Philosophical and aesthetic foundations, Vneistorizm...

Philosophical and aesthetic foundations

Surrealism is the direction of spiritual life, influenced by German Romanticism, A. Bergson's intuitionism and Freud's psychoanalysis. The principle of surrealism: the non-interference of the intellect in the creation of a work, the uncontrollability of creativity. Only such a creative process helps to comprehend and depict reality that goes beyond the apparent reality. Only the unconscious can be adequately transcendentally experienced reality. Only the unconscious is able to give a figurative vision of the world through the similarity of being both. In the creative process, artistic results are given only by the subconscious (dreams, meditation, hallucinations, dreams, associations that cause excitation).

The aesthetics and artistic practice of surrealism are influenced by the intuitionism of Henri Bergson, the philosophy of Wilhelm Dilthey and especially Freudianism. Surrealism is the artistic embodiment of agnosticism: it proceeds from the fact that the artist is surrounded by unknowable "things in themselves", and behind real phenomena is a certain superreality.

The intuitionistic principles of the "superreal connection" artist and the world - the program of the creator and his creativity, the reader and his perception.

The generality of the original aesthetic postulates of Romanticism and Surrealism is still relative, largely external and does not capture their artistic concepts. Unlike Romantics, the artistic thought of the surrealists is illogical, there are arbitrarily capricious associations and bizarre comparisons.

The artist, according to the surrealistic aesthetics, has the right not to reckon with reality. The work is a world in which the poet is a creator god. Art removes the veil from reality, creates a second, "true" reality is surreal. This involves the absolutization of the miraculous and its transformation into the leading category of a person's aesthetic relation to the world: "There is nothing but a miraculous" (A. Breton). The reality of the superreal, the authenticity of the mysterious and mysterious, the improbability of everyday becomes the sphere of the artist's interests. Paul Eluard, for example, believed that there are as many wonders in a glass of water as there are in the depths of the ocean.

For surrealism, man and the world, space and time are fluid and relative. They lose borders. Aesthetic relativism is proclaimed: everything flows, everything is distorted, shifted, spreads; there is nothing definite. Surrealism affirms the relativity of the world and its values. There are no boundaries between happiness and misfortune, personality and society. The chaos of the world provokes the chaos of artistic thinking - this is the principle of aesthetics of surrealism. Realists (I. Beher) object: "This is a mistake ... as if chaos can be depicted from a chaotic point of view. The more confusing the confusion, the more chaotic the chaos, the clearer, orderly, the more realistic they should be in the minds of those who feel called to portray them. "

Surrealism suggests that readers and viewers are tuned to the wave artist and are imbued with what he "wanted to say".


Surrealism is fundamentally non-historical: "My creativity has always evolved in a break with time and laws, it has sought to avoid all historical and geographical correlations" (Saint-Jean-Pierce). In the works of Salvador Dali, the reality disappears, it spreads like a clock dripping from the table in one of the paintings of this artist. Time and space spread out like a dough. The story disappears. & Indifference to history (R. Shar); There is no story other than the history of the soul (S. J. Pers.); "Indifference to everything in the world (A. Breton) - proclaims surrealism.

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