2.3. The concept of the norm and the ideal of a functional style
The style has a clear structure and rather strict boundaries, outlined by the socially significant scope of its application and separating this particular style from other styles within the literary language.
The literary language is based on the concept of "language norm", and the style is based on the "style norm".
Language norms are generally accepted rules for the use of units of language, historically formed in the speech of the educated strata of the population and fixed in dictionaries and reference books (ie codified). Adherence to linguistic norms in speech is an indicator of speech culture and speech competence of an educated person. Language norms have developed at all levels of the language. There are norms of orthoepic, word-formation, grammatical, lexical, syntactic and stylistic.
Stylistic norm is a kind of linguistic norm that regulates the use of a word in a context according to its semantics (meaning) and stylistic characteristics (bookish, colloquial, high, archaic, etc.). The stylistic norm has a special, recommendatory character, in contrast to the prescriptive, imperative general language norm.
Style rules adjust the selection according to the style features of the preferred option from the language-provided synonyms. For example, the question: What address do you live on? is relevant only within the framework of an official business style, but in a conversational style it will sound different: Where do you live?
Thus, style norms predetermine the attachment of one or another medium of speech to a certain sphere of speech activity.
The style rule is reflected in the style standards. Stylescue standard - these are words, expressions, syntactic constructions that have a fixed position for a certain style of literary language and are the drill elements of this style. There are different standards of official business style (for example, split predicate, verbal nouns, etc.), scientific (stringing of genitive cases, mandatory use of definitions, etc.), colloquial (lexical insufficiency, phrases collocations, etc.) , publicistic style (publicistic metaphors, appraisal nominations, rhetorical questions, etc.).
Since the style is realized in texts of different genres, modern scholars also distinguish the so-called genre norm : : Each functional style is realized in different genre forms, in texts for different purposes. In this regard, amongst the stylistic norms, the most common, peculiar to the functional style in general, and the particular, speech-specific, different types of text characteristic for certain genres are quoted.
The correspondence of speech with historically developed and pragmatically justified style standards speaks about the success and effectiveness of communication and forms the concept of the aesthetic ideal of style , which "is developed for a long time and changes with the development of style in accordance with the change in public conditions, extralinguistic factors. The value of the aesthetic ideal of a functional style lies in the fact that it focuses on the trends of the development of the style, about the ways of its improvement, about the goal that should be sought. "
There are no strict formulations of the aesthetic ideal, it is derived from the norms characteristic of this style in a particular historical period and can change over time. However, it is always assumed and understood by society as a standard. For example, B. Croce describes the aesthetic side of the scientific style: "Any scientific work is at the same time a work of art. The aesthetic side of the matter may remain in the shadows when our mind is caught up in an effort to comprehend the scientist's thought and understand the truth. But it no longer remains in the shadow when, from the activity of comprehension, we pass to the activity of contemplation and see this thought ... unfolding before us with clarity, purity, clarity, without superfluous words, without imperfect words, with a corresponding rhythm and appropriate intonation. .. .
The aesthetic ideal, like any other, is almost unattainable (it is a beacon in our communication), but knowledge of stylistic norms and ideas about the aesthetic ideal of each style is necessary for the success of our speech activity.
The aesthetic ideal is the maximum correspondence of the verbal means of style to the pragmatic goals of communication. Each style has its own aesthetic ideal. For example, the expressiveness of scientific speech is supported by the clarity, rigor, clarity of syntactic structures, accuracy and logical application of vocabulary. The official-business style should formulate the thought as precisely as possible in order to avoid discrepancies in documents, in the interpretation of laws. The journalistic style is designed to be based on accurate, verified facts, a balanced author's position, it should be convincing and expressive, which inspires readers' trust. In the colloquial style, the aesthetic ideal consists in respectful, harmonized communication of people, in the ability to listen to the interlocutor, not to impose their point of view, but to strive for an open dialogue.
Questions and tasks for self-control
1. What is a functional style? What styles make up the structure of the modern United States literary language?
2. What language functions are the basis for dividing it into styles?
3. List the extralinguistic and intralinguistic features that make up the structure of any style.
4. What is the stylistic norm and how does it relate to the norm of linguistic norm? What are the features of the style rule?
5. What is the aesthetic ideal of style and whether each style has an aesthetic ideal?
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