Poetic attitude to nature in the ancient Slavs
According to NA Afanasyev, "the myth is the oldest poetry", and the man himself "was a poet". In poetry, the unity of man with nature continues to live, which may no longer be in real practice. It is from this gap between theory and practice that the actual poetic attitude to nature begins, which loses its immediate cosmic dimension (though it burrows into it) and becomes what is called lyricism. Thus, it is advisable to distinguish the poetic attitude to nature in the broad sense of the word, which is inherent in culture and at the stage of language formation, and at the stage of mythological unity with nature, and < strong> in the narrow sense, applied to the field of art, although the latter is of course connected with mythology and word-making.
Famous rock carvings, allowing to speak about the origin of art, belong to the era of the Upper Paleolithic. There is no point in analyzing the causes of the genesis of art in detail, but some interesting considerations can be cited. In Paleolithic art, mythological moments attract attention, for example the image of a sorcerer in a deer mask with branched horns, scribbled in the center of the cave, "Three Brothers" in the Pyrenees.
"However, a man disguised as a deer," observes BL Rybakov, "could not even be a sorcerer, but simply a hunter with a deer skin on himself in order to sneak closer to a reindeer herd during a hunt. Very convincing is the view that such an industrial overhaul spawned magic and was one of the thrusts to totemic thinking. "
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The possibility of such industrial overexploitation was apparently determined by the characteristic property of the nervous system of animals and especially of hominids - they itatogenicity, a tendency to imitate the behavior of other creatures, which is to a large extent typical of modern monkeys. The latter is important for various forms of human unity with the animal world. Thus, the magic is deduced by Rybakov from the practical tasks of the ancient man, and the art, whose formation is closely connected with magic, has the grounds to derive from the needs of magic or to represent it as a kind of compensatory means. Apparently, for the ancient man, as, indeed, for the modern, the significance was both of those and other functions of art.
The art is aimed at performing practical tasks and at the same time perfectly, it reflects and imagines. What is the incentive to this? In the opinion of BF Porshnev, the oldest Paleolithic images can be considered in the aspect of circumvention or compensation of the prohibition of touch. The origin of the images themselves, according to Porshnev, is an attempt to relieve the nervous burden of hallucinations from the prohibition of normal reactions to sensual irritation, which results from the emergence of private property, i.e. socially conditioned.Expanding this thought, one can say that art is a peculiar form of reaction to unreach, a special kind of compensation for practical material action, which contributes to balancing the person with the world, harmonizing the psychophysiological and social processes of the individual. This explains its crucial importance for the whole system of human-nature relations. Combining with the idea of sympathetic similarity, one of the main in magic, it was revered as having a concrete practical-material meaning and preparing for the transformation of the world. Thus, the image of animals pierced by arrows was considered to help on the hunt, and the image of the rain was capable of causing rain. The interpenetration of magic and art was based on the identity of the functions that they performed in a primitive society.
Mythological unity with nature was the unity of poetry and practical cognition. As noted by AN Afanasyev, "religion was poetry and contained all the wisdom, the whole mass of information of primitive man about nature." In turn, especially in the early stages of poetic creativity - in fairy tales and bylinas, mythology occupies a very significant place. Fairy tales, generally speaking, are fragments of myths and, therefore, of the former mythological unity of man with nature (through anthropomorphism, animatism).
A. N. Afanasyev on numerous examples revealed the connection of fairy tales, epic poems and mythology. He called the ancient Slav poet, who "eagerly peered into the pictures of the renewing nature, with trepidation awaited the sunrise and stared long into the old, but virgin forests". And his first observations, the first experiences of the mind, religion and cognition, "were one, were imbued with one plastic spirit of poetry." The mythological basis of fairy tales is justified by Afanasiev's constancy in vast spaces and in time of similar subjects. Therefore, we must admit that the "fairy tales were created on the motives underlying the ancient views of the Aryan people on nature". In all likelihood, even in this ancient Aryan era, the main types of the fantastic epic were developed. The fact that fairy tales are not mere allegories, but an expression of the ancient unity of man and nature, proves the ritual of rituals preserved to this day.
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The subject of many fairy tales is the diverse phenomena of the whole animate nature. In the fairy tale miraculous is inextricably linked with the fact that nature itself was perceived in its most significant moments as miraculous. Poetization of this wonderful perception and embodied in fairy tales.
Together with folklore works, a man absorbed in himself from childhood a love for the world around him. VA Sukhomlinsky wrote that the development of a person who has not experienced the impact of a fairy tale in childhood is inadequate. Is the life of an adult who is not experiencing a state of spiritual recovery that does not stand up for the struggle for high moral principles? Is it full?
The sympathetic attitude of the hero - the bearer of high moral principles - is typical for fairy tales - to all living things. When the heroine Scarlet flower hurry to return to the monster in time, she knows that to see him again will be intolerable, but can not admit the thought of his death. The constant motive of United States fairy tales is the help of good people to nature and the response of nature to these people when they are in danger ("Gusi-swans", "Sin-eyes", etc.). This motive sets the caring and love for nature, and probably he acted throughout the whole of United States history. As NA Nekrasova points out, "in folklore, nature is always the expresser of Beauty, Good, it is merged with the moral world. Therefore, nature acts as a criterion of human values
It should be avenged that the tales in their original version were not created in order to express any moral standards. The older the fairy tale, the more confused its ethical credo, which serves as yet another confirmation of its originally mythological content. Only then, in the era of rupture of poetry and practice, fairy tales are demythologized and at the same time moralized. On this basis, a purely poetic genre is created - a fable.
Nature in a fairy tale is an active character in the plot, and not just a place of action and the environment: it helps the hero, sympathizes with him, empathizes with him or, on the contrary, actively reacts. Great importance nature as a symbol has in the folk lyric song, expanding its content and bringing it beyond the individual feelings and experiences. The situation with the epic is more complicated, in which the historical and purely human motive is in the foreground. However, even here, although in a more mediated form, one can distinguish a natural basis.
According to A.N. Afanasyev, the basis of epic (heroic) songs is an ancient mythical legend ... The influence of Christianity and the further historical life concerned only names and conditions, and not the content itself: instead of mythical heroes historical personalities were substituted or holy saints, instead of demonic forces - the names of hostile peoples, and in some places added later features of life. " Themselves "the folk epic heroes - before they descended to the man, his passions, sorrows and joys before they appeared in the historical situation - were the personifications of the elemental forces of nature".
For example, a well-known legend about the hero Nikita Kozhemyak, harnessed a snake in a plow with a weight of 300 poods and paved a furrow to the sea, reflects the likeness of the earthly to heaven. Snakes mythologically acted as demonic representatives of thunderclouds, with which Perun was carrying on the eternal, never-ending battle. This same likeness of the earthly to the heavenly is found in the language (plow rooted smell).
We also note a form of poetic attitude to nature, as works timed to certain poetic holidays (for example, carols, rhymed conspiracies). Here everything is mythologically significant and at that time has its own poetic sound. It is understandable why the United States symbolists of the late XIX century. drew attention to works of this kind and found in them a reflection of the lost unity of man with nature.
The essential point of the poetic attitude towards nature was the idea of the world as beautiful and harmonious, which found its expression in the name of it "white light", similar to how the ancient Greeks called the cosmos cosmos (Greek kosmos - order and beauty). White Light was simultaneously the universe - the place of habitation, habitat, because the world itself was understood in practice, i.e. as a world inhabited by man. As D. Likhachev points out, ancient United States art "overcomes the stagnation of the human environment, the distance between people, and reconciles it with the surrounding world." It is good. " Through kindness, a United States person aspired to peace with nature.
Considering the poetic attitude to nature before other forms gives grounds not only for the great elaboration of this theme in reference to the early centuries of United States history, but also the evidence of the historical monuments themselves. About the Slavic guslyar known since the VI. (the message of the Byzantine historian Theophylact).
That's what the peaceful northern Slavs say: "We can not do without weapons and only play on the harp. There is no iron in our country: not knowing war and loving music, we lead a peaceful and peaceful life. The emperor marveled at the quiet disposition of these people, their great growth and their strength. "Peacefulness of the Slavs, recorded by historical sources, was apparently accompanied by their peace in relation to nature, which manifested itself in folklore.
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