The emergence - Art culture of the twentieth century


The emergence of pop art in a certain respect is paradoxical. This artistic direction has two epicenters of its birth - both in England and the United States. Or rather, pre-pop art originated in London (1950's). A number of architects, artists and critics (Eduardo Paolozzi, William Turnbull, Richard Hamilton, Lawrence Elloway, Sandy Wilson) have teamed up in the London "Independent Group" for joint consideration of the issues of contemporary artistic culture and philosophy. They focused on the problems of mass culture (fashion, science fiction, illustrated magazines).

Art critic L. Elloway, who proposed the term "pop", used it for some time (in the 1950s) as applied to the phenomena of the English artistic process, and especially to the "Independent Group", which preached anti-intellectualism and was guided by rich media opportunities.

A new artistic and aesthetic ideology arose. The picture-collage of Richard Hamilton So what makes modern homes so unusual, so attractive? (1956) - the installation of color clippings from magazines - has become a software product of pop art. The collage conveys the image of an apartment of a representative of the middle class, filled with mass media advertised with comfort and mass consumption items: TV, tape recorder, newspaper, comics. From the window you can see the cinema. Collage in the creation of the image, the fixation of ready-made images demonstrates and confirms the author's non-participation in the creation of the work (consonant with the theoretical idea of ​​the French literary theorist Roland Barth, who proclaimed that in contemporary art the author died).

Despite the first sprouts of pop art in England, his post-war America could have been recognized as the place of his birth. 50th years of XX century. The USA was an oasis of well-being against the background of the "stone desert" destroyed by the war of Europe. In the United States there was an economic boom, and the cult of consumption developed rapidly, the Utopian idea of ​​equal opportunities for all was affirmed. This cultural and economic situation and gave birth to the need for a new art that would correspond to the realities of the new time. And for these needs, and answered the pop art as a truly understandable American and mass, sexually explicit, kitschovo-vulgar and public. A typical American is already in the middle of the XX century. he earned well and could buy not only the goods that were needed every day, but also goods that were not very necessary, but symbolically demonstrated their belonging to the middle class and to the social stratum of consumers. All this and brought to life - the creative fruit of the generation of American "sixties" - the art of pop art.

R. Hamilton: So what makes modern homes so unusual, so attractive.

P. Hamilton. So what makes modern homes so unusual, so attractive. 1956

E. Warhol. 200 cans of

E. The Warhol. 200 cans of soup & quot; Cambell . 1962

The father of pop art critics, the US calls the American artist Andy Warhol (1931 - 1987). His career began in 1962, when impresario Irwin Bloom organized his exhibition in Los Angeles. Viewers for the first time saw instead of paintings repeatedly magnified images of labels from cans and bottles with tomato juice.

However, even before the work of Warhol (beginning in the second half of the 1950s), other founders of the trend were also present in the United States: R. Rauschenberg, K. Oldenberg, J. Rosenquist, J. Jones, R. Liechtenstein, J. Dine .

In America, pop art did not emerge as an imitation of English anti-abstraction experiments in the field of figurative art, but independently, under the influence of the internal situation in the art world. Unlike Dadaism, which arose from social despair, despair and denial of the whole of modern civilization, pop art was born in the post-war victorious rise of America's self-awareness of its exclusiveness and superiority over all.


thematic pictures

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