Globalization processes, Historical stages of globalization...

Chapter 31. Globalization processes

31.1. Historical stages of globalization

Actively in demand at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. concept globalization is not limited in application only to this time: its use on a broader scale allows us to see the world history as a kind of single whole, consisting of several stages. In this case, the histories of individual countries and peoples are considered as constituent parts of this whole, mediated and contributing to its development some original or specific component. This concept allows us to see the unevenness of world development, its fragmentation, but at the same time - to catch a certain tendency, which not always clearly, but nevertheless paves the way as a tendency to interdependence and interaction of all mankind. In this sense, globalization is a never-ending process of integration between different states and civilizations, which is about to end. In other words, globalization always has a relative, not an absolute character: first, in the era of antiquity, it embraces the well-known ancient Oikumene; then in the Middle Ages, the spaces of Eurasia and North Africa; Later in New time also America and Australia. However, even modern globalization with its information technologies and "transparency" The borders do not cover the whole world economically and politically; many traditional and semi-traditional societies remain outside the borders, and some civilizations and regions (including Russia) participate in it only partially.

So, the beginning of globalization is lost in the depths of centuries. So many authors interpret globalization, singling out its main historical periods (stages, cycles).

The pre-modern period is the first period of globalization in which the planet was populated. It began about 9-11 thousand years ago. The three main vehicles of globalization at that time were: political and belligerent empires, world religions and migratory movements, both steppe nomads and agrarian societies. World empires that existed at that time (Indian civilization, the Chinese Empire under the Han dynasty, the Western Roman Empire) - although they were subject to globalization processes, but they are not comparable in scale to the current level. Among world religions, the researchers place a special role in the realization of globalization on the phenomenon that arose in the sixth century. Islam. The third conductor of globalization was the movement of the conquerors, among them - the Germanic tribes, which in the 5th century BC. They conquered the Western Roman Empire and settled in Western Europe and North Africa; and in the period from XII to XIV century. - Mongols.

The assessments of these historical processes today are not unanimous, and moreover, they are measured in different spheres: cultural, military, political. For example, assessing the significance of the warlike nomads of the Eurasian steppes in the implementation of globalization trends, note that "their military prowess was not accompanied by cultural innovations. Their movements and conquests led rather not to a transformation, but to the strengthening of previous cultural patterns. " This stage of globalization is offered to characterize as a kind of subtle globalization.

The next stage of globalization is usually called the early modern stage of globalization, which falls on the period around 1500-1850. He also has another name: expansionist globalization. This is the time of the formation of the new European culture, which could not have arisen, if the mechanism of cultural interaction as continuity had not been put into action. European innovation and European expansion relied not only on inventions that were made in Europe, but also on Eurasian technologies that have become known to Europeans and adapted by them. The driving force behind this period of globalization was demographic and ecological flows. The new forms of economic globalization began to gain momentum. At this historical stage, Russia persistently mastered the vast plains and tundras of Central Asia and Siberia, extending its territories to these territories and approaching the Pacific coast. But most of all, the processes of globalization of this time were manifested in Europe itself. As for the part of Asia that was outside India, the impact of these global processes has not been met with any response. The cultural, military and political potentials of the major power structures of this region for the most part of the period under review were minimized and had almost no effect on the internal life of the Asian countries.

The modern era of globalization began around 1850-1945, which was marked by a sharply increased influence of the Western economy and culture. This stage of intensive, broad or multi-faceted globalization was sharply and unexpectedly stopped by the First World War that began. It was an era in which the violent forms of globalization acquired a truly enormous scope. The influence of cultural interrelations also increased, although it was very different from the impact it had previously had. This period has witnessed the circulation, spread and influence of secular Western ideologies and discourses, whereas earlier epochs were characterized, in the main, by religious discourses. The influence of Marxism, liberalism, nationalism and science, although at first it was fragmentary and affected exclusively elite groups, ultimately contributed to significant changes in the culture, identities and skills of the social life of the peoples of the world. The great countries of the world (Russia, America) established and re-established global interconnections. Other countries and states played a subordinate role within these global structures, in different ways and in varying degrees depended on them. The consequences of this stage of globalization were reflected in the fact that Western secular ideologies, which contributed to the emergence of nationalist and communist movements, and the restructuring of the traditional consciousness peculiar to elite representatives, spread.

The newest stage of globalization began after the end of World War II. Different states and social groups living in these states are very differently involved in these flows of globalization. The intensity of global flows and interrelations, depending on the national and local situation, also remains unbalanced in different areas. As for culture, on the whole, it is impossible not to see the colossal strengthening of global and regional cooperation in all its spheres. This newest stage of globalization has some signs of what can be attributed to deep, or diffuse globalization.

And, finally, the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. It was marked by flows, the nature of which contributed to the emergence of the concept of "accelerated" globalization. When characterizing the various processes taking place in the modern world, one can notice that the processes of universalization of culture are hampered by oppositely directed actions that promote the preservation of the identity of local, traditional cultures, sometimes leading to deliberate hypertrophy of the national or ethnic. It is not by chance that in this connection such movements as anti-globalization, alternative globalization developed.

All these processes do not have a linear dimension, for in all the streams of globalization there is a coexistence of two tendencies: integration and differentiation, which form individual cycles as a result of interaction. As a result of each of these cycles, the international economic and political system, the sphere of culture become more extensive, more universal and more multifaceted. As a result of the first such cycle (the wave of differentiation of VIII-IV centuries BC, the wave of integration of the III century BC - II century AD), the international system included not only the Mediterranean and the Middle East, but in part China and India. As a result of the second cycle (III-XIII centuries), the emerging international system also included North-Western Europe, Russia (Russia), Central Asia; The apotheosis of this cycle was the formation in the 13th century. the vast Mongolian empire, which not only included Central Asia, China, Rus, and Transcaucasia, but also maintained close trade and political ties with Italian city-states, and through them - with the whole of Western Europe. Finally, during the third cycle (from the fourteenth century), the formation of the international economic and political system went far beyond Eurasia, including the New World, Africa, Australia and covering the whole world. Nevertheless, the internal coherence of this system is still far from the limit; in fact, only from the end of the XX century. it begins to gain internal connectivity - technological, information, economic, political, financial, cultural.

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