Morphology of Culture - History of Culturology

11.3. Morphology of Culture

Each culture has its own specific symbol, from which the real history of this culture grows. Each culture is thought of by O. Spengler as possessing the "soul". Culture as the formation of "souls" there is a pure possibility, but, taken as its "corporal" embodiment in spatially located objective forms, appears to be a reality. Culture dies when this soul has realized everything without the remainder of the opportunity in the form of peoples, languages, creeds, arts, states, sciences, and thereby again returns to a pious state. "

Mythology of the "becoming of life" appears in O.Spengler's constructions as a universal key to the resolution of all historically existing cultures. Pulsation life within the culture leads to the passage of the stages of birth, growth, aging and death, which are realized in interaction with social forces that are constant companions of history and dressed in different clothes. Life is comprehensible only through the category of "fate", because it is "fate" with its eternal way of birth, growth, aging and death, and the development of each culture selected by it is set. Thus, O.Spengler's interpretation of the story is fatalistic and inclines to mysticism, for the people, who are under the charm of culture, turn out to be both in their internal form and in their entirety not creators, but works of this culture. "

The thinker denies the cultural and historical unity of mankind, calling it "empty sound". He does not accept the established scheme of dividing history into the Ancient World, the Middle Ages and the New Times. He suggests looking at mankind from a monstrous distance, looking at cultures that are like mountaintops on the horizon. Only after these great cultures are seen, felt and revealed in their physiognomic meaning, only then the essence and internal form of human history can be considered clarified. Since only then it is possible to comprehend every fact of the historical picture, every thought, every art, every war, every person, every era. This confidence of O.Spengler is caused by his conviction in the total permeability of a single soul of all the components of each culture.

In world history, he distinguishes eight types of cultures that have arisen at different times in the most remote areas of the planet and have reached their full development: Egyptian, Indian, Babylonian, Chinese, Arab-Byzantine (magical), Greco-Roman (Apollonian), Western European (Faustian) and Mayan culture. In the process of occurrence is the United States Siberian culture. Along with these, there are also not reached the maturity of the culture, whose role is not great. In more detail, cultures are analyzed: Greco-Roman, Byzantine-Arabian and Western European cultures.

Culture, like the body, has the most rigid end-to-end unity, and is isolated from other similar cultures. It is unique and unique, which manifests itself in philosophy, art, political order and so on. The researcher denies the phenomenon of cultural continuity and mutual influence, although he draws attention to the fact that "every growing man and every living culture constantly has around him countless possible influences, of which as such are allowed only a few, the overwhelming number of them does not pass. Who makes the selection - deeds or people? & Quot ;. Transmitted are not meanings, but only the form itself. Therefore, O. Spengler, for example, on the philosophy of Aristotle argues that it should write a history of "three Aristotle", namely Greek, Arabic and Gothic, which have no common notion, no common thought. The lack of continuity, he thoroughly proves in the example of the history of Roman law, arguing that Arabic law has learned foreign, imposed literature in the only form that could have significance for their own worldview; that if ancient law was created by citizens on the basis of practical experience, then the Arab originates from God, who proclaims it through the spirit of the called and enlightened. The history of Western law begins quite independently of its predecessors. Therefore, speech should not be about continuity, but about three history of law, connected by itself only with elements of linguistic and syntactic form.

In connection with O. Spengler's assertion about the impenetrability of the "local" cultures, the so-called Spengler paradox is clearly recorded, wittily noticed by R. Aron, as O. Spengler claims to describe the fate of cultures.

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