9.2. Disciplinary and symbolic spaces of cultureSocial institutions of culture regulate cultural activities, and it, as we know, includes a complex process of symbolization, which implies not the mechanical adherence to established behavioral regulations, but the giving of meaning to them; ensuring the entry of the individual into the symbolic order of culture and the possibility of finding in it. In principle, disciplinary space is any form of social institutionalization - religious, political, professional, economic, etc. Such spaces are often not separated by an impassable boundary, but intertwine, overlap, enter into interaction. Disciplinary and symbolic space is a much broader notion, since it allows us to describe not only links and relationships fixed at the level of formal regulations of socially institutionalized formations that have more or less clear legal fixation, but also those relations that break into a broad cultural context, escaping direct state-political control.
The social institutions of culture are, to a large extent, just disciplinary-symbolic spaces, rather than rigid social institutions (although the latter is not completely excluded). On the one hand, the boundaries and conditions for the competence of the disciplinary and symbolic spaces of culture are not always strictly regulated: they have a clear list of variations "for all occasions", allowing a greater freedom of the individual. In the theater, in the museum, on a holiday, in private life, we feel less constraint than at work and in court. On the other hand, due to the fact that the symbolic order is not limited by working time and service duties, they are persistent, effective even in situations when we are rid of, it seems, from direct control by the relevant cultural institution. In the theater, we behave properly, at the station - in a different way, at home we show the third qualities. In all cases, we are compelled to obey both the public and the unspoken rules of the cultural community, guided by a symbolic value-sense scale. Even without realizing the report, we know how to be located in this particular cultural space, what we are allowed, and what, on the contrary, it is forbidden to wish and manifest. Such an "intuitive knowledge" is the result of previous experience, the experience of inculturation and socialization, the acquisition of which does not stop for a single moment throughout the life of a person.
From birth to the end of his life, a person is not just immersed in culture, but also "supervised" by means of corresponding more or less institutionalized cultural forms of influence. Culture is, among other things, a ramified system of mechanisms through which control is exercised over a person, his disciplinaryization. This control can be tough and punitive, aimed at suppressing any uncontrolled spontaneity. It can act as a soft recommendations that allow a fairly wide range of unregulated manifestations of the individual. However, completely uncontrolled the person does not remain ever: this or that cultural institution over him oversees & quot ;. Even alone with ourselves, in the absence of a seemingly direct threat of coercion, we carry the directive instructions of cultural institutions in ourselves at a subconscious or mechanical level.
It is important to note that any form of manifestation of cultural activity - morality, law, politics, art, religion, philosophy, science, everyday life, - giving the person the opportunity to manifest his own uniqueness, at the same time supports and the necessary "order", regulates behavior of an individual, evaluates it from the point of view of established cultural-value norms. Cultural dressing & quot ;, discipline, institutionalization-all these affect the external, actualized, aspects of cultural activity, and internal, ideal-spiritual.
Speaking about social institutions of culture, we should first of all point to such a disciplinary-symbolic space as family. Family in society has always performed a number of functions. In the sociological literature, among its main functions are educational, economic-household, economic, primary social control, social-status, leisure, emotional, communicative and translational. From the cultural point of view, the most important function is the function of translating cultural stereotypes - values and norms of the broadest possible quality. It is in the family that a person receives the first experience of inculturation and socialization. Thanks to direct contact with parents, due to the imitation of household habits, intonation of speech, gestures and deeds, the reactions of others to a particular phenomenon of reality, finally, due to the purposeful influence of others on his own actions, words, actions, efforts and efforts, culture. Sometimes we even can not realize how this happens. It is not necessary for us to explain why it is necessary to act in such a way, and not in another way, force to something or persuade. It enters us through the impulsive rhythm of everyday life, predetermining in later life the character of many, if not most, of our own words and deeds. None of the cultures, both in the past and in the present, did not disregard the institution of the family. Depending on what type of personality was most in demand at one time or another, the corresponding norms of family-marriage relations were also built. The family, therefore, is a mechanism for the transmission of the tradition from generation to generation, and the way to implement current cultural innovation programs, and a tool for maintaining rules of a symbolic order. In the family, not only the foundation of the future individual life of a person is formed, the possible directions of its cultural activity are determined, but the foundation of the whole culture is laid.
Another important disciplinary-symbolic space of culture is the public school. This expression is conditional: depending on the time, place, era, national characteristics, this institution can be called differently, enter into different - more large-scale - sociocultural complexes. The applied name is only needed to indicate the general nature of the cultural space in question. It is important to point out the next moment. A public school is not only a place where certain socially popular or socially prestigious skills are taught, i.e. give a standard for the era set of necessary knowledge. It is still a space where the emphasis is not on the private sphere (as it was in the family), but on the public sphere, more formalized and much more clearly structured. No matter how great the impact of home and family on a person, it is still not enough for successful socialization, for the family is at best a "cell of society", an adequate model, where the technological moment associated with the need for the successful functioning of society as a single organism is mitigated by the proximity and the immediacy of blood-related relationships. The public school is also not a life yet, but it is not a private house that can exist quite autonomously in relation to society and culture as a whole. The school is a public place & quot ;. Therefore, pedagogy is one of the most important areas of human culture. It always acted as a correlate of socio-cultural priorities. No ruler, no culture could afford the luxury of completely ignoring this sphere.
Family and school collectively perform paidevtic, i.e. educational and educational function. Becoming a full member of society, having fully acquired both traditional and innovative cultural settings of the era, a person moves to other disciplinary and symbolic spaces. Virtually any kind of human activity, any form of activity can be fully considered an institutionalized disciplinary-symbolic space of culture. Especially it is necessary to allocate such sociocultural formation, as the state. Neither in the sociological, nor in the legal, nor in the culturological literature does there exist its single definition. One thing we can state: the state is today the highest level of socio-cultural organization on which most of the cultural processes of the community are based. Among the signs of the state, first of all, it is necessary to point out the establishment of special bodies dealing with management, including the management of culture. Power characterizes the state as an institution, it is in turn characterized as a projection of cultural trends. What is the people, what is its culture - the same is the power. The concrete form of state structure depends on those cultural traditions that are perceived by the community as legitimate. It is also important that the state provides the opportunity for the development of culture, protecting it from external and internal encroachment.
Social institutions of culture can also be viewed in the narrower sense of the word - as a set of those institutions, through which the activities of specific cultural forms are preserved and reproduced, ie, such areas of human activity, which are considered at this point in time to be cultural in the main. Modern culture includes a lot of such cultural institutions. All of them are institutionalized to a greater or lesser extent, integrated into the social context and have a certain state-social sanction. Without them, it is impossible to imagine the culture of our days, nor the modern man. Let's name some of them.
Museums (from the Greek - the place dedicated to the muses, the temple of the muses) - scientific, scientific and educational, art, memorial institutions that carry out the acquisition, storage, study and popularization of historical and cultural monuments. For most modern museums is characterized by a unity of research, educational and demonstration functions.
Libraries (from the Greek - the book and the repository) - enlightening and scientific support institutions that organize public use of literary works. Libraries collect, store, issue printed and written works, as well as information-bibliographic and historiographical work.
Archives (from Greek - presence) - independent institutions or departments in other institutions and organizations that store documentary materials, as well as a set of documents formed as a result of activities both individuals and entire socio-cultural groups. Archives serve the research and practical needs of society.
Educational institutions, engaged in the training of specialists in various fields of contemporary cultural activities - musical, theatrical, concert, cultural, educational, cultural,
Theaters and concert halls - (from the Greek - a place for spectacles, a spectacle) - institutions that regulate various forms of entertainment as a way of organizing leisure and a means of satisfying aesthetic needs.
The above list does not exhaust the whole panorama of cultural institutions. They can also be rightly included as institutions that regulate the activities of the mass media, are responsible for various forms of leisure activities (sporting events, carnivals and holidays, discos and folk festivals, etc.), are engaged in the production and replication of a variety of cultural forms (material and spiritual-symbolic), oversee the cultural processes of society, etc.
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