Types of art, Theater - Art culture of the XX century

Types of art

Futurists set a task, or rather, even a super task - to create a synthetic art that unites all kinds of artistic activity and reinforces the impact of works on readers and viewers. It was not a success to carry out this plan completely to the Futurists. However, in some types of art they brought a lot of new - sometimes creative, sometimes destructive to artistic culture.


Marinetti considers it necessary to enter the theater cinema, radio, electric neon light, aerial painting and aeropoem, shamelessness, humor and aromatic smells. Marinetti prepared the manifesto "General Theater for the masses". This manifesto created a space for demonstrating the achievements of futuristic aesthetics. The Roman forms of the Italian fascists were theatrically decorative and theatrically directed in the form of monumental futuristic stylistics.

Pampered by the passion of innovation at all costs and striving for dehumanization of culture, Italian futurists sought to free the theater scene from a living person, "forever banished from the theater" actor. It was proposed to replace him with a puppet.

In the theatrical performance, the futurists included the "scandal aesthetics": they sold several tickets for one place, which caused quarrels and arguments, and poured the powder that caused sneezing to the audience. Sun. Meyerhold told me that Marinetti in his theater poured syndeticon on some chairs. Someone, sitting down, stuck .., a scandal arose, in this excited atmosphere, the performance began.

The third theatrical manifesto was written (January 11 - February 18, 1915) by future creators of futuristic dramaturgy - Marinetti, Emilio Settimelli and Bruno Corra. This Synthetic Theater Manifesto became the introduction to the collection of thirty-six futurist dramatic compositions ("syntheses"). This manifesto proclaims the aesthetics of the theater with new qualities: synthetics and dynamism; this theater is simultaneous, illogical, surreal.

This manifesto is rejected as the obsolete academic type of the theater by Henrik Ibsen, Maurice Maeterlinck, Leonid Andreev, Paul Claudel and Bernard Shaw. Theater of a new type is not literary, but scenically-game. In it, the literary text is a script that gives full freedom to the director's work.

Futuristic evenings have developed a scheme for the relationship between the stage and the hall, which later became widely relevant for the theater.

At the turn of the 20th century, the futurists questioned the need for theatrical performance of the plot, causality, coherence. The emphasis is shifted from the content of the stage action to participation in it or simply staying on the stage of a variety of dwarfs, riders, riders, athletes full of clowness.

At one time, the naturalists erected the "fourth wall" on the stage. Italian futurists in their stage experiments destroyed the "fourth wall" in the theater.

Nikolai Berdyaev in his article "The Crisis of Art" wrote: "Italian Futurism sings the movement without the participation of man, the impotence of the creative act of man" (Berdyaev. 1994. P. 399). Futurists sought to free the theater from the actor. As in the theater of the Middle Ages, the actor again becomes a sinful, unclean creature. Futurists replaced the actor with a clown who mechanically performed gestures and movements. In other cases, the actor was obscured by a mask that covered the entire human body (a shell suit). Later, the actor was replaced with a puppet or an electric doll (robot). The idea of ​​the robot was put forward by Fortunato Depero in his manifesto "The Complexity of Plastic - Free Futuristic Game - Artificial Living Being". Depero tried to implement this idea when staging the ballet "Mimismagia" and prepared sketches for this production (sketches were among the exhibits of the personal exhibition of Depero in 1916 in Rome). The final stage of the actor's rejection of the futurists was to be his disappearance from the stage, and on it the triumph of the scenic space and his play had to reign. Thus, according to the views of the Futurists, a window was opened into the ideal, where the machine futuristic cosmogonic pastoral was played out.

The machine is endowed with directorial, theurgic powers. The actor is eliminated because he "guarantees a maximum of uncertainty", that is, he is capable of unforeseen actions.

The actor, like a dangerous bacterium, is etched out of the scenery of the world, which must be controlled by the divine Machine. The Italian Futurists introduce a new reference to the Machine: "Santa Vehcila" ( Holy Speed ​​).

In the Milan magazine "Poetry" (January 11, 1911) was published the Manifesto of Playwright-Futurists, which marked the beginning of the futuristic theater. Vsevolod Meyerhold expressed his attitude to the theatrical manifesto and the theatrical experiments of the futurists:

To the theaters, immersed in sweet drowsiness and heart-rending psychology, Marinetti recommended the following recipes: adultery on the stage to be replaced by mass scenes, to play the plays in the reverse order of the plot, to utilize the heroism of the circus and the machinery of machinism for the theater, to spread glue on the seats of the public, to sell tickets to the same persons, to disperse the sneezing powder, to arrange dramatization of fires and murders in the stalls, to dispose of the intervals for the competitions - running around the theater, throwing rings and disks. All for the glory of speed and dynamism. Despite the frivolous paradox of this futurist brawler, the hidden meaning of his indignation, the rebellion against this theater of half-tones, the scuttistic Lutheranism, the temple with the thorns and the flabby mystic of psychologism, from which every unsophisticated viewer is sickening 1968, pp. 28).

In the futuristic theater, the love motives were reduced. It was assumed that this would lead to an expansion of the subject of future futuristic plays.

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