4.4. Development of Western culture. Artistic styles of European culture
The European type of civilization - the western type of culture - began to emerge along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea in Antiquity.
4.4.1. Culture of Antiquity
The culture of Antiquity is divided into three great periods: Greek Antiquity (VII-IV centuries BC), Hellenistic Antiquity (IV-II centuries BC), Roman Antiquity (II century BC). e.-V c. AD).
The main features of Greek culture:
o Humanism: man is the center of the universe and the measure of all things,
o man - physical and moral perfection;
o spirituality of culture, ethics, morality;
o polytheism, anthropomorphism - the similarity of gods to humans;
o the development of science and philosophy;
o features of art: harmony, beauty, proportionality, calmness, humaneness;
o Temple architecture - basilica, the main architectural element - marble columns.
Practical warehouse of Roman culture:
o sobriety of thinking, development of legal norms, legislation;
o civil architecture and engineering facilities;
o pragmatism of sciences, philosophy;
o a realistic approach to art;
o the weakening of moral standards, which led to vices, debauchery. At the end of the Roman Empire, Christianity was adopted.
4.4.2. Christian type of culture
The Christian type of culture is the culture of early and mature feudalism in European countries from the 5th to the 16th centuries. AD Features of medieval culture:
o religious nature;
o spirituality: the soul of man is divine;
o idea of saving the soul, overcoming sinfulness
o asceticism, rejection of bodily pleasures;
o great development was the architecture and iconography.
Since the XI century. in the history of artistic culture begins to manifest the concept of style. Artistic style as a system of complex symbolic reflection of the spirit of the time through images of art arose in Europe during the Middle Ages. The first pan-European style is Romanesque (from Latin - Roman ). Its signs: severity and external simplicity, similarity with early examples of ancient Roman architecture. This direction prevailed in the X-XIII centuries. In many ways, the constructions of this style inherited the features of Roman architecture. An example of the Romanesque style can serve as numerous towers, fortresses of the XII century. - structures with a small number of windows, thick, solid walls, built necessarily in an impregnable place. Gothic - is one of the two leading art styles of the European Middle Ages, combining lightness, elegance, decorativeness. He came to replace the Roman art in the XIII-XIV centuries. Gothic cathedrals became symbols of the unity of heaven and earth, the personification of the city's prosperity. Lancet arches, windows, turrets and spiers directed the Gothic temple to heaven, to God; Large windows flooded it with light, which embodied for Catholics the Divine light. Extensively used lush decor with the use of gold, woodcarving, religious sculpture. Early Gothic is the Cathedral of Notre Dame. Later Gothic - Rouen Cathedral, Reims Cathedral.
4.4.3. Culture of the Renaissance
The culture of revival or Renaissance is one of the most vivid epochs in the development of European culture in the mid-14th - first decade of the 17th century. The term Revival pointed to the relationship of the new culture with Antiquity.
Characteristic features of the Renaissance culture:
o in the center of attention of the Renaissance figures was a man, therefore the worldview of the bearers of this culture is denoted by the term "humanistic";
o a pronounced secular character, opposition to the spiritual dominance of the church;
o the cognitive focus and rationality of Renaissance art;
o anthropocentrism: the ideal of a person standing on the earth, but equal to God, appears
o cheerfulness and benevolence - the enjoyment of life is combined with the belief in the goodwill of human nature, so the passions are not vicious, the sensuality is rehabilitated.
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