when working with old buildings as it can cause major structural harm over time. An extremely thick insulation covering requires efficient 'closing' of the home. This is challenging both during construction and later in their life cycle. Leaks may lead to rot and mold problems. A well-insulated house is very dependent on a properly functioning air flow system anytime. The physical key points in traditional complexes can provide useful knowledge in the introduction of new structure that appears more into these difficulties.

Traditional buildings are often characterized by the fact that there have been few resources when these were built. Everything had to be done by hand, transportation was cumbersome, and the control was often done on site and was limited. We then developed a custom of creating energy and source of information efficient predicated on passive measures. This stands in contrast to the current to today's development towards a lot more advanced technical solutions and energy-intensive procedures.

(http://www. riksantikvaren. no/Norsk/Tema/Energisparing/Hva_kan_vi_lare_av_eldre_hus+/)

Older houses are often less isolated and leakier than the requirements set in the existing building laws. They therefore require more energy in the production phase. The explanation for the increasingly stringent energy requirements is the necessity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is often difficult to isolate aged houses so that they meet the laws without destroying the history beliefs. The Directorate in Norway are working towards trying to compensate the utilization of alternative energy for the higher energy ingestion in older residences. This can help achieve the purpose of lowering CO2 emissions while preserving the ethnical historical beliefs.

Wood as a building materials triggers little environmental impact compared to including the creation and use of concrete and metal. This relates to the whole life cycle (production, transportation, maintenance, toughness and removal etc. ). Using more lumber in buildings as an alternative for less environmentally friendly materials will decrease the greenhouse gas emissions.

(http://www. riksantikvaren. no/Norsk/Tema/Energisparing/Bruk_av_tre_i_et_miljoperspektiv/)

"It is vital that vernacular building traditions are supported; to aid local builders in subject of sanitation and disaster preparedness, while same time learning and profiting from their experience, knowledge and skills. " - Paul Oliver

Conclusion

By investigating vernacular structures we can restore much accumulated knowledge. The ever-growing variety of vernacular studies that has kept on appearing since the nineteenth century, these has increased our knowledge and understanding of historical and modern vernacular customs. (Created to meet needs)

Housing the ever-growing global population is one of the biggest problems we could facing today, but it has not yet captured the same attention as issues of food, health, environment change or the reduced amount of biodiversity. This issue has to be recognized for the future well-being of the people to be made certain. The success of the vernacular will help not only with casing, but also sustainable techniques. (Vernacular Architecture in the 21st Century) Architects and contractors should check out vernacular knowledge and performance to react to the over-growing demands for real estate and natural disasters. Studying vernacular traditions will give us better adaptation knowledge. Many practices from the vernacular have been an associated with poverty, underdevelopment and the past; this became evident along the way of urbanization, globalization and modernization. It is not viewed as a work of structures that is well-adjusted to its local surroundings, civilizations and economies, but instead as a work happening. This has resulted in the alternative and abandonment of several unique and distinctive vernacular structures. (Atlas of Vernacular Architecture)

It is important to manage the local traditions. And in Norway which means that people need to make use of more real wood in modern buildings. The challenge with timber is the fact it takes a long time to warm them up, however when they are really warm, they stay warm for a long period. If we unite the old log technique with the best of new home heating technology it will be big changes. The question is not old or modern building strategy, but more use of timber. The vernacular properties still standing up today should be maintained and learnt from. Regarding Norway, some actions can be made, if all the Norwegian boroughs that have properties from 1650 and before built residences in this tradition, the Norwegian history complexes could be kept, and teenagers would then also learn how to create in a traditional and lasting way. This would make a radical change taking into consideration the environment; when one kilogram timber can bind 1. 7 kg CO2, and a house made in log strategy with locally produced timber have a life expectancy on 800-900 years. This is exactly what I call sustainability!

"Take it easy and become completely centered on the task. Remember, in the long run, no one asks just how long it took. What is crucial is that what you did is appropriate. " - Arne Berg

(http://www. vl. no/kultur/var-byggekunst-er-doende/)

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