Documentary Simplicity post-war cinema of France - History of art

Documentary Simplicity postwar French cinema

A glance at the world, focused on the real, unreasoned problems of its time, so vividly declared about itself in Italian cinema, in its own way manifested itself in France. This was due to the activity of the so-called new wave. The intellectual center of this movement was a group of film critics, united around A. Bazin (1918-1958) 1. The practice began with the manifesto of the "Group of Thirty" (cinematographers, united in defense of a short film). The document was presented to the filmmakers of the country - the ancestor of cinema the most acceptable and natural artistic form at that time. It is no accident that the style of the "mobile camera" acquired such popularity: it sought not to follow from one point beyond the characters and not even follow them, and "to pursue". Thus, there was a special intonation of the conversation between the filmmaker and the viewer. She, not fanciful and mannered, but alive and dynamic, the viewer (especially the young) trusted incomparably more. A new wave gave the cinema a lot of gifted filmmakers. Among them, J.-L. Godard (born 1930), F. Truffaut (1938-1984), A. René (born 1922), A. Bard (born 1928), J. Demi (1931 - 1990), C. Chabrol (born 1930 ) and others. Each of these directors has a unique intonational structure and a special manner of narration.

The founder of the "new wave" most film critics and movie buffs are called Jean Luc Godard in connection with the release in 1960 of his film "On the last breath". This tape is not accidentally considered representative of the actual cinematic movement. The main discovery of this film was his wrong hero - Michelle Poacar (Jean-Paul Belmondo). It was all wrong in it - the exterior lacking the generally accepted standards of attractiveness, the trampling of morality, not manifested as in any radical subculture, and the natural - the hero does not think about when he is going to crime, and at the same time he seems to fly toward death. This existential the flight visually accurately embodies the cameraman R. Kutar. Stressing the characteristic facial expressions and sharp gestures of Poquara-Belmondo, he visually represents the instability of the hero's inner world, the unexpectedness of his feelings and actions. Godard's painting became the manifestation of the generation. It is no accident that the remake of the tape made in the USA in the 1990s did not succeed, despite the fact that the main role was played by the beloved by the spectators R. Gere, it was just a sentimental story. The hero of Belmondo came out so trustworthy that he truly became a hero of his time, thereby, possibly, rendering the director a disservice. The diagnosis of society and man was so deep that it was perhaps impossible to reach the same director in the future, although Godard made many other films. Among the most famous - "Woman is a woman" (1961), "The Mad Pierrot" (1965), Male to Female (1966), "Two or Three Things I Know About Her" (1967), Here and always (1976), "Save Who Can" (1980), Passion (1982), Our Music (2004). But the movie "On the last breath" was so accurate in social analysis and aesthetic findings that, perhaps, remained the most interesting in the creative biography of Godard. At least, the most famous.

Among the wizards of the "new wave" It's impossible not to single out François Truffaut. His film is considered to be the film "00 beats". He gravitated toward the clarity of genres and the rehabilitation of the low of them. In particular, and about it he is talking in the book "Cinematograph on Hitchcock", published on the basis of his 52-hour conversation with the famous master of suspense. In this book, Truffaut reflects on the metaphysical and psychological basis of Hitchcock's cinema, his directorial ability to engage the viewer in his play. The films of the French director were also always expressive, fascinating and diverse in their genres. Truffaut is a great master of the story about the nature of the sexes. Film critic A. Plakhov noticed that men at Truffaut are infantile, and women are vital. Men, acquiring an everyday experience, - writes Plakhov, - remain inhibited in their development. They are rather pathetic, often cowardly, in hardship they hide in the shade and are endowed with nature "gentle skin". " Women "emit an activity that leads to a tragic outcome of themselves and others, but still this activity is able to inspire and delight." In Neighbor (1981) - one of his latest films - Truffaut clearly demonstrated this, turning neither more nor less to the theme of fatal love. His close study of the passion, the inevitability of the pain that it brings, and often the destruction of the previous life of those who are involved in it, reveals a deep psychologist and a subtle sincere artist. With new wave Truffaut is especially related to his heroes - subtle reflective people, sharply reacting to the injustice of the world. Many of the director's films received fame and recognition: "51 ° Fahrenheit" (1966), American Night (1973), "The History of Adele G." (1975), Green Room (1978), Last Metro (1980), Jolly Sunday (1983).

Among the French filmmakers starting in the new wave, and Claude Chabrol Handsome Serge 1958, "Cousins ​​ (1959), "The Road to Corinth" (1967), "The Wrong Wife" (1968), Butcher (1969), "Let the Beast Die" (1969), Gap (1970), "The Innocent with Dirty Hands" (1975), Hell (1994). In his work, there is a highly controversial narrative, or even the "black detective." This allows Chabrol not only to entertain, but sarcastically reveal hypocrisy, hidden, as always, under beautiful clothes. However, the director paid tribute to classical French literature, having screened, in particular, "Madame Bovary" Post Flaubert in 1991.

Apart from the new wave Louis Mal, but he certainly flesh from the flesh of the 60's. last century. Mal began also with documentary short films, then worked with J.-I. Cousteau (the movie "The World of Silence"), for which he received "Oscar" and the "Golden Palm Branch". His full-fledged directorial debut and original proof of the "sixties" are the movies Elevator on the scaffold (1958) and the "Lovers" (1959).

The existential experience of man in the center of the works of this time, and the love of Louis Mal boldly disposes in this field. It is for him unconditionally a breakthrough beyond the limits of ordinary life and the opportunity to acquire true being. The heroes of the film, submitting to the force of an unexpected attraction, suddenly open this feeling, their souls begin to learn how to love, and this allows them, without hysteria, to simply and calmly leave the world in which they felt quite comfortable quite recently. The dawn of the day, in which lovers leave, is a symbol of true being. They are not at all disturbed by the vague outlines of the future real life together. As if the pledge of her future fullness is a mysterious journey of heroes in a boat on a night lake: the naturalness of nature - forests, water, nights - makes their meeting and choice natural.

One of the features of the creative work of Louis Mal, which distinguished him from the directors of the "new wave", was giving actors complete freedom of action. It is said that Mal sometimes simply turned on the camera and left the studio. He minimized the number of people on the set, believing that it's easier for an actor to be natural. Representatives of the same new wave viewed actors mainly as "material for modeling". Of course, Lovers not the only film by Malia. You can not miss the tape "Zazi in the metro (1960) 1, Three steps in delirium (1963), Black Moon (1975), Adorable child (1978), Milu in May (1989), etc.

Muza Mal in the early period of his work was Jeanne Moreau (born 1928), an actress who expressed a generation in the tapes of many famous directors of this era. In one of her interviews, Moreau described herself as follows: "My strength is only in the utter absence of coquetry, in honesty and a strong desire to get what I want." It seems that these personal characteristics can be attributed to the creativity of the actress. Jeanne Moreau and on the screen embodied femininity without coquetry, dignity without hypocrisy and intellect without boredom.

French cinema 1950-1960's. in general gave the world a large number of actors who have become beloved in different parts of the world. Among them are J. Gaben, M. Morgan, J. Mare, J. Moreau, J. Philip, J.-L. Trintignant, J.-P. Belmondo, S. Signoret, I. Montand, A. Delon, B. Bardot, F. Ardan, J. Depardieu and many others. A special place in French cinema is occupied by actors, who were mainly shot in comedy movies, a genre especially loved by the viewer. Among them are Burwil (Andre Robert Rembor), L. de Funes, P. Richard.

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