First Dada Manifesto
Ball wrote a manifesto for the first evening of the Dadaists in Zurich (1916). Next Dada Manifesto (1918), the author of this direction was the poet Tristan Tzara. Later he recalled:
By 1916-1917, the war seemed established forever and the end it could not be seen. Hence the disgust and anger. We were determined against the war, we knew that wars would not be canceled if we were to root it out. All manifestations of this modern civilization were disgusting to us - its very foundations, its logic, its language. And then the indignation took on forms in which the grotesque and absurd took precedence over aesthetic values.
Principles of Creativity
Tzara said: "We do not recognize any theories." Enough of all academies, cubism and futurism. " However, in a number of cases, Tzara acted as a theorist, justifying and formulating the basic principles of Dada. The postulate of Dada was Tzara's formula: "Thought is formed in the mouth". Later from this postulate surrealistic technique of "disconnection of the mind", "automatic writing" was born. The principles of Dadaism are: a break with the traditions of world culture, including with the traditions of the language; flight from culture and from reality, the idea of the world as a chaos of insanity, in which a defenseless person is brought down; pessimism, unbelief, denial of values, a sense of general loss and meaninglessness of being, the destruction of ideals and the goal of life.
Dadaism is an expression of the crisis of classical cultural values, the search for a new language and new values. Dada is a suicide of the spirit, a painful sense of impotence of the spirit before the spontaneous course of things. A special type of perverted pleasure from spoiling spiritual values. Dadaists turn upside down classic images and exquisitely vulgarize them. This creates a portrait of Gioconda with antennae, and this is a Dadaist deed, although it is committed by the famous surrealist Salvador Dali, but we will not forget about the organic connection between Dadaism and surrealism.
Ribmon-Dessin wrote: "St. Virgo was Dadaist. If you find all your ideas useless and ridiculous, then know that Dada begins to talk to you.
According to the definition of one of the dictionaries (Barnet S., Berman M., Burton W., 1971), Dadaism is a direction that revises reason and faith. Attempts to avoid verbal clichés led to the creation of "senseless" texts.
T. Tzara in the African poems sought to destroy the meaning artistic work. He carried out the principle of Dadaism he proclaimed: "Dada does not mean anything."
Dadaism and Surrealism
One of the main works of Tzara - "The first heavenly adventure of Mr. Antipirin (1916). After the war, he moved to Paris (1919) and became close to the surrealists A. Breton and F. Suco, who published the magazine "Literature". Together with them, Tzara published something like a new manifesto "Literature of the Dada", where it was stated that poetry is a living force in any manifestations, even antipoetic, and literary creation is only a random manifestation of this living power.
The collaboration of Tzara, Breton and Soupo led to the merger of Dadaism with surrealism, which was marked by public actions: the representations of the "Gas Heart" (1921) and the "Bearded Heart" (1923) on the scenarios of Tzara. However, the conflict between Tzara and Breton soon flared up.
Changing the principles of artists and anticipation
Dadaism sought to be artless and rejected all previous artistic traditions. Dadaism significantly changed the very principles of the artists. He shifted the scope of their activities away from traditional traditional arts and anticipated the postmodern types of creativity that have become characteristic of pop art, happening and photorealism. Dadaists for the first time exhibited a bicycle wheel on a stool, a bottle dryer, chanted recited texts from newspapers, were inclined to collective actions without a solid program, "played" with various photography techniques (Man Ray) and photomontage.
Dadaists loved the masquerade actions and shocking of the society and its tastes: for example, Duchamp dressed like a woman, Gross walked through the streets wearing a dead man's mask, and Duchamp and Ray created absurdist cars. In the 20-ies. Dadaists conducted the first experiments, anticipating pop art, op-art and kinetic art: they produced rotating from the electric motor colored discs.
Duchamp, anticipating the principles of pop art, sought to impart an artistic status to utilitarian subjects, depriving them of a functional meaning. He exhibited in the exhibition of ineffective and illogical items, giving them absurd names. So, a bird cage with a piece of sugar was called: "Why do not I sneeze?".
So they, in their opinion, "took Dada's point of view with respect to Dada."
The last manifesto of Dadaism emphasized the nihilism of his positions. Manifestoes were collected and published in 1924. The creativity of the Dadaists had almost no effect on the life of society, since it did not have a positive program. Dadaism has not created permanent art values and is interesting for the theory and history of art only as a link in the artistic process, which has determined much in its further development, and in particular as a phenomenon that has influenced such a large artistic direction as surrealism.
Inheritance of traditions and some principles of Dadaism surrealism, and later happening and pop art.
Dadaism arose suddenly and just as suddenly ended, having existed for about ten years. In 1927 students of the Paris Art School drowned in the Seine the figure of a straw horse they made - the personification of Dadaism. Previously, these same students drowned the personification of Cubism and Futurism.
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