REALISM. The world is imperfect, the person suffers, bears losses, but will stand
Socially oriented truth of life
Realism almost does not use symbolism and allegory, which will later become the most important artistic means of symbolism. Do not use and increased metaphoricity, without which in the XX century. surrealism can not do without.
The truth of life in realism is usually manifested in the forms of life itself (in forms of external verisimilitude). But it can also appear in the forms of metaphorical, grotesque, fantastic, conditional. These devoid of likelihood forms in realism are possible, although they do not prevail.
Realism considers a person in the context of his social environment. This art with a particularly acute focus on social problems.
Traditional realism. The search for an exit from the imperfection of social being
Traditional (critical) realism in the 20th century
Problems of realism in the 20th century.
Traditional (critical) realism not only defined the main art traditions of the art of the 20th century, but also some of its representatives continued and finished (A. Chekhov, L. Tolstoy) or even started and developed their art (Kuprin, Bunin) in XX in.
A. Kuprin and I. Bunin were "the last of the Mohicans", the last representatives of the golden age of United States literature, the fate of fate turned out to be in the 20th century. and created in the spirit of traditional United States realism. Artistic creativity and views on literature and on the literary work of A. Chekhov and I. Bunin in many points were in touch with modernism. To the work of L. Andreev, the above applies even more.
Realist art of the XX century. Developed the genre anti-utopia and gave the classic samples of this genre. The United States writer Evgeniy Zamyatin (1884-1937) created one of the first anti-utopias of the 20th century. - We (1920). English writer Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) created an anti-utopia "O brave new world" (1932). These works are typologically similar not only because Zamyatin influenced Huxley, but also because they interpreted the same problem - totalitarian power, the absolute and undivided domination of the state over the individual. Both of these works create an artistic hypothesis of people's lives in a utopian absolutist-scientistic state.The Western absolutist-scientistic state described by Huxley is relatively gently controlled by subtle manipulation (taking a light narcotic that creates an illusory image of reality in man, an exclusion from society and people with self-consciousness and a reference to islands in the Ocean for solitary pursuits by science and art, a ban on reading Shakespeare).
The state described by Zamyatin is governed by direct violence against the person (public executions of dissidents, operational withdrawal from the brain of the center responsible for fantasy, universal surveillance of all spheres of a person's life, including his intimate life).
The states described by Zamyatin and Huxley, figuratively embody the model of social order proposed by Plato: the state turns out to be a pyramid, on top of which is the "wise" "Big Brother", having absolute power; below the top are brothers who are equal, but some are equal more and thus are included in the hierarchically higher layer-level of the pyramid.
In Soviet society, despite the strict ideological control and affirmation by socialist ideologists of socialist realism as the only possible artistic direction for Soviet culture, there was an ideologically unengaged realism that directly continued the realistic traditions of 20th-century art. These traditions of realism continued (often complicated and enriched by avant-garde influences), remaining, as a rule, outside the field of official political influence, in the literature - A. Akhmatova, B. Pasternak, O. Mandelstam, M. Prishvin, M. Bulgakov, M. Zoshchenko , in painting - P. Korin, P. Konchalovsky, V. Favorsky, and later Dm. Zhilinsky; in sculpture - S. Konenkov, S. Erzya, A. Rukavishnikov, in the graphics - M. Miturich, in music - I. Stravinsky, Dm. Shostakovich, S. Prokofiev, in the theater - E. Vakhtangov, A. Tairov. These artists can not be "entered in the saints" socialist realism.
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