Socio-psychological aspect of intercultural communication
Inculturation and Primary Socialization
Studies in the field of psychology and sociology are of great importance for understanding the problem of intercultural communication. According to the main theoretical approaches to the analysis of the present topic, the person at the center of intercultural communication is for whom knowledge of the achievements of other peoples and civilizations is the most important socio-psychological factor. One of the most important problems of intercultural communication can be called ethnic characteristics and cultural differences, since these are the issues that arise in the process of interaction of cultures.
The concept of inculturation
Inculturation is the process of bringing an individual to a culture, mastering their habits, norms and behaviors adopted in a given culture. The term inculturation was developed by American scientists involved in cultural anthropology. It was first introduced by the American ethnographer, the anthropologist Melville Jeep Herskovitz (1895-1963) in the work "Cultural Anthropology" (1948). Around the same time, another American scholar, Clyde Clakhon (1905-1960) introduced a similarly meaningful term, "culture" instead of the term "socialization" that existed within the framework of English social anthropology, which did not include the processes of mastering the cognitive aspects of culture: knowledge, beliefs, values, etc. Unlike English researchers, American cultural anthropologists have focused on the study of culture, and society, so the term "inculturation" was for them more organic. At the same time, there was no clear distinction between these terms.
Remember to remember
Inculturation is the process of acquiring cultural skills, entering culture. The process of inculturation involves a two-way interaction between man and culture: on the one hand, culture determines the basic features of a person's personality, and on the other hand, a person himself influences his culture by forming and transforming it.
The concept of inculturation is usually used in a narrow and broad sense: in a narrow sense it means the assimilation of cultural norms and values by a child, in a broader context, a process that is not limited to a period of early childhood and includes the processes of assimilation cultural patterns of an adult individual; It can be applied to immigrants adapting to new cultural conditions. This term can also be used in the context of research on cultural contacts and cultural change.
The result of the process of inculturation is the acquisition by a member of a particular society of the main features and content of the culture of this society, as well as mentality, cultural patterns and stereotypes in behavior and thinking. Thus, as a result of inculturation, a person learns the traditions and norms of behavior adopted in his native culture.
At the collective level, the following important skills are formed as a result of inculturation:
• Types of communication with other people
• forms of control of one's own behavior and emotions;
• ways to meet basic needs;
• the estimated attitude to various phenomena of the world around us:
• emotional and behavioral similarity of a person with other members of a given culture and a difference from representatives of other cultures.
At the individual level, the process of inculturation is expressed in the daily communication of a person with other members of society, relatives, friends or strangers related to the same culture.
An important practical value of the process of inculturation can be called that as a result, in various life situations, a person learns how to respond to certain events, signs of attention, signals, ie. gets the necessary knowledge, skills and skills in order to successfully exist in society.