The science of civilization F. Konecny, The origins and methodological...

Chapter 13. The Science of Civilization F. Konecny ​​

13.1. The origins and methodological postulates of F. Konecny's concept

In the general series of original teachings on civilization, the "science of civilization" should also be taken into account. Polish historian Felix Konecny ​​(1862-1949). Chronologically it was created in the same years when the famous English historian A.J. Toynbee wrote his monumental work "Study of History". It was in 1935 that F. Konecny's main work, On the Multiplicity of Civilizations, was published, in which all the main points are set forth. After about 35 years, the book attracted the attention of AJ Toynbee, and he wrote a short introduction to an English publication timed to coincide with the 100th anniversary of his Polish colleague. The Englishman recognized the value of F. Konecny's ideas and their typological correlation with the direction of cultural and historical pluralism, to which he himself belonged. However, F. Konecny ​​created his theory quite independently, without turning to European counterparts.

As a historian, he rejected any a priori speculation and arbitrary construction. This methodological setting strikingly contradicts what is its cultural and historical concept, marked by schematism, philosophical and cultural prejudices, and direct scientific errors. But at the same time it is an example of that cultural thinking that seeks to connect the authenticity of historical science with the culturological construction on the basis of prerequisites derived from extrascientific sources. Let us turn to the essence of his concept and the methodology that F. Konecki proclaimed as the basis of his science of civilization.

Philosophy of Culture F. Konecny ​​is inscribed in his philosophical and historical concept. The author declares himself to be a supporter of a strictly scientific approach to the philosophy of history; declares the need to build it on the basis of exact scientific facts and as a scientific theory, using for this purpose the scientific method. He considers it to be an inductive method, successfully used in natural science. Thus, already from the very beginning, F. Konecny's methodological approach can be understood as a methodological reductivism, i.e. as the desire to transfer the methods of natural science to the soil of historical and cultural sciences (without a corresponding modification to the new subject and without attempts to understand the epistemological originality of humanitarian knowledge). In this approach, one can discern an opposition to the individualizing historicism of the Baden school of neo-Kantianism, based on the thesis of the fundamental difference between the sciences of nature and the sciences of culture, and the Dilthey concept of "understanding explanation." But the metaphysical alternative of F. Konecny ​​does not at all contribute to solving the problem of the specifics of cognition of socio-historical material, since it makes it seemingly non-existent. In addition, his inductivism happily coexists with the most ordinary a priori.

Based on the inductivist understanding of the methodology of history, F. Konecny ​​identifies two lines in the historical spider and social philosophy: the first - the scientific one - begins with F. Bacon, whom he considers the first developer of the scientific method of history and the first historian; the second - speculative and unscientific - begins with N. Malbranch, it is represented by JB Bossuet and GV Leibniz. This line is, in methodological terms, represented by deductivism and, therefore, abstracted from the empirical foundations of the historical process.

Being the ancestor of scientific history, F. Bacon did not develop it fully, and therefore the speculative approach has been dominant for a long time. Return to scientific methodology, i.e. to induction, committed J. Vico - the true "father of schematism in historical synthesis". But J. Vico did not find followers. Equally, attempts by other thinkers to establish a scientific method in historical science (Sh. L. Montesquieu, ARJ Turgot), because of their methodological weakness, failed to destroy the fortresses of the speculative philosophy of history. This has affected the uncritical, unjustifiably wide use of the idea of ​​progress and improvement of the human race, which has become, allegedly, the meaning and purpose of universal history.

A special milestone in the development of the philosophy of history F. Konecny ​​considered the moment when the concept of "civilization" was introduced into scientific circulation. This science owes to the French historian FPG. Guizot, who replaced the "philosophy of history" on the "philosophy of civilization". His books "The History of Civilization in Europe" and "The History of Civilization in France". were published in 182!) 1832 gg. This approach made it possible to introduce an important distinction and create a unified science - the "theory of civilization", which examines the general foundations of civilizational relations and underlies the "history of civilizations". F. Konecny ​​sees his task in the systematic development of the "theory of civilization".

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