Chapter 15. Archeology of the medieval ethnoses of Eurasia in the middle of the 1st - the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD
o Formation of economic and cultural specifics of the main ethno-cultural entities of Eastern Europe;
o the transition to the settled life of Bulgarians, Hungarians and other peoples.
15.1. Archeology of Balts, Finno-Ugrians and other ethnic groups
A complex ethnic and cultural situation developed in the middle of the 1st millennium AD. - the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD. on the vast territory of the forest zone of Eastern Europe from the shores of the Baltic Sea and to the east to the Urals and Western Siberia. The aboriginal ancient ethnic formations in the west of this territory were Balts, occupying the southeastern Baltic region, including lands located in the basins of the Neman and the Western Dvina. North and north-east of Eastern Europe to the Urals and Western Siberia inhabited the Finno-Ugric tribes. The localization of ethnic groups, however, does not indicate that there were clearly marked boundaries of their resettlement. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the low population density and the presence of unsettled spaces in the forest area. To the south, there were two other ethnic groups: the Slavs and, to the east, the Turks (in the steppe regions along the Volga, in the southern Urals and in the steppes of Western Siberia). They formed quite compact ethnic groups in the Volga and Zavolzhye.
Archaeological monuments of the medieval Balts are represented by three groups: Latvian, Lithuanian and West-Baltic. The connection of archaeological monuments of Latvia with ethnic groups that later formed the Latvian nationality is traced. On the territory of Lithuania archaeological monuments in a number of cases also manage to be connected with the tribal associations of the 1st millennium AD known on this territory.
In the Middle Ages, the Finno-Ugric peoples entered, significantly expanding their territory and having contacts with other ethnic groups. It is important to note that the medieval history of the Finno-Ugric peoples is poorly illustrated in written sources. Due to this, archaeological materials acquire special value.
Fig. 76. The material culture of medieval Finno-Ugrians:
1 - reconstruction of the dwelling; 2-3 - the koreles; 4 - the Mari; 5-9 - Estates
In the east, the Finno-Ugric world included the forest Ural and the forest area of Western Siberia. Even in the early Iron Age, in the 1st millennium BC, the threatened Samoyeds inhabited the forest and forest-steppe Priirtyshye and Ob River. These archaeological cultures were considered above. In the second half of the first - the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD. in the forest Zauralye there were several archaeological cultures associated with the Ugric ethnos. They are distinguished according to the characteristics of ceramics, and are therefore cautiously called the monuments of the Silent (VII-IX centuries), Yudin (X-XIII centuries) and Makushinsky (XIII-XIV centuries) types. Monuments of the Siliconian type are localized along the middle and lower reaches of the river. Tour. These sites are located on capes (Petrovsky, Irbit), they are protected by ramparts and moats. The dwellings were rectangular semi-dugouts with an area of 30 x 50 m. The main inventory is represented by ceramics. Typical are squat round-bottomed vessels decorated with embossed lines, pits and impressions of the comb stamp. Iron knives with a straight back, iron rectangular buckles, widely known in Eurasia, bone products, bone arrowheads, copper twisted bracelets, rings and pendants were found.
The ponds of the river. Tour and Tavda are connected with the monuments of the Yudin culture, studied by settlements, fortified sites, soil and burial cemeteries and sacrificial places. Small but the area of the site is fortified with a shaft with a wooden structure in the form of log cabins. In the Yudinsky, Likinsky, Andreevsky III settlements, the remains of large semi-dwelling houses were investigated. Surface structures are represented by three types: tent semi-dugouts, ground pillared dwellings and log houses. Several soil burial grounds of this culture have been discovered. People were buried but the ceremony of cremation and inhumation. In the inventory there are many ornaments: bracelets of silver and bronze, flat, twisted, round earrings and temporal pendants, bronze bells, пролинки, zoomorphic pendants. Yuda culture is associated with medieval Mansi.
In the forest Priirtyshye there are monuments of the Potchevash culture, described above in connection with the monuments of the Early Iron Age of the forest belt of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. To the south, in Baraba, archaeological monuments of Hungarian culture of the 12th-16th centuries are known.
By the IX-XIII centuries. in the forest Lower Irtysh are the monuments of Ust-Ishim culture, represented by fortified settlements, soil and barrow burial grounds. Excavations of settlements were carried out mainly along the Irtysh and in the lower reaches of Tara. The settlements are fortified with cotton wool and ditches. There are two types of dwellings: semi-dugouts and tent structures with a floor, wooden walls, which were fixed on supporting poles, and an entrance in the form of a corridor. The burial rite was associated with earthen oval mounds. Buried under the rite of the corpse under the mound of embankment. At the feet of the buried put earthen vessels, put arrowheads, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic plaques, iron knives.
Fig. 77. Women's jewelry of Finno-Ugrians and Balts:
1, 9 - Corals; 2-4, 7 - Liv, Est, and Water; 5 - Balts; 6 - Lithuania; 8 - Courses
In the second half of the 1st millennium AD. On the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena, several archeological cultures belonging to the ancestors of indigenous peoples were formed. In the Middle Ob, settlements and relics of Relkin culture of the 6th-9th centuries are known. AD, named for the settlement and burial ground of the Relka in the vicinity of. Molchanovo.
In the Prikamye, Upper and Middle Volga regions, archaeological monuments of the period under consideration are identified with the ancestors of modern Finnish peoples: the Mordvins (Erzya and Moksha), the Mari, the least and the vanished caves and muromas, and on the Kama - with the Komi-Zyryans and Udmurts.
Fig. 78. Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic metallic images of the Relkin culture
(by LA Chindina)
The medieval history of the Murom is studied by burial grounds. There are two types of burials known: burial in a ground pit and incineration. The corpses were burned on special sites or in cremation pits, outside the burial grounds. The inventory of the inventory was the same for both types of burials. Burials of the nobility, both male and female, differed in implements and the presence in the burial of the horse. With a set of production tools buried blacksmiths, foundry workers. Almost in all burials of men there are weapons: iron arrowheads and spears, sometimes swords. The headdress, belt and ornaments of the shoes of the Murom women are quite indicative. They are the main signs, allowing to determine ethnicity. The headdress consisted of bundles made of horsehair, leather and birch bark, sewn in the form of a tube, as well as coronets, belts, temporal rings and hocks. The tourniquets clasped their heads round. Corolla attached to the frontal part or on the crown. This complex headdress existed in the Murom until the 11th century.
Fig. 79. The archaeological complex of the Relkin culture: protective armor, iron swords and arrowheads, hoes and napkins, ceramic vessels, bone arrowheads (by LA Chindina)
By the 10th century. refers to the appearance in the lands of the Murom of the Slavs.
A separate group consists of monuments of Finnish tribes of the Ryazan-Oka group. These are soil burial grounds along the Oka: Vakhinskiy, Konstantinovsky, Tyrnovsky, and others, in which burials were found with incineration and a corpse, also containing noisy suspensions - elements of chest, belt and head ornaments.
Eastern orientations of burials include bracelets with thickened ends, twisted cervical hryvnia, headpiece from the rows of spiral carvings. Two complexes of burials indicate the appearance of a new population. Judging by the set of ornaments, the Balts came from the upper parts of the Oka.
In the interfluve of the Oka, the Volga and Sura there are monuments of the medieval Mordva: soil burial mounds with a northern and southern orientation of the buried, settlements and settlements. The most characteristic decoration of the Mordva is the temporal pendant with a sinker and a spiral. They were made of silver and bronze, attached to the headdress or worn on the ear. This type of jewelry existed from the middle of the 1st millennium AD. until the XII century. inclusive. Another typical Mordovian object is a buckle with a round openwork shield and a picture of horse heads, ornamented with circles and spirals - solar symbols.
On the Volga, at the mouth of Vetluga and up to Vyatka in the north, uncovered burial grounds and fortifications of the Mari (medieval Cheremis). For cemeteries V-XI centuries. Three types of burials are typical: inhumation, cremation and cenotaphs (tombstones installed in places that do not contain the remains of the deceased). In the burial grounds of the XII-XIII centuries. there is only a collusion.
The dead were buried in ground pits without coffins, on a litter of bark or felt. A specific feature of the culture is a female breastplate in the form of a leather strip, which was sewn to clothing. Metal decorations were hanging from the sides - dial-up wire and so-called skate pendants: bifigural metal plates, conditionally depicting the trunk and two horse heads turned in opposite directions.
The Perm group of Finno-Ugrians consists of the Komi-Permyaks, Komi and Udmurt formed in the Middle Ages. In the Vychegda Territory along the Vychegda, Vyshera, Pechora and Upper Mezen rivers undeveloped settlements were opened with remnants of land or slightly deeper residential rectangular houses, the basis of which was a low log, dating from the second half of the 1st millennium BC. Excavations of cemeteries gave an idea of the burial rite. The dead were buried in ground pits, stretched out on their backs, their heads to the west. In all burials there are belts with metal buckles, lining and tips. In men's burials find knives, swords, chain mails, gold and silver plates from funerary masks. In female burials there are bronze ornaments of a female suit. The ceramic complex is represented by two types of convex vessels: large without neck, intended for food storage, and utensils for cooking and eating food. The edges of the coronas of the vessels are decorated with fingerprints.
In the basin of the river. The monuments of the Udmurts of the 9th-15th centuries are localized in Chepets. The main monuments are hillforts on the coastal capes (Idnakar, Valnar, etc.). For them were typical log buildings with open hearths and pits-pantry inside. In the materials of the archaeological culture there are objects of blacksmith's, copper-foundry, churchyard and ceramic production. Ceramic ware was made by hand.
Archaeological materials allow to reconstruct a female headdress - a kind of kokoshnik from a birch bark covered with a cloth. On this basis, beads, plaques and beads were sewn, noisy metal jewelry on chains or leather straps was attached.
In the Upper Kama to the middle of the 1st millennium AD. belong to the monuments of Lomov's culture. Burkovsky, Nevoli, and other burial grounds have been investigated. They contain iron swords with bar-like crosshairs, axes, numerous bone products, combs, knife handles, spoons, scoops, horse equipment. Female ornaments are ring-shaped temporal pendants, decorated with granular hollow metal balls, cervical hryvnia and round in cross section bracelets. On the banks of the Kama River and its tributaries, many hill-forts are found on the high riverine capes. During the excavations, the remains of log buildings were discovered. Medieval Ests, Livs, Waters, Izhora, Whole and Korela were a group of Baltic Finns. As for the origin of these peoples, the most reasoned theory is that the division of the Baltic Finns from the Volga region occurred in the second half of the 1st millennium BC. - the end of the 1st millennium AD. Tribes of the korelets lived to the west of the Ladoga Lake, to the north of it lived the Saami. The main archaeological source is the land burial grounds of the koreles, which are open along the banks of rivers and lakes and do not have external features. Burials were carried out according to the rite of cremation in the ground at shallow depths with things: axes, spearheads, bits, sickles, hoes and knives.
Of the jewelry there are cervical hryvnia, bracelets, fibulas and metal straps for the belt. For culture XII-XIII centuries. Typically, the trumpet arrangement, often carried out in a wooden frame. Specific Karelian brooches with ornament in the form of braids occur from the Northern Ladoga area. In the XII-XIV centuries. around the many settlements of the korelets there were stone fortifications. During the excavations near the town of Sortavala, the Paaso settlement was fortified, reinforced with two cotton wools made of stone. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of dwellings with stone foundations. This type of dwellings is characteristic of the culture of the 12th-14th centuries.
All, or Chud, in Slavonic chronicles, settled in the area from the White Sea to Onega and Ladoga, which recorded a large number of settlements and burial ground. Several burials of the X-XIII centuries were explored. with burials according to the rite of Ingumation. There are also burial mounds with the ritual of incest. It is believed that the burial mounds were borrowed from the Slavs and Scandinavians. The mounds detected breast chain, buckles, tubular needle cases of bronze and iron, bronze beads zoomorphic decorations in the form of flat-suspension ducks, temporal rings and so-called moon suspension, arrowheads and belt set items.
With the Middle Ages, the formation of yet another Finno-Ugric people - the Hungarians is connected. In Pannonia, where Hungarians live for many centuries, they appeared only at the end of the IX century. Judging by the language belonging to the Ugric group, probably initially they lived in the Urals. The problem of the Hungarian ancestral homeland is not solved. They consider several places: the forest area of the Urals, the Southern Urals, the Volga region, and the Trans-Volga.
In the 20-30-ies. IX century. Hungarians appeared in Lebedia - the territory that was part of the Khazaria, where their promotion began to Pannonia. Before the Mongol conquest, the Hungarian monk Julian traveled to Eastern Europe in search of his ancestors. He found the Hungarians on the Volga. There is an opinion that at that time the population was already mixed and consisted of Ugric-Magyars and Turkic-speaking population, with whom Bakhmutin culture is connected in Bashkiria. The most studied of its monuments are a huge Birsky burial ground and a site of ancient settlement. It is important that burials in this burial ground were made for almost 500 years. In the burials of the V-VII centuries. there is a continuity in the inventory and rite of burial. In the late burials there are many glass beads, wire bracelets, there are round earrings of bronze and silver wire, brooches, shoe and belt buckles. In the male burials, iron and bone arrowheads, iron swords were found.
Bakhmutin culture ceased to exist in the 8th century, which was associated with the departure of the Bakhmutin tribes of the Magyars from this territory. The archaeological complex of Bakhmuta and ancient Magyar cultures has a certain similarity. These are shallow ground burials with a western orientation, containing bones of sacrificial horses, belt belts with pendants decorated with metal plates. In Hungary they are also known. It should be taken into account that there was a nearly 200-year break between Bakhmuta culture and the Magyar culture on the Danube.
Later, in the XII-XIV centuries. in the Southern Urals, a medieval Turbalian culture developed by archaeologists based on materials from cemeteries and settlements was formed.
Fig. 80. Archaeological complex of early medieval monuments of the Southern Urals XII-XIV centuries. Turbaslin culture (according to NA Mazhitov)
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