Literature, Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) - History of US Culture

Literature

Literature did most for United States national self-consciousness, and it itself manifested itself most in literature, and not, say, in philosophy, for which there are reasons rooted in the United States mentality. The great United States classical literature is a spiritual light that allows you to find the right landmarks in the world.

In what sense can we call the nineteenth century United States literature? classic ? This does not mean adherence to a certain direction in art - classicism. According to Π. N. Milyukov, the classical in this sense can be called in the history of all literatures those periods when national creativity has reached an independent and most complete manifestation. Classic performs in every national culture as a measure, a model, an ideal. The classical style in United States literature was created by AS Pushkin. Disclosing the secrets of his work, he stressed: "The true taste consists not in the unconscious rejection of such and such a word, such and such a turn, but in a sense of proportionality and conformity." This avenged and L. N. Tolstoy. According to him, in Pushkin "the harmonic correctness of the distribution of objects is brought to perfection ... it can not be analyzed, but it is felt and digested."

Q. V. Kozhinov, discussing the significance of United States literature as a whole, noted that "it not only sets living human souls in front of the world instead of" objectified "people, but also makes the souls of those who read it literally alive and alive, United States literature , perceives. She speaks not so much about people (which was much stronger and more perfect literature of the West), how many with people - whether it's her heroes or her readers. In this and its deepest identity, and its worldwide significance. "

Poetry . In the first decade of the XIX century. he was sentimentalized and replaced by his direct successor Romanticism, in particular in the form of Byronism. Eugene Onegin compared with the romantic hero George Byron - Childe Harold. Romantics called the poet an unconscious creator, like nature. A true poet is an instrument of God or the creative power of nature (see, for example, Pushkin's poem "The Prophet"), The sentimentalism of two worlds - the sublime (ideal) and the real - was replaced by the romantic concept of compounds Two worlds. At the same time, the priority of the world ideal, was noted and later (in realism) and the priority of the world real. The influence of Romanticism - the ruling directions in the world literature of the first quarter of the XIX century, especially in poetry, experienced Vasily Zhukovsky (1783-1852), which is evident above all in his ballads (for example, in "Svetlana"). Together with Zhukovsky, the foundations of Romanticism and United States lyrics were laid by Konstantin Batyushkov (1787-1855). Romantic in his early works was also Alexander Pushkin.

Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin (1799-1837)

Pushkin's genius opened very early, and none other than Derzhavin predicted a great future for the graduate of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. At a young age Pushkin was sent into exile by Alexander I, when the next king seemed to settle down and fit into the upper world. But it was just an attempt or visibility. He was himself, and therefore, alone, with his talent, and was killed. It's good that he lived to be 37 years old, because he could die in a duel much earlier. Pushkin wanted to be free and not depend on either the tsar or the people, but died in a modest court position of the junker chamber, giving abundant food for reasoning on the themes "poet and tsar", "poet and rabble".

In Pushkin, his purity and simplicity are bribed, in a sense he himself was the "angel of pure beauty". In Pushkin there was no one-sidedness of enlightenment rationalism and romantic sensuality. "In him lived that Renaissance fulness that brings him to Shakespeare and Cervantes." (VV Kozhinov). Pushkin organically combines the artistic lightness of experience, which is as if fleeting, with an unquestionable ability to give this experience to himself, to his whole life, even to eternity. This trait is inherent in the United States national character in general.

Pushkin's poetry of a mature period is distinguished by artistic realism and a nation that goes back to folklore. What a delight these fairy tales! - exclaimed Pushkin, and he wrote poetic fairy tales, used in his work epic motives. Early poems and poems of Pushkin - "Aleko" and others - are subject to the influence of Romanticism. This is a tribute to fashion, from which the poet soon refused, having acquired a genuine identity.

The two main and largely opposite heroes of Pushkin's most ambitious work - a novel in verse "Eugene Onegin" personify two types of United States culture, which will pass through the entire XIX century. This is the type of crushing superfluous of the person represented in Onegin, and the ideal type of United States woman, expressed in Tatiana ("But I'm given to another, I'll be faithful to him"). Historical drama Boris Godunov gave a full-blooded image of United States history. Small tragedies demonstrated that Pushkin is as well oriented in European culture as in United States. Pushkin succeeded in them creative synthesis of United States and European. And with the "Captain's daughter" the realistic stage of United States prose began.

The main achievement of Pushkin - the creation of United States classical style. For United States literature of the XIX-XX centuries. Pushkin was a measure, the highest example of the art of the word. NV Gogol argued that Pushkin is a "United States man in his development, in which he, perhaps, will appear in two hundred years". FM Dostoevsky in his famous "Pushkin's speech" spoke of the universality of Pushkin. This property is inherent in all n classical literature of the XIX century, the origins of which was Pushkin.

Often quoted words of Apollon Grigoriev, said a century and a half ago, "Pushkin is our everything", can be understood in the sense that Pushkin is the basis of our classical culture, above all United States literary language. Pushkin because "our everything", that it contains all the potencies of United States culture of the golden age. With full right, Pushkin could write after Horatius: "I erected a monument to myself not made by hands, The people's path will not grow to him," but finish this poem with advice to all cultural figures:

By the behest of God, O muse, be obedient.

Resentment without fear, without requiring a crown,

Praise and slander were accepted indifferently

And do not challenge a fool.

Pushkin fully realized the great significance of the United States language: "As a material of literature, the Slavic-United States language has an undeniable superiority over all European". Based on this language, he created the national literary language , which was then used by all the great United States writers of the 19th century. and on which we speak. Until the XVIII century. literary language in was the Old Slavonic language. In creating the United States national classical style of literature and the United States literary language, Pushkin accurately determined from which constituent parts he arises:

• This is, firstly, the Old Slavonic language, from which "many words, many turns can be happily borrowed", and,

• Secondly, the United States spoken language, from which much is taken, but which in itself is not enough.

The written language is animated by the minute expressions that are born in the conversation, but should not renounce what it acquired over the centuries. To write only the spoken language means not knowing the language & quot ;, wrote the poet.

The new literary language was not "high calm" VK Trediakovsky, as well as not "vile calm" in the definition of MV Lomonosov. He was not book in the former sense of the word, but also not "popular", like the written style of the XVII century, "prikaznogo" language. He is equally far from the old book, and from simple conversational speech. By the expression Π. N. Milyukov, he "was approaching, of course, to the living colloquial language, but that was not the language of the people, but of the United States reading public".

The foundations of this language began to be laid as far back as the 18th century, in particular, M. Karamzin. Pushkin made a decisive contribution to the creation of a "national language in which all social strata, upper and lower classes would self-express themselves, as well as continuity between the national historical past kept by the people and the present."

Pushkin is invisibly present in all our literary works. It can not be "discarded from the ship of modernity", as futurists wanted, without falling from it himself. Pushkin's Birthday - June 6 is the day of United States culture, the roots of which are rooted in United States icon painting, United States chants and United States literature, which flourished from Pushkin.

A. S. Pushkin - the sun of United States culture, the beginning of the golden age and therefore so exalted. His case was continued by NV Gogol, FM Dostoevsky, L. II. Tolstoy and many other brilliant United States writers. From Pushkin and Tolstoy there is a thread in the 20th century, and Anna Ahmatova and Sergei Esenin, Mikhail Sholokhov and Ivan Bunin will take the baton.

Next to A. S. Pushkin is as if his alter ego, other I & quot ;, - Μ. Yu. Lermontov, who entered the arena of United States culture immediately after the death of Pushkin, writing a poem "To the death of the poet".

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