Literature and Music, Light, Sound, Smell, Happening...

Literature and Music

The presence in the happenings of the anticipatory and somewhat organizing action of the libretto brings happening to the literature.

In music, happening is akin to an aleatoric. They are brought together: (1) increasing the role of the theatrical spectacle, focusing on the performing process, creativity in front of spectators and listeners; (2) the role of the improvisational principle, the introduction of a probability-random element into a product.

Light, sound, smell

Happenings use light painting: the light continually changes color and strength, is directed directly to the actor or shines through the screens of different materials. Often it is accompanied by sound effects (human voices, music, tinkling, crackling, grinding). The sound is sometimes very strong, unexpected, calculated for the shock effect. Slides and film shots are included in the presentation. Sometimes used and aromatic substances.

Heppening: Gilbert and George on Parafizo Street. 1972

Happening. Gilbert and George on Parafizo Street. 1972

The English Gilbert and Jones proclaimed themselves to be living sculptures, and their lives - a constant creative process


Heppening and Theater

The theorist of the happening M. Kirby refers this kind of spectacle to the theater, although he notes that happening is different from the theater in the absence of the traditional structure of the play: plot, characters and conflict.

Heppening is an unusually effective innovation, at one stroke it sweeps away many old forms: dull theatrical buildings, an unattractively decorated curtain, unattractive ticketers, wardrobes, programs, buffets. (Brook, 1976, p. 100). Peter Brook identifies three essential signs of happening: "an unusually effective innovation", "one stroke" and lots of dead forms & quot ;.

Heppenings in its structure - the art of "performance" with the obligatory inclusion of the "attraction", about which Sergei Eisenstein said: "Attraction (in the context of the theater) every aggressive moment of the theater, that is, every element of it that exposes the viewer to a sensual or psychological effect" (Eisenstein, 1964, p. 270).

One of the creators of happening American El Hensen emphasizes the collage character of happening:

As a trial definition of happenings, I would take this: they are theatrical works in the manner of the collage ... Happening is a collage of situations and events occurring in space in a certain period of time (Cited by: Kryukova, 1985. P. 248).

Heppening and painting

Some researchers associate the nature of happenings with painting and sculpture, and not with the theater. So, in the early 60-ies, collage researchers U. Seitz, H. Dzhemis and R. Blish emphasized the similarity of this form of painting with happening. The experiences of the Italian futurist artist U. Boccioni, who combined various materials in sculpture, the collages of J. Braque and P. Picasso and the combinations that create the "environment", "environment" (okr-art as the flow of pop art), organically go into the "environment-with-action", that is, happening. M. Kirby points out that these provisions, if they do not explain happening, at least connect him intellectually with his most important predecessors.

With its origins, happening goes back to artistic searches of the beginning of the 20th century, to attempts by some painters and sculptors to shift the emphasis from a painting or sculpture to the very process of their creation. In other words, happening takes its origins also in the "action painting": in "splattering" J. Pollock, in the "whipping" blows with De Kooning's brush, in the costumed scenic performances of J. Mathieu.

Painting Actions had an expressive pantomime form. The artist at the same time turns into an actor-mime, depicting the process of creativity. The audience focuses not so much on the result, as on the process of writing the picture. It was from these searches that the happenings began to appear in their formation, in which the varieties gradually began to appear: "randomness", "occupations", "theater of the environment".

thematic pictures

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