State's foreign policy image
The concept of the state's foreign policy image, its characteristics, content and types
Along with ethnic stereotypes in the system of international relations, intercultural communication and international cultural exchange, the foreign policy image of states plays an important role. The attractive image of the state provides him with a number of competitive advantages: it helps attract tourists (hence the inflow of financial resources), creates a favorable climate for investing in the economy, science, education (and, as a result, improving the lives of citizens), facilitates contacts in all spheres of public life and cultural life, forms a positive psychological mood of citizens and society as a whole.
There are quite a few approaches to shaping the definition of the country's foreign policy image.
According to the definition of the World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ), the foreign policy (international) image of the country is a set of emotional and rational representations resulting from the comparison of all the signs of the country, own experience, rumors affecting the creation of a certain image .
The own definition of the foreign policy image of the state is given by the well-known United States expert on political PR EA Kalumov. He characterizes the state's foreign policy image as a complex of objective, interrelated characteristics of the state system (economy, geography, demography, culture, etc.), development of the state as a complex, multifaceted subsystem of the world order, efficiency the interaction of its links determines the tendencies of socio-economic, socio-political, national-confessional and other processes in the country. "
Remember to remember
In the most general terms, the foreign policy image of the state - is a set of ideas about this state that are formed in the external environment.
There is a certain classification of foreign policy images of the state. So, it is customary to allocate:
• private image image, emerging in the process of independent acquaintance with the country;
• official - the result and object of public policy;
• objective - the impression of the country, which exists in the majority of internal and external public;
• simulated is formed as a result of the activities of the team of the country's leader and image-makers;
• Primary is formed and focused in consciousness as a result of primary acquaintance with the country;
• secondary is formed as a result of transformation in the eyes of the public, preserves the basic principles and acquires new features.
• real image - the perception of the state by the target audience, which has developed at the current moment after a complex of advertising and other influences. In a real image, generalized knowledge, cultural, historical and social stereotypes can be reflected; values and traditions;
• Desired is the product of perception, image, self image that the state would like to generate from its target audience and which increases the effectiveness of achieving key results;
• necessary is a perception of the state that really improves the effectiveness of achieving key results.
As a rule, the state has a number of objective images: social, economic, humanitarian, political, cultural, environmental, etc. They can be both positive, hack and negative. They can vary depending on the situation, therefore, they can be formed in certain interests. At the same time, the basic features of the image can be preserved, while the surface features that reflect new realities can change.
The image of the country has the following basic features :
• It is simplified, emphasizes its specificity, uniqueness;
• is symbolic, since a large amount of information about the country is reduced to a set of certain symbols;
• specific, mobile, changeable, adaptable to a specific situation;
• Idealizes the country, emphasizing its beneficial features, and sometimes giving them, and disadvantages, on the contrary, are hidden;
• takes the middle place between the real and the desired.
The images of states can differ in the way they are formed. The state's foreign policy image can be created purposefully , through various political and diplomatic means and technologies, as a result of propaganda and manipulative actions, and also naturally - in the process of intercultural communication, international cultural contacts, as a result of acquaintance of different peoples with each other, within the framework of popular, cultural and public diplomacy.
The image of the country is based on objective, real characteristics of the state, but, as a rule, greatly exaggerated, idealized and even mythologized.
Also, the formation of the state's foreign policy image is influenced by two groups of factors:
1) subjective: representations about the political goals of the state, its political leaders, political resources and influence; on the level of development of democracy, the image of this state among other representatives of the international political process; about the people of the given state and its mentality;
2) objective: the basic form of government and management structure, the level of economic development, characterized by a number of economic indicators and indices, and the armed forces, natural and geographical location and natural resources, the history of the state, the main tracks , left to them in international politics; other factors: the level of development of culture and science, a place in the international division of labor, tourism development, environmental situation, etc.
Among these factors, the perception of only the first group is amenable to a significant adjustment through a targeted information policy and PR -mechanisms. However, these tools are objective, therefore it is practically impossible to change the perception of the second group of factors with their help.
Usually, communications are considered as the main mechanisms of forming the image of the country. There are several entities that provide the state with communication image communications.
1. The state in the person of representatives of authority; bodies of legislative and executive power.
2. Diplomatic service.
3. Media (domestic and foreign).
4. Non-governmental organizations.
5. State and public cultural organizations, foreign cultural centers.
6. Scientists, representatives of creative professions, athletes, individuals.
The image of the state is a complex phenomenon, specially modeled, purposefully formed in order to enhance the state's competitiveness on the world stage and to emphasize its competitive advantages. In turn, the presence of a favorable, attractive image should help the state in realizing its foreign policy goals and observing national interests.
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