The formation of intercultural communication as a scientific discipline
The formation of scientific approaches to the study of communication processes
Intercultural communication - a rather young science that originated in the middle of the 20th century, although its foundations date back to the middle of the 19th century. For the first time, the term communication In 1848, the famous American researcher, mathematician Claude Shannon (1916-2001), was the author of a number of research papers on the subject of cybernetics, informatics, psychology, sociology. ), based on the writings of his predecessors, published a monograph "Mathematical Theory of Communication", where he examined the technical aspects of the information transfer process.
Significant contribution to the development of the communication problem was made by Andrei Markov (1856-1922), a United States mathematician, an academician who made a great contribution to probability theory, mathematical analysis and number theory; Ralph Hartley (1888-1970), an American electronic scientist who contributed to the theory of information by introducing a logarithmic measure of information in 1928, and Norbert Wiener (1894-1964), an American scientist, an outstanding mathematician and philosopher, the founder of cybernetics and the theory of artificial intelligence. In their studies for the first time, the idea of transferring information was considered and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the communication process itself was undertaken.
Thus, the sources of interest in the study of communication as an independent science are associated with the development of cybernetics, the mathematical theory of communication and electronic communication systems.
A new impulse of scientific interest in the problem of communication dates back to the mid-twentieth century, when a new scientific direction arose at the junction of interest in the study of communication and culture.
There are several periods in the development of intercultural communication as a science.
In the 1950-1960-ies the most scientific interest was the ways of formalizing the message, encoding and decoding it, transferring information from the addressee to the addressee ( cybernetics and informatics). Considerable interest among scientists was caused by questions of information transfer from the addressee to the addressee, encoding and formatting of the message. In 1954, this field of communication was first considered by the American scientists George Trager (1906-1992) and Edward Hall ( 1914-2009) in the study "Culture as Communication. Analysis Model & quot ;. During this period, the conceptual framework of intercultural communication is established.
In the 1960-1970's. in the study of various aspects of the process of communication included psychologists and linguists, made the main emphasis on the psychological and social characteristics of communication, the rules and features of speech behavior. Communication is defined as a business or friendly relationship, the exchange of thoughts with the help of linguistic signs.
In addition, in the 1960s. there is a cross-cultural psychology as a separate direction in American psychology. The problems of developing adequate methods of cross-cultural research and the need for international cooperation in this field led to the creation of the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology, which began to study the problems of adaptation to foreign cultures.
At about the same time, practical training begins on the basics of intercultural communication for politicians, businessmen, social and cultural workers, international relations, who, according to their duty, must go abroad and find themselves in a foreign culture.
In the 1960's. the first journals were published which dealt with the problems of culture, language, communication, for example, the International and Intercultural Communication Annual, the International Journal of Intercultural Relations. .
In the 1970s. In the framework of international cross-cultural studies, another independent scientific problem has emerged that is related to the study of inter-ethnic differences: Harry Trianandis (born 1926), one of the leading American psychologists specializing in sphere of intercultural psychology, introduced the term cultural syndrome & quot ;. The author conducted a study of the attributes of cultural differences along the axis of "individualism - collectivism"; and made a significant contribution to the methodology of cross-cultural research.
Remember to remember
The original term intercultural communication was introduced in the scientific revolution in 1972 in a textbook by L. Samovar and R. Porter, "Communication among cultures" ( Communication between Cultures ). The authors analyzed the features of intercultural communication that arose in the process of interaction between representatives of different cultures.
In the 1980s , the methods of communication began to be studied by sociologists engaged in the analysis of the social essence of communication. Then there was a cultural interest in communication, which was satisfied within the framework of socio- and psycholinguistics. Within the framework of these scientific directions it became possible to connect the communicative process with the personality of the participant in communication, understand communication as a phenomenon of one or another type of culture. In the early 1980's. recognition of the diversity of cultural styles has become a valuable and productive factor in the development of American society, the legal underpinning of the rights of various cultural minorities. A search is being made for possible areas of intercultural differences.
In the 1990-2000 , an interdisciplinary approach to the study of communication processes was outlined. Communication began to be considered in terms of international political studies (for example, political communications).
In the future, intercultural communication was considered even more widely, in this area of research were identified areas such as translation theory, teaching foreign languages, comparative culturology, sociology, psychology, etc.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay